Skip to main content

Full text of "History of Lawrence and Monroe counties, Indiana : their people, industries, and institutions"

See other formats

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2009 with funding from 

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center 



3 1833 01752 6754 






Lawrence and Monroe Counties 





B. F. BOWEN & CO., Inc. 

Indianapolis, Indiana 

This work is respectfully dedicated to 


long since departed. May the memory of those who laid down their burdens 
by the wayside ever be fragrant as the breath of summer flowers, 
for their toils and sacrifices have made Lawrence and Mon- 
roe Counties a garden of sunshine and delights. 


All life and ax:hievement is evolution; present wisdom comes from past 
experience, and present commercial prosperity has come only from past exer- 
tion and suffering. The deeds and motives of the men that have gone before 
have been instrumental in shaping the destinies of later communities and 
states. The development of a new country was at once a task and a privi- 
lege. It required great courage, sacrifice and privation. Compare the pres- 
ent conditions of the people of Lawrence and Monroe counties, Indiana, with 
what they were one hundred years ago. From a trackless wilderness and 
virgin land, it has come to be a center of prosperity and civilization, with mil- 
lions of wealth, systems of railways, grand educational institutions, splendid 
industries and immense agricultural and mineral productions. Can any think- 
ing person be insensible to the fascination of the study which discloses the 
aspirations and efforts of the early pioneers who so strongly laid the founda- 
tion upon which has been reared the magnificent prosperity of later days? To 
perpetuate the story of these people and to trace and record the social, politi- 
cal and industrial progress of the community from its first inception is the 
function of the local historian. A sincere purpose to preserve facts and per- 
sonal memoirs that are deserving of perpetuation, and which unite the pres- 
ent to the past, is the motive for the present publication. A specially valuable 
and interesting department is that one devoted to the sketches of representa- 
tive citizens of these counties whose records deserve preservation because of 
their worth, effort and accomplishment. The publishers desire to extend 
their thanks to the gentlemen who ha\e so faithfully labored to this end. 
Thanks are also due to the citizens of Lawrence and Monroe counties for the 
uniform kindness with which they have regarded this undertaking, and for 
their many services rendered in the gaining of necessary information. 

In placing the "History of Lawrence and Monroe Counties, Indiana," be- 
fore the citizens, the publishers can conscientiously claim that they have car- 
ried out the plan as outlined in the prospectus. Every biographical sketch in 
the work has been submitted to the party interested, for correction, and there- 
fore any error of fact, if there be any, is solely due to the person for whom 
the sketch was prepared. Confident that our efi^ort to please will fully meet 
the approbation of the public, we are. 






Natural Features — Geological Divisions — Bedford, or Oolitic, Stone — Caves — 
Kaolin Mines — Mineral Springs and Salt Wells. 


Treaties "With the Indians — The Harrison Purchase — Wabash Land Com- 
pany and Other Early Companies — Original Indian Inhabitants — Murder of 
Pierre, the Trapper — Protection Against Indian Attacks — Pre-historic Evi- 
dences — Mound Builders — The Fishermen. 


Original Area and Boundary of Lawrence County — Indian Hostility — Slow 
Immigration — The First Settlements — Flinn Township — Land Entries — Early 
Mills — Distilleries — Leesville — Marion Township — Origin of First Settlers — 
Land Entries — Hunting — City of Mitchell — Incorporation as Town, and as 
City — Business Interests — Guthrie Township — Land Entries and First Settlers 
— Dixonville — Tunnelton — Fort Ritner — Bono Township — Original Area — Mills 
— Town of Bono — Lawrenceport — Marshall Township — Mills — First ^lerchant 
— Avoca — Guthrie — Spice Valley Township — First Land Entries — Mills — Items 
by T. M. Brinkworth — Huron — Bryantsville — Perry Township — Early Land 
Entries — Pioneer Industries — Hunting — Springville — Indian Creek Township 
— Early Settlers — First Elections — Williams — Southern Indian Power Com- 
pany — Fayetteville — Silverville — Pleasant Run Township — Heltonville — 
Shawswick Township — Land Entries — First Election — Mills — Oolitic — Busi- 
ness Interests — Abandoned Towns. 


Legislative Act Creating Lawrence County — First Civil Townships — Boundar- 
ies — First Election — Acts of First County Commissioners — County Seat Fixed 
— Palestine, the First County Seat — Changes in Township Boundaries. 


Petitions for Roads— Ferry Rates— Sale of Lots— First Public Business Trans- 
acted — Tavern Rates — Re-location of County Seat — Legislative Act — Interest- 
ing Items — Court House History — First Court House at Palestine — First 
Court House at Bedford — Subsequent Court Houses — County Jails — County 
Asylum — Finances of the County— Assessed Valuations, 1912. 



Presidential Elections — State Senators — Representatives — County Treasurers 
— Recorders — County Clerks — County Auditors — Sheriffs — County Surveyors 
— Probate Judges — ^Associate Judges — County Judges — County Prosecutors — 
School Examiners and Superintendents — Coroners — County Commissioners. 


Influence of the Press — Bedford Papers — The Western Sun. the First News- 
paper in Lawrence County — Other Papers at Bedford — Other Newspapers of 
the County. 


The Public School as a Potent Factor in Civilization — First Schools in the 
County — Primitive Equipment — Improvement in Methods — Statistics for 1SS4 
— Schools a Third of a Century Ago — Mitchell Graded School — Bedford's 
First School — Southern Indiana Normal College — Lawrence County Semi- 
nary — Present Public Schools. 


Fertile Soil — Excellent Timber — A Famous Fruit Region — Dairying Interests 
— State Agricultural Report — Agricultural Societies — First Agricultural Fair. 


Law a Necessity — Pioneer Lawyers — First Court of the Coimty — First Circuit 
Court Judges — First Civil Case — First Court at Palestine — First Resident At- 
torney — Slander Suits — First Arson Case — First Court at Bedford — First Mur- 
der Case — Eminent Attorneys and Judges — New Courts — Murder Cases — Pres- 
ent Members of the Bar. 


Physicians Among the First Settlers — Earliest Doctors in Lawrence County — 
Other Early Physicians — Present Practicing Physicians — Medical Societies. 


Armenius Milligan, the First Preacher in Lawrence County — Methodist Epis- 
copal Churches of the County — The Societies at Springville, Bedford. Law- 
renceport. Pleasant Hill, Mitchell, Heltonville, Oolitic and Tunnelton — Bedford 
German Methodist Church — Christian Churches — The Bartletts%-ille. Bedford, 
Bryantsville, Christian Union, Indian Creek, Leatherwood. Leesvllle. Mount 
Pleasant, Port William, Popcorn and Springville Societies — Church of Christ 
— Baptist Churches at Spice Valley, Leesville, Spring Creek. Guthrie Creek, 
Bedford. Springville. Mitchell, Pleasant Grove — Presbyterian Churches at 
Bedford. Bono. Mitchell — Old Union Church — Salvation Army — Pentecostal 
Church — Catholic Church — Episcopal Church. 


Masonic Lodges and Appendant Orders at Bedford. Mitchell. Lawrenceport. 
Huron. Springville. Heltonville and Leesville — Independent Order of Odd Fel- 
lows — Lodges at Bedford. Mitchell, Lawrenceport and Springville — The 
Knights of Pythias at Bedford, Oolitic and Mitchell. 


First Steam Road in Lawrence County — Subsequent and Present Railroads — 
Free Right of Way and Other Assistance — Bedford Belt Railroad. 



Early Military Organization — "Cornstalk" Militia — Enlistments In 1846 — The 
Mexican War — Honorable Record of the Second Regiment — Muster Roll — The 
Utah War — The Civil War — Opposing Factions — Enlistments — War Meetings 
— Various Commands from Lawrence County — Morgan's Raid — Enlistment 
Statistics — The Spanish-American War. 


Location as County Seat^First Residents — Earliest Business Interests — From 
1830 to 1840— During the Forties— Civil War Period— Early Manufacturing 
Establishments — The Pork-packing Industry — Present Industries of Bedford 
— City Library — PostofBce History — Banking Establishments — Municipal His- 
tory of Bedford— Bedford as a City— Public Utilities. 


The Greatest Industry of the County — Doctor Foote's Good Judgment — The 
Opening Wedge — Pioneers in the Stone Industry — First Shipments to Chicago 
— Nature of Oolitic Limestone — Analysis — Progress and Present Development 
of Industry — Concerns Engaged in the Industry — Improvement in Equip- 
ment — Present Status of the Industry — The Bedford Stone Club. 


Population of Lawrence County — Village Plats of the County — Palestine, the 
First County Seat — Dr. Winthrop Foote — Cheap Whiskey — Palestine Un- 
healthful — Ferries — Towns and Hamlets in Lawrence County — The Sarah 
Schafer Murder. » 



Perry Township — Bean Blossom Township — Richland Township — Van Buren 
Township — Indian Creek Township — Clear Creek Township — Washington 
Township — Benton Township — Salt Creek Township — Polk Township — Mar- 
ion Township. 


The Miami Tribe, Former Owners of Territory — Cession Treaties — First Ap- 
pearance of White Men — Early Land Entries. 


Legislative Enactment — First Election — First Court House — Location of Coun- 
ty Seat — Formation of Townships — Another Change in Territory — More Terri- 
tory Attached to Monroe County. 


David McHolland, the First White Settler — Early Land Entries and First 
Permanent Settlers. 


Organization — Machinery of Government in Operation — First Board of County 
Commissioners— First Appointments— Road Petitions— First Grand and Tra- 
verse Juries — Other Proceedings of the Board — Early Tax Levies — Tavern Li- 
censes — Public Buildings— Court Houses — County Jails — Care of the County 
Poor — Finances of the County — Assessed Valuations — Old County Library. 


Vote for Presidential Electors— County Auditors— County Clerks— Sheriffs- 
County Recorders — County Treasurers — Coroners — County Surveyors — Semi- 
nary Trustees — Probate Judges — Judges of the Circuit Court — Associate 
Judges — Prosecuting Attorneys — School Examiners and Superintendents — 
Early Justices of the Peace — County Commissioners — Local Option Election. 


Statistics for 1836 — Figures for 1909 — Agricultural Societies — Equestrian Fairs 
— Annual Fairs. 


First School and its Teacher — Subscription Schools — First Graded School at 
Bloomington — Various Township Schools — Monroe County Seminary — Bloom- 
ington Female College — Change of Public Sentiment — Schools of 1913— School 


Legislative Act Establishing the University — First Trustees — First Buildings 
— Federal Legislation — Vincennes University — Constitutional Provisions — State 
Seminary Founded — Title Changed — Charter of 18.52 — University Funds — 
Taxes for University Purposes — Professional Schools — Co-Education — Rela- 
tion to the State — The Old Campus — Removal to New Campus — Situation of 
Buildings — Library Building — Student Building — Administrative Offices — 
Buildings for Lectures and Recitations — Observatory — Other Buildings — Jor- 
dan Field — Gifts and Bequests — Opportunities for Employment — University 
Library — Expenses of Students — Law Department — School of Medicine — Sum- 
mer Term System — School of Education — Graduate School — Chronological 
Table — Brief Sketches of the Presidents. 


Jesse Brandon Establishes the First Newspaper — Subsequent Bloomington 
Newspapers — Papers at EUettsville and Smithville. 


Strong Religious Sentiment — Churches in 1861 — The Methodist Episcopal De- 
nomination and its Societies at Bloomington, Bean Blossom Township, Stan- 
ford, EUettsville, Harrodstaurg, Stinesville, Smithville, Cross Roads and Whit- 
aker — Presbyterian Societies at Bloomington, Elletsville and Harrodsburg — 
United Presbyterians — Reformed Presbyterians — Cumberland Presbyterians — 
Baptist Churches at Bloomington, Stinesville and EUettsville — The Christian 
Church — Early Preachers and Their Doctrines — The Church Name — Episco- 
pal Church — Church of Christ — Catholic Church— Free and Accepted Masons 
— Independent Order of Odd Fellows — Knights of Pythias. 


Early Lawyers Who Practiced in Monroe County — Brief Personal Mention — 
The Present Bar — Early Doctors of the County — Present Physicians — Faithfiil 
Old "Family Doctors." 


County Represented in War of 1812 — The Mexican War — Civil War — Public 
Meetings — Resolutions — A Notable Meeting — Enlistments — Newspaper Rec- 
ords — An Interesting Letter — The Draft — Morgan's Raid — Southern Sentiment 
in Monroe County — Grief Over Lincoln's Assassination— Soldiers' Relief Move- 
ments — Monroe County Representation in Various Regiments — Spanish-Amer- 
ican War. 


Geological Formation — First Attempts at Quarrying — Improvement in Meth- 
ods — Development of the Industry — State Geologist's OflBcial Statement — Early 
Quarrying Methods — Prices and Transportation — Monroe County Quarries, 
Active and Inactive. 


First Settlers and Land Entries— The City of Bloomington— Plats— First Pur- 
chasers of Town Lots — The Beginning — Early Business Houses and Indus- 
tries — General Muster Day — The Town from 1830 to 1840 — Following Decades 
—Early Advertisements — Early Mail Ser\ice — Market Quotations — Manufac- 
turing Industries in 1912 — The Great Furniture Industry — Banks and Bank- 
ing — Municipal History — Legislative Act — First Town Elections — Change to 
City — Elective and Appointive Officers — Finances — Water Works — Postofflce 
— Commercial Club — Other Organizations — Phenomenal Development — Rem- 
iniscences of Bloomington — The Lincoln Funeral. 


Location — Geology — Settlement — Wild Game — Towns and Villages — Mt. Tabor 
— Stinesville. 


Organization and Area — Settlement — Excellent Grazing Land — Land Entries 
— Unionville— The Cox Tragedy. 


Rich Agricultural Section — Settlement — Early Land Entries — Towns and Vil- 
lages — Harrodsburg — Fairfax — Smith^ille. 


A Nature-favored Locality — Its Early Settlement — Land Entries — Business 
Interests — Iron Works. 


Area- — Natural Features — Settlement — First Settlers and Land Entries. 


Excellent Land, Well Watered and Drained — The "Seminary" Township — 
Early Land Purchasers — Organization as a Township — First Officers. 



Natural Features — Rough and Sterile Soil — Early Settlement — First Elections 
—Chapel Hill— Counterfeiters. 


A Typical Monroe Township — Geological Formations — Early Settlement — John 
Parks' Reminiscences — Early Land Entries — Ellettsville — Incorporation — 
Business Interests — Fraternities, Churches and Banks. 


Salt Springs — Native Resources — Settlement — Early Land Purchases. 


Natural Features — Rich and Productive Soil — Puet's Cave — Early Settlement 
— Land Buyers — Stanford — The Blue Spring Community. 


Boundary and Area — Timber — Geology — Settlement — Land Entries — Wayport 
— Hindostan. 


Village Plats of Monroe County — Population Statistics — Old Settlers' Society 
— Monroe County Historical Society — Artesian Well at Bloomington — Early 
Stages and Railroads — New Albany & Salem Railroad — Indianapolis Southern 
Railroad — Pioneer Tales. 




Abandoned Towns 63 

Agricultural Reports 109 

Agricultural Societies 110 

Agriculture 109 

Analysis of Bedford Stone 197 

Assessed Valuation 85 

Associate Judges 91 

Attorneys, Eminent 119 

Auditors 90 

Avoca 49 


Banks in Bedford 186 

Baptist Churches 136 

Bar of Lawrence County 122 

Bedford 176 

Bedford Banks 186 

Bedford Baptist Church 137 

Bedford Belt Railroad 150 

Bedford Catholic Church 142 

Bedford Christian Church 133 

Bedford, City Library 183 

Bedford, Civil-war Period 179 

Bedford During the Forties 178 

Bedford, 1830 to 1840 178 

Bedford Episcopal Church 143 

Bedford, First Business Houses 177 

Bedford, First Residents 176 

Bedford Lawyers 122 

Bedford M. E. Church 130 

Bedford, Municipal History 189 

Bedford Newspapers 94 

Bedford Physicians 127 

Bedford, Postoffice History 184 

Bedford Presbyterian Church 139 

Bedford, Present Industries 183 

Bedford Stone 26 

Bedford Stone, Analysis 197 

Bedford Stone Club 203 

Bedford Stone Industry 193 

Bedford's First School 104 

Belt Railroad 150 

Bench and Bar 113 

Bethlehem Presbyterian Church 139 

Bono 47 

Bono Presbyterian Church 139 

Bono Township 45 

Bounties 77 

Bryantsville 53 


Catholic Church 141 

Cement Industry 43 

Changes in Townships 69 

Cheap Whiskey 210 

Christian Churches 132 

Church of Christ 135 

Churches 129 

Civil. War 158 

Clerks of the County 89 

Commissioners, Acts of First 66 

Commissioners, County 92 

Coroners 92 

County Asylum 81- 

County' Auditors 90 

County Clerks 89 

County Commissioners 92 

County Finances 83 

County Jails 81 

County Judges 91 

County Organized 64 

County Prosecutors 91 

County Recorders 89 


County Seat Location 67 

County Seat Re-located 73 

County Seminary 105 

County Surveyors 90 

County Treasurers 89 

Court Houses 77 

Creation of County 64 


Distilleries 36 

Dixonville 45 

Doctor, First 123 

Drafts 168 


Early Hunting 38 

Early Land Companies 30 

Early Manufactories 180 

Early Schools 100 

Early Tax Levies 71 

Education 100 

Elections 86 

Eminent Attorneys 119 

Enlistment Statistics 173 

Enlistments for War 161 

Episcopal Church 143 


Fairs 110 

Fayetteville 58 

Ferries 213 

Ferry Rates 71 

Finances of the County 83 

First Arson Case 118 

First Civil Case 114 

First Civil Townships 66 

First County Commissioners 66 

First County Seat 68 

First Court 113 

First Court at Bedford 118 

First Court at Palestine 115 

First Doctor 123 

First Fair 111 

First Judges 114 

First Murder Case 119 

First Newspaper 94 

First Resident Attorney 116 

First Schools 100 

First Settlement in County 34 

Flinn Township 35 

Foote, Dr. Winthrop 123, 193 

Fort Ritner 45 

Fraternal Societies 145 

Freemasons 145 


Geological Formations 25 

Geological Survey 32 

German Methodist Church 131 

Grand Jury, First 114 

Guthrie 49 

Guthrie Creek Baptist Church 137 

Guthrie Township 44 


Hamlets in Lawrence County 214 

Harmony Church 658 

Harrison Purchase 29 

Heltonville — 59 

Horticulture 109 

Hunting, Early 38 

Huron 53 


Independent Order of Old Fellows___ 147 

Indian Creek Christian Church 132 

Indian Creek Township 55 

Indian Treaties 29 

Inn-keepers' Charges 73 


Jails 81 

Judges, Associate 91 

Judges, County 91 

Judges. First Circuit 114 

Judges, Probate 90 

Juliet 63 


Kaolin Mines 27 

Knights of Pythias 148 


Land Companies 30 

Land Entries, Bono Township 46 


Land Entries, Fllnn Township 35 

Land Entries, Gutlirie Townsliip 44 

Land Entries, Indian Creek Town- 
ship 55 

Land Entries, Lawrence Township__ 48 

Land Entries, Marion Township 38 

Land Entries, Perry Townsliip 54 

Land Entries, Pleasant Run Town- 
ship 59 

Land Entries, Shawswick Township. 60 

Land Entries, Spice Valley Township 50 

Lawrence County Legion 172 

Lawrence County Seminary 105 

Lawrenceport 47 

Lawrenceport M. E. Church 130 

Leatherwood Christian Church 132 

Leesville 36 

Leesville Baptist Church 136 

Liberty 63 

Licenses, Liquor, 1840 76 

Limestone 197 

Liquor Licenses, 1840 76 

Local Government 71 

Location of County Seat 67 

Lot Sales 72 


Marion Township 36 

Marshall Township 47 

Masonic Order 145 

Medical History 123 

Medical Societies 128 

Methodist Episcopal Churches 129 

Mexican War 155 

Military Drafts 168 

Military History 154 

Mineral Springs 28 

Miscellaneous 204 

Mitchell 39 

Mitchell Baptist Church 137 

Mitchell Catholic Church 143 

Mitchell Christian Church 134 

Mitchell Graded School 103 

Mitchell Lawyers 122 

Mitchell Newspapers 94 

Mitchell Physicians 127 

Mitchell Presbyterian Church 139 

Morgan's Raid 168 

Mound Builders 32 

Murder Cases 120 


Natural Features 25 

New Courts 120 

New Union Christian Church 133 

Newspapers 94 

Normal College 107 

Nunihue's Cave 26 


Odd Fellows 147 

Old Union Church 139 

Oolitic 62 

Oolitic Stone 26 

Oolitic Stone Industry 193 

Organization of County 64 


Palestine 68, 206 

Pentecostal Church 141 

Perry Township 53 

Physician, First 123 

Piankeshaws 30 

Pierre, Murder of 31 

Pioneer Lawyers 113 

Plats 205 

Pleasant Grove Baptist Church 138 

Pleasant Hill M. E. Church 131 

Pleasant Run Township 58 

Political History 86 

Poor Asylum 81 

Population Statistics 204 

Pork-packing Industry 181 

Prehistoric Race 32 

Presbyterian Churches 138 

Present Bar 122 

Present Physicians 127 

Present Schools 108 

Presidential Votes 86 

Probate Judges 90 

Prosecutors 91 

Quarries 198 


Railroads 150 

Recorders 89 


Redding 63 

Religious History 129 

Re-location of County Seat 73 

Representatives 88 


Sale of Lots 72 

Salt Creek Baptist Church 136 

Salvation Army 141 

Schafer Murder 215 

School Examiners 91 

School Statistics, 1883 101 

School Superintendents 91 

Schools 100 

Schools, Present 108 

Second Regiment 155 

Secret Orders 145 

Seminary, County 105 

Senators 88 

Settlement, First in County 34 

Shawswick Township 60 

Sheriffs 90 

Silverville 58 

Slander Suits 117 

Southern Indiana Normal College___ 107 

Southern Indiana Power Co. 57 

Spanish-American War 174 

Spice Valley Baptist Church 136 

Spice Valley Reminiscences 51 

Spice Valley Township 50 

Springville 55 

Springville Baptist Church 137 

Springville Christian Church 132 

Springville M. E. Church 130 

Stone Club 203 

Stone Companies 198 

State Senators 88 

Spring Creek Baptist Church 137 

Streams 25 

Superintendents, School 91 

Surveyors 90 

Stone Industry 193 

T ■ 

Tavern Charges 73 

Tax Levies, Early 71 

Towns in Lawrence County 214 

Township Boundaries 69 

Townships, First Civil 66 

Traverse Jury, First 114 

Treasurers, County 89 

Treaties with Indians 29 

Tunnelton 45 

Utah War 158 


Valuation Assessed 85 

Village Plats 205 


War of the Rebellion 158 

War with Mexico 155 

Williams 57 

Woodville 63 


Agricultural Societies 258 

Agricultural Statistics 257 

Agriculture 257 

Artesian Well 442 

Assessed Valuations 245 

Associate Judges 253 

Attorneys, Prosecuting 253 

Auditors 249 

Banks and Banking 382 

Baptist Churches 308 

Bean Blossom Township 217, 226, 399 

Bedford Stone Industry 360 

Bench and Bar 321 

Benton Township 219, 229, 404 

Bloomington 368 

Bloomington Baptist Church 309 


Bloomington Catholic Church___^— 316 

Bloomington Christian Cliurch 309 

Bloomington Clubs 391 

Bloomington, 1840 to 1860 377 

Bloomington Episcopal Church 315 

Bloomington, 1830 to 1840 376 

Bloomington Female College 266 

Bloomington M. E. Church 304 

Bloomington, Municipal History 385 

Bloomington Physicians 329 

Bloomington Plats 370 

Bloomington, Postofflce 390 

Bloomington Presbyterian Church — 306 

Bloomington Reminiscences 393 

Bloomington Township 226, 367 

Bloomington U. P. Church 307 

Blue Spring Community 431 


Campus, Old 284 

Catholic Church 316 

Cession Treaties 222 

Chapel Hill 419 

Christian Ohurches 309 

Church of Christ 316 

Churches 304 

Churches in 1861 304 

Circuit Judges ^ 253 

Civil War 334 

Clear Creek Township 219, 227, 407 

Clerks of County 250 

Co-Education 284 

Commissioners 255 

Coroners 251 

Counterfeiters 419 

County Agent 234 

County Auditors 249 

County Clerks 250 

County Commissioners 255 

County Finances 244 

County Government 234 

County Jail 240 

County Library 245 

County Poor 241 

County Recorders 250 

County Seminary 265 

County Surveyors 252 

County Treasurers 250 

Court Houses 237 

Cox Tragedy 406 


Doctors, Early 325 

Doctors, Present 329 

Drafts 347 


Early Doctors 325 

Early Lawyers 321 

Early Mail Service 378 

Early Settlement »231 

Early Market Quotations 379 

Early Railroads 443 

Early Stages 443 

Early Tax Levies 236 

Education 261 

Election, Local Option 256 

Elections 246 

EUettsville 424 

Enlistments 334 

Episcopal Church 315 

Equestrian Fairs 259 


Fairfax 410 

Fairs 259 

Finances of the County .-- 244 

First Grand Jury 235 

First Newspaper 300 

First Road Petition 235 

First Schools 261 

First Settler 231 

Free and Accepted Masons 319 

Furniture Industry 380 


Geology 217 

Graduate School ^_-- 294 

Grand Jury, First 235 


Harrodsburg 409 

Hindostan 434 

Independent Order of Odd Fellows_- 319 
Indian Creek Township 218, 227, 411 


Indian Occupancy 221 

Indiana University 271 

Indianapolis Soutliern Railroad 449 


Jackson Township 229 

Jail 240 

Jordan Field 288 

Judges, Associate 253 

Judges, Circuit 253 

Judges, Probate 252 

Jury, First Grand 235 

Justices of the Peace 254 

Knights of Pythias 320 


Lamb Township 227 

Land Entries, Bloomington Town- 
ship 367 

Lawyers 321 

Library, Old County 245 

Licenses 236 

Lincoln Funeral 398 

Lincoln's Assassination 350 

Local Option Election 256 

McHolland, David 231 


Manufacturing Industries 379 

Marion Township 220, 413 

Masonic Order 319 

Medical History 325 

Methodist Episcopal Churches ^ 304 

Mexican War 331 

Military History 330 

Military Roster 352 

Miscellaneous 435 

Monroe Co. Historical Society 441 

Monroe County, Organization 224 

Monroe County Quarries 364 

Monroe County Seminary 265 

Morgan's Raid 345 

Mt. Tabor 401 

Muster Day 375 


New Albany & Salem Railroad 446 

Newspapers of Monroe County 300 


Odd Fellows 319 

Old County Library 245 

Old Settlers' Society 437 

Old University Campus 284 

Oolitic Stone Industry .--_ 360 

Organization of Monroe County 224 


Perry Township 217, 229, 415 

Physicians, Early 325 

Physicians, Present 329 

Pioneer Tales 453 

Plats 435 

Platting of Bloomington 370 

Political History 246 

Polk Township 220, 229, 418 

Poor Farm , 241 

Population 436 

Presbyterian Churches 306 

Present Bar 325 

Present Court House 239 

Present Physicians 329 

Presidential Vote . 246 

Probate Judges 252 

Professional Schools 283 

Prosecuting Attorneys 253 

Public Buildings 237 


Quarries 364 

Quarrying Methods 362 


Raccoon Township 227 

Recorders 250 

Reformed Presbyterian Church 307 

Religious History 304 

Reminiscences of Bloomington 393 


Richland Township 217, 229, 421 

Roster of Monroe Soldiers 352 


Salt Creek Township -220, 229, 427 

School Examiners 254 

School of Education 283, 293 

School of Law 283, 291 

School of Medicine 283, 292 

School Superintendents 254 

Schools, First 261 

Schools of 1913 268 

Schools, Township 262 

Seminary, County 265 

"Seminary" Township 415 

Seminary Trustees 252 

Sheriffs 250 

Showers Bros. Company 380 

Smithville 410 

Spanish-American War 357 

Stanford 430 

State University 271 

Stinesville 402 

Stone Companies 364 

Stone Industry 360 

Superintendents of School 254 

Surveyors, County 252 


Tales of Pioneer Days 453 

Tavern Licenses 236 

Tax Levies, Early 236 

Topography 217 

Township Schools 262 

Treasurers, County 251 

Treaties 222 

Trustees, Seminary 252 


Unionville 405 

United Presbyterian Church 307 

University Buildings 285 

University Charter 280 

University Chronology 294 

University Expenses 290 

University Funds 281 

University, Indiana 271 

University Legislation 272 

University Library Building 285 

University Observatory 288 

University Presidents 296 


Valuations, Assessed 245 

Van Buren Township 218, 229, 429 

Village Plats 435 

Vincennes University 273 


War Meetings 334 

Washington Township 219-, 229, 432 

Wayport 434 

White Men, First Here 222 



Acoam, John W. 635 

Akin, R. A. 542 

Allen, William J. 743 

Atwater, Amzi 520 


Bailey, John S. 544 

Baker, Herschel E. 699 

Barnes, Alexander 675 

Barrow, Harrison R. 746 

Batman, Ira C. 592 

Bell, Oscar E. 748 

Blair, J. W. 558 

Blakely, William O. 655 

Boruff, James E. 627 

Bray, Samuel 583 

Breeden, W. T. 659 

Brinkworth, Thomas M. 625 

Brooks, Thomas J. 482 

Brown, John S. 597 

Brown, William A. 534 

Bryan, William Lowe 471 

Burton, Martin A. 727 

Buskirk, Lawrence V. 672 

Buskirk, Philip K. 530 

Butler, Charles P. 615 

Byrns, James D. 723 


Caress, James M. 740 

Carey, Harry K. 651 

Carpenter, Earl C. 665 

Chapman, Thomas N. 628 

Chase, Hollis H. 562 

Chitty, Howard 700 

Clark, M. C. 643 

Collier, James F. 732 

Collins, S. W. 648 

Corr, Edwin 751 

Cox, Alex 683 

Crabb, Mortimore 708 

Cravens, Oscar H. 712 

Crim, Isaac H. 736 


Dilley, Joseph T. 604 

Dodds, Andrew 681 

Dodds, Samuel C. 488 

Duncan, Henry Clay 496 

Duncan, J. B. 518 

Dunihue, Fred T. 620 


East, Rufus H. 581 

Edwards, Ezra W. 742 


Fenneman, Fred W. 749 

Fields, Albert J. 560 

Fowler, John P. 716 

Freeland, John T. 550 

Fulwider, W. A. 704 


Gibbons, John A. 733 

Grant, Herman U. 588 

Guthrie, Alfred 552 

Guthrie, Marshall 762 

Guthrie. Mitchell R. 646 


Hamer, G. Albert 721 

Hanna, Ulysses S. 573 

Hardwick, Thomas S. 694 


Harris, C. E. 590 

Harris, John G. 533 

Harris, Oliver K. 596 

Harris, Thomas L. 614 

Harris, Walter W. 596 

Harris, William B. 756 

Henley, George W. 662 

Henley, Joseph E. 696 

Hill, Nathaniel U., Sr. 461 

Hill, Nat U. 664 

Hill, Philip B. 587 

Hinkle, Charles , 624 

Hoadley, Albert T. 656 

Hoadley, Burt G. 610 

Hobbs, Joel L. 516 

Hobbs, E. M. C. 688 

Holland, J. E. P. 515 

Holmes, Joseph L. 725 

Hostetler, Alonzo H. 667 

Howe, Jesse A. 690 

Hubbard, William A. 670 

Hughes, Louis W. 556 


Jackson, George B. 701 

Jones, Walter A. 684 

Jones, Walter H. 674 

Julius, Fred F. 735 


Keach, Sherman L. 602 

Keane, Edward M. 719 

Kelly, John C. 629 


Lamkins, Frank W. 557 

Lannert, Joseph 543 

Lee, Henry A. 568 

Lee, Rogers A. 720 

Louden, Theodore J. 676 

Louden, William M. 728 


McDonald, Arthur J. __ 494 

McKinley, Cornelius 759 

McPheeters, Joseph G. 640 


Martin, William H. 484 

Marxson, C. H. 536 

Mathes, William A. 622 

Matthews, Fred 616 

Medaris, William H. 601 

Miers, Robert W. 1 584 

Miller, Robert G. 570 

Milligan, Thomas 537 

Moore, Edward P. 578 

Moore Family 576 

Moore, Milton N. 577 

Moore, Silas -, 576 

Murphy, Edgar R. 709 

Myers, Burton Dorr 760 


Neeld, Cyrus N. S. 668 

Newland, Ben 504 

Nichols, John L. 509 

Nichols, Leo 509 

Norman, Olin B. 745 


O'Harrow, John W. 632 

Otis, Fred B. 633 

Owen, McHenry 539 

Owens, Fred I. 692 

Owens, James K. 641 


Palmer, Robert N. 547 

Pearson, Henry P. 715 

Pearson, John R. 510 

Perry, Eugene H. R. 618 

Plummer, Richard E. 714 


Reed, Millard C. 730 

Regester. J. F. 717 

Rice, J. Marion 575 

Rogers, O. F. 706 

Rogers, R. C. 706 

Rothrock, David A. 579" 



Sanders, Lawrence B. 487 

Shaw, Lyman Emery 680 

Short, Earl G. 499 

Showers, J. D. 608 

Showers, William N. 480 

Simpson, Morrell 653 

Small, Charles S. 527 

Stalker, Elbert J. 612 

Stipp, William E. 686 

Strain, Joseph 755 

S*rout, Noyes E. 652 


Thornton, Edmund B. 502 

Thornton, George D. 753 

Tourner, J. P. 478 

Trainor, Joseph W. 649 

Van Valzah, F. B. 549 

Voris, Archibald C. 512 

Voris, Joseph R. 476 


Waldron, Charles B. 500 

Walker, RoUa F. 660 

Weaver, William W. 507 

Whitted, Silas N. 637 

Wilcox, Asher S. 528 

Wilcox, Thalus M. 606 

Williams, Canaan 590 

Williams, Isaac 693 

Wilson, J. B. 594 

Woodburn, Walter E. 524 

Woolery, Marshall 738 




From various state geological reports the following has been deduced 
concerning the geolog}' of Lawrence county, in a general way : 

Undulating or gently rolling plateaus, drained by deep, narrow valleys, 
obtain in the eastern and northeastern portions of the county. The central 
region north of \\'hite river is very hilly, and the western and southwestern 
is rough and broken. Each of these divisions is covered with a soil almost 
wholly formed from decomposition of underlying rocks. In that part of the 
county underlaid by St. Louis limestone, comprising a broad belt twelve miles 
in width, passing centrally from northwest to southeast, "sink-holes" are very 
numerous. The chief streams are the East fork of White river, Indian, Big 
Salt, Little Salt, Leatherwood, Guthrie, Back, Sugar, Fishing and Beaver 
creeks. Originally, the county was well timbered with large forests of oak, 
hickory, beech, maple, chestnut, walnut, elm, etc. 

The geological formations of this county comprise three divisions of 
the quarternary age, two of the coal measure group and four of the sub- 
carboniferous group. • The formations dip slightly, with a variable rate, from 
east northeast to west southwest, and the outcrop from east to west in the 
county represents a vertical measurement of about seven hundred feet. From 
east to west the formations, in the order of age, outcrop as follows: Knob- 
stone group, Keokuk group, St. Louis group, sub-carboniferous group, car- 
boniferous group, quarternary group. No drift is to be found in the county, 
save occasional traces brought down by streams which have their origin 
farther to the north. 

Briefly, the geological sections and stratas are these : The quarternary 
system; the carboniferous group; the sub-carboniferous group; the St. Louis 
beds ; the Chester beds ; Keokuk beds ; Knobstone formation ; the coal meas- 
ure, in the western portion of the county, represented only by beds of shale 


and shaley sandstones on the tops of some of the high elevations and hilltops; 
the conglomerate or millstone grit below the coal measure. Then comes the 
real Chester fomiation the upper member being a valuable limestone, whitish 
gray to dark brown. 

Number 21, known as "Bedford stone,'' is the material so well known 
and so extensively used by builders throughout the countrv', especially in the 
West. It appears to be formed almost entirely of minute fossil cemented 
together with shell and coal dust. It varies in color from gray to creamy 
white, and is found in almost endless quantity as thick as twelve feet, suitable 
to saw, cut, carve and mold in any desired shape. Beneath this is the famous 
fossil bed, containing seventy species, and it is from a few inches thick to 
four feet in some localities. xMl are very small and some even microscopic, 
yet very perfect and beautiful. 

The knobstone shale is the lowest visible formation in the county, and is 
nearly five hundred feet thick and outcrops on the eastern and southeastern 
portions. Outcrops are seen at Ft. Ritner, Guthrie and at other places in this 

A mile or so southwest of Bedford is what is known as Dunihue's ca\e. 
It contains many beautiful chambers, with stalactites of rare purity and many 
other beautiful, curious formations. Here the fine white limestone, so valu- 
able in this section of Indiana, is found in immense quantities. As long ago 
as 1883 it was written of this location : "The stone is so soft at first that it is 
easily chiseled and moulded, and it is peculiarly suited for door and window 
caps and sills, columns and highly ornamented capitals and brackets. Weather 
hardens it. The hard laminated limestone is four feet thick ; the white quarry 
limestone is ten feet thick and the blue quarry limestone is seven feet thick. 
The quarry of N. L. Hall was extensively worked in this stone. A powerful 
engine drove three gangs of saws. The white limestone has all the excellent 
qualities above described. It has been used in the Bedford court house, the 
postoffice at Indianapolis, the State University at Bloomington, the new state 
house of Illinois, the Louisville custom house, etc. It is a famous stone." 

The St. Louis section in the valleys of Salt and Leatherwood creeks near 
Bedford, the whole depth of the St. Louis limestone outcrops, have a perpen- 
dicular measurement of about one hundred feet. 

In the vicinity of Fayetteville the blue and gray limestone measures 
thirty-five to forty feet in thickness. 

The hills north of White river are generally capped with members of 
the Chester formation, and sometimes almost six hundred feet above the river 
bed. A half mile west of Chester Huron, the Chester beds are found, and 


at one time were extensively worked, and the material was known as "Huron 
stone." The bed is twenty-five feet thick. 

At Connelly's Hill, the flint bed section was worked by the Indians. 
Here they C[uarried material for their arrow and spear points. Fire hearths 
are seen in the adjoining \alley, surrounded with flint chips. Mounds are also 
found on this hill. 

The country around Mitchell was originally a valley of erosion, and 
later the flood plain of White ri\er. The surface rocks are of the upper 
cherty member of the St. Louis beds. Here fossils abound in great quantities. 
In numerous wells have frecjuently been found eyeless fishes. Here the soil 
is rich in plant food. 

On section 26, township 4, range i west, is a coral reef. Valuable 
specimens of coral have been found and sent to national collections. The pre- 
historic people here evidently made their reddish colored stone implements 
and ornaments. Years ago large amounts of lime were burned near this 
point. Asa Erwin made fully twenty thousand bushels, which found ready 
sale on account of its superiority. The waste lime was then used for com- 
post. There are many caves near this point. Hamer's cave, on section 2,-^ 
township 4, range i west, is forty-five feet above the valley. The floor is 
level, six feet wide, and covered with a swift stream of water eight inches 
deep, though in some places twenty feet in depth. Three-fourths of a mile 
from the entrance is the first fall. The "grand cascade" is found three hun- 
dred feet farther on. Eyeless fish, crawfish, etc.. are here seen in great 

Donnelson's cave, with its blind fishes, is on section 2>2> of this same 
township and range. Here, at one time, was a large line of mills, including 
a saw mill, grist mill, woolen factory, etc., all driven by a positive water 
power. The interior shows that at one date gunpowder was manufactured 
here. Within this wonderful cave the roar of a magnificent cascade may be 
heard. Here one finds a well formed hall, twelve feet high by three hundred 
feet in length and forty-four feet wide. There thousands of bats congregate; 
eyeless fishes and crickets are also found. 

In 1884 it was written of the great kaolin mines of Spice valley: "The 
substance known as kaolin is a variety of clay produced by the decomposition 
of the mineral feldspar, fused with other minerals, and is used for the pro- 
duction of porcelain ware. These mines are by far the best in the state — not 
surpassed anywhere. They were first opened in 1874 by Dr. Joseph Gardner, 
E. T. Cox. state geologist, and Michael Tempest, potter, of Cincinnati. They 
made a fine white earthenware. In 1877 these interests were taken over by 


the Pennsyhania Salt Manufacturing Company of Philadelphia and near 
Pittsburg. For years they shipped annually two thousand tons of this clay 
to their factories in Pennsylvania. From the product they made alum of a 
superior quality." 

Mineral springs abound at many places within this county. Their waters 
are higlily medicinal in their composition, and in many instances have been 
found to do \^■hat the more celebrated waters of French Lick will not do. 
Some of these springs have been used with good results, but the lack of 
developing and keeping them advertised before the general public has kept 
them in the background. In an early day, when salt was scarce and high 
priced, many salt wells were made in Lawrence county, some of these being 
along Salt creek. One was sunk a hundred and fifty feet on section 8, town- 
ship 5, range i west. Long years since these salt wells were abandoned as not 
being profitable, with the discovery of better methods of procuring salt. 

In conclusion, it may be added that the stone industry of this county has 
made it famous and this will form a separate chapter, hence need not be 
further mentioned in this connection. 



In taking up the early settlement of Lawrence county it is fitting that 
the aboriginal inhabitants, the discoveries, and the various treaties and other 
deals incident to the settlement of the county, should be given introductory 
space. The Indians had practically disappeared as a nation from the south of 
Indiana when the first settlements were made in the county. The war with 
Tecumseh was just nearing the close, which came with the battle of Tippe- 
canoe on November 7, 1811, and the Indian opposition to the land grants 
made to the United States by various tribes was being destroyed. 

These famous treaties, ceding the land of southern Indiana to the gov- 
ernment, were three in number, and were all written before Tecumseh and 
his Shawnees rebelled against the white man. The first treaty was made at 
Fort Wayne, on June 7, 1803, and was called the Vincennes tract. It in- 
cluded in Lawrence county all of the area south of a line commencing on the 
western boundary near the middle of section 31, township 4, range 2 west, 
and running in a direct line to the southeast corner of section 14, township 3 
north, range i west, where it leaves the county on the southern border. This 
tract includes nearly a third of Spice Valley township, and a part of the south- 
west corner of Marion. The treaty was signed by chiefs of the Shawnee, 
Delaware, Pottawatomie, Eel River, Kickapoo, Piankeshaw and Kaskaskia 
tribes and granted to the United States about one million six hundred thousand 
acres of land, of which over twelve thousand \\'ere in Lawrence county proper. 

The second treaty was made at Grouseland, near Vincennes, on August 
21, 1805, and in this compact tribes of Pottawatomies, Miamis, Delawares, 
Eel Rivers and Weas gave to the United States all their land south of a line 
running from a point north of Orleans, Orange county, to the old Greenville 
boundary line near where it crossed the Whitewater river in the eastern por- 
tion of the state. This line traversed Lawrence county in a northeast direc- 
tion, from the middle of section 17, to\\nship 3 north, range i east, to the 
point where the county corners with Jackson and Washington counties, mak- 
ing a total area in this county of nine thousand, nine hundred and twenty acres. 

The remainder of the territory comprising Lawrence county was ac- 
quired by the government in what was known as the Harrison Purchase, a 


treaty made at Fort Wayne on September 30, 1809. This included a large 
area of land mostly on the east side of the Wabash river and below Raccoon 
creek near Montezuma, Parke county, and running to a point near Seymour, 
Jackson county, where it intersected the line mentioned in the previous treaty. 
The area included in this compact was approximately two million nine hun- 
dred thousand acres. 

French, English, and American financiers, in this early day, fornied 
immense land companies, for the purpose of trading or buying immense tracts 
of valuable territory from the Indians. In the Northwest most of these real 
estate deals were executed, and in the numl^er was one to the Wabash Land 
Company, for an area two hundred and ten miles wide, extending from Cat 
creek, near Lafayette, Tippecanoe county, down the Wabash river to the 
Ohio, covering a total area of nearly thirty-eight million acres. For all of 
this the remuneration was as follows : "400 blankets, 21 pieces of stroud, 250 
shirts, 12 gross of star gartering, 120 pieces of ribbon, 24 pounds of vermil- 
ion, 18 pairs of velvet laced housings, i piece of malton, 52 fusils, 35 dozen 
large buckhorn handle knives, 40 dozen couteau knives, 500 pounds of brass 
kettles, 10,000 gun flints, 600 pounds of gunpowder, 2,000 pounds of lead, 
400 pounds of tobacco, 40 bushels of salt, 3,000 pounds of flour. 3 horses, 11 
silver armbands, 40 wristbands, 6 Avhole moons, 6 half moons, 9 earwheels, 46 
large crosses, 29 hairpipes, 60 pairs of earbobs, 20 dozen small crosses, 20 
dozen nose crosses and no dozen brooches." On October 18, 1775, the 
deed was signed in Vincennes by eleven Piankeshaw chiefs. Congress refused 
to recognize the validity of this deed, even though the agents of the land com- 
pany made many efl^orts, the last being in t8io. A portion of Lawrence 
county was included in this treaty as the land here was originally the home of 
the Piankeshaw tribes. 

In saying that the Piankeshaws were the original Indian inhabitants of 
the land of Lawrence county, some exceptions must be noted. At certain 
times the Delawares, Shawnees and Pottawatomies acquired a part of this 
land. However, upon the first advent of the white settlers very little trace of 
the Indian remained. A few scattering camps and burying grounds were all 
that constituted the Indian occupancy of the time. The towns were, even in 
the days before the pioneer, very small, and unproductive of records available 
for history, Heltonville, Spring\'ille and Dougherty's Mill, on Indian creek, 
marking the sites of the most prominent of the Indian settlements. Nomadic 
bands fisbed along the banks of Salt creek (We-pe-pe-moy), the east fork 
of White river (Gun-dah-quah), or White river proper, which was called 


The white men were seldom molested by these roving bands. The mur- 
der of Pierre, a trapper, supplies the chief incident of this character in the 
early histoiy of the county, and even his death has been a question. The 
Rawlinses were liA'ing in a shanty in Bono township, a temporary home dur- 
ing the com crop season. Just the men of the family were there, the women 
having been left at Maxwell's Fort, on Lost river. Orange county, as the 
Indians were known to be on the warpath. Arising one morning the men 
discovered that their horses were gone. Upon returning to the camp they 
found additional evidences of Indian depredations there and they immediately 
made all preparations for their own protection. On the following morning 
the men began the journey to the fort, meeting, on the way, the old trapper, 
Pierre, who was told of the presence of hostile Indians. ■ This old Frenchman 
was on the way to tend to his traps along Fishing creek, and declined to 
abandon his journey, being slightly credulous as to the danger from the tribes. 
The Rawlinses reached the fort, procured mounts, and joined Captain Big- 
ger's company of rangers. After a few days the}- \entured back to their 
former camp in Bono township, and disco\'ered that the Indians had been 
there before them, as everything had been destroyed or stolen. The old 
trapper, Pierre, was missing, and a search was made for him. Finally, his 
canoe was sighted in the branches of a tree which had fallen in the river. 
In the bottom lay the lindy of tlie old trapper, shot through the heart, and 
scalped. It is almost an unquestioned fact that he was murdered by the 

In the year 1810 two families, the Flinns and the Guthries, built a fort 
near Leesville for their protection, the fort being located ab()ut a mile north 
of the village. By ]\Iarch. 181 5. the usual vigilance had been relaxed due to 
the apparent absence of Indian trouliles. A band of Pottawatomies suddenly 
appeared from the north, however, and swooped down on the fort. The men 
were engaged in felling a tree nearl^y, and were attacked before they were 
aware of even the presence of Indians. John Guthrie was shot through the 
breast, but retained strength to reach the gates of the fort, where, in the face 
of the Indian bullets, his courageous wife dragged him inside. He was not 
wounded mortally, but his comrade, Josiah Flinn, was toniahawked and 
scalped, which caused his death four days afterward. Jacob Flinn, the other 
of the three attacked, was made prisoner, and taken to the chief Pottawatomie 
village at the headwaters of the Wabash river. Forced to undergo the sever- 
est hardships and nearly perishing from starvation, he was kept four months 
in this Indian village. One night he escaped in a canoe and started down the 
river, traveling at night and hiding during the day, subsisting all of the time 


on frogs, fishes and roots of trees. He at last reached the post of V^incennes 
in a desperate condition. Strangely, he made the statement that he could 
have fled sooner, but he wanted to wait until he could take Guthrie's axe, 
which had been stolen at the time of the attack. It is difficult to appreciate 
how an axe was worth the risk of a life unless we know that the axe, in those 
days, was the prime necessity of life. 

Lawrence county has scattered over her territory many evidences of a 
prehistoric race. The mysteries of these early peoples, their habits, customs 
and modes of living, have been lost to mankind, and the silent, tomb-like 
mounds left have resisted every effort of the archaeologist to fathom their 
dark secretiveness. The [Mound Builders they have been called, because no 
other name was possible. AA'here they sprang from or whether the Indian 
was a descendant has ne^■er been learned. They existed thousands of years 
ago, but, notwithstanding, there is a well founded supposition in the minds of 
the scientific world that they were further along in the. scale of civilization 
than the American Indian as the white man found him. "Not entirely voice- 
less, they tell of a people who once possessed the valley of the continent. 
Peaceful and law-abiding, they were skilled in agriculture and the arts of the 
'stone age,' and executed works that required the united and persistent efiforts 
of thousands under the direction of a well matured design. In the compara- 
tive absence of war-like implements, we conclude that this work was a labor of 
love, and not of fear; that it was inaugurated and directed by a regal priest- 
hood to erect votive temples in honor of the sun, a visible creator of comfort, 
food and life." 

There are three types of these mounds, as classified by the scientists who 
ha^•e investigated them, namely: IMounds of habitation, the temple and sepul- 
chral mounds. The sepulchral mounds, of course, were for the burial of the 
dead, and inside of them have been found human bones and diverse instruments 
and ornaments buried with the body. The tem]:)le mounds were evidently 
used as a place of devotion. 

John Collett, in the Geological Survey of Indiana for 1873, writes: "On 
the southeastern slope of the hill over Connelly's cave, two miles east of 
Huron, is a group of seven mounds, from two to four feet high, and an 
obscure winding way may be traced leading from the cave spring to the top 
of the hill. On the summit fragments of sandstone, reddened by burning, 
and small shell heaps are seen. The mounds were probably habitations. 
From protruding pieces of stone seen on the sides, the internal construction 
was of that niaterial instead of timber, as was usual in similar structures on 
the Waliash and ^lississippi. .\ central tumulus, having a double circular 


wall, was probably for sepulchral purposes. A mound similar to the last at 
the site of the former county seat, Palestine, or 'Old Palestine," as it is called, 
was explored in 1870, by Messrs. Newland, Dodd and Houston. On the 
surface of the hill a confused mass of stones, such as a man could conveniently 
carry, were noticed, indicating a circular wall twenty feet in diameter. It 
was found to be a vaulted tomb. The first or upper vault contained the 
bones of many women and children: a layer of flat stones divided this from 
the second, which contains the bones of men: another la\ er of flags, and at 
the bottom, six feet below the surface, two skeletons were found with their 
heads placed to the east and faces to the north. The last were persons of 
great size, being not less than six and a half feet high. With the skeletons 
were found a quantity of flints, arrow-points, etc. ; near the head of the 
largest individual a pair of hammered cojiper earrings and a globular 'war- 
whistle.' The keen noise of the latter ma^' be compared to the sound of a 
policeman's whistle and can be heard nearly a mile. .Stone axes and pieces of 
pottery are found on the surface near this tomb." 

Immediately after the period of time in which the Mound P>uilders had 
their existence, there was another race known as the fishermen. Lawrence 
county has a number of tomlxs, shell hea|)S and mounds. Human bones and 
antiquities supposed to have belonged to this primitive race have lieen found 
in different parts of Lawrence county. The Indian was the next inhabitant of 
Lawrence county, and as history records he probably came from the ancient 
country of Scvthia when continents were formed differently and Asia was 
connected with the land now Xorth America. The Indian was a cruel, liar- 
barous race, and their position in the scale of civilization was very low. Just 
treatment was extended to his race, but he reciprocated with murder, treach- 
ery and bloody outrage, and today he is approaching a well-deserved extinc- 
tion as a race. 




Lawrence county was at first a portion of Knox and Harrison counties. 
In tlie vear 1814 it liecame identified witli Washington county, and in 1816 
a part of Orange county. The county of Lawrence itself was created in 1818, 
and uanied for Cajn. jaines Lawrence, a Ignited States navy ofificer. com- 
mander of the frigate "'Chesapeake." Captain La\\ rencc lost his life in the 
battle witli the English frigate "Sliannon." 

The first years of the nineteenth century saw very little settlement in 
this coiinlx- 1)\- white men. Tlie Indians were Iiostile and the jierils of making 
a home -were great. The slow imnugration of the trihes to the West had not 
vet begun, and the ])ioiieer hesitated to be the lirst to coni])at with their 
treacherous tmstonis. The (Ibin ri\er was then the a\-enue of commerce to 
ihe IMiddle West, and conse(|uentl\- the settlement i>f the state ])roceeded 
northward from this ri\-er. The ad\ance was slow, made so by the necessity 
for large numl)ers tn keep together in order to repel the Indian attacks. Not 
until the \ear 1 cS n , the year of the ])attle of Ti])i)ecanne. did Lawrence county 
recei\e auv number of wliile fanu'lies. 

Records ^bnw iIkiI prolnlib' the tirsl -settlement of any couse(|uence was 
made at the spot wbere Lee'^x ille. Minn tnwu'-hi].). now stands, on the eastern 
bountlar\- of the county. The settlers of this ])lace had left Lee county. Vir- 
ginia, in \><c.(), and ])assed the next winter in Kentucky. In l'\-bruary. 1810, 
they came to the aboxe menlionecl ])lace and liuill a fort near the ])resent 
grist mill in Lees\ille. Tlic Idock-house comi)leted. the men journexed back 
to Kentucky after their families, ddiese families were the (luthries and 
Elinns. who were attacked In- the I'ottawatomies later, and their names ha\e 
been per])etuated in the history of the county as the highest types of honor. 
courage and self-sacrifice, and today their descendants are numbered among 
the most respected citi/ens of Lawrence county. Daniel Guthrie and his sous 
and Jacob and William I'linn were the men of the group, and each was a 
frontiersman skilled in all the art? of pioneer life, in hunting, fishing, farm- 
ing, and in fighting the warlike tribes. Daniel Guthrie is noted as being one 
of the Continentals who defeated General Braddock prior to the Revolutionary 



Flinn township is situated on the eastern liorder of the county near the 
center, and was called after the Flinn famil\ . whose history is written above. 
The early settlers were classed as .squatters, or, in other words, men who 
lived on the land without an\- title. Not until the )'ear 1817 was there a land 
entry made in the tow nshin, and then thev followed in rapid succession. Some 
of these were: R. HunlMU, 1S20; Al. \\'nr)le\-, r8_'o: Xoah Wright, i8ic;; 
Thomas Hodges, 1817; Israel Hind, 1819; John Parr, 1810; H. Nichols. 
1820; James FJlison. i8jo: F.noch Parr, 1817; T. C'arr, 1820: Arthur Parr, 
181Q: Martin Minn, i8jo: Patrick Welch, 1817; Noah Wright. i8jo; Will- 
iam White, rSjo: 1). Minn, 1820: James Taggart, 1820; John (hithrie, 1820; 
Thomas Flinn, 1820: Benjaun'n Drake, 1818: ^\'illiam Flinn, 1820; J. Allen. 
1820; Hugh Guthrie, 1820: R ihert Flinn, 1819; Penjann'n .New kirk, 1820 
George Stell, John Speer. Fphraim 1). Lux, John IVespc}-, Abraham Suther- 
land, David White, .\lfred .\le\ander, Jacob AA'eaver. Abtses Minn, William 
Smith, Flijah Curry. Micai.ah I'oole, and Gamaliel Millgar were early resi- 
dents around Leesville. 

Perha])s tht- uio^t important feature (if the earlv settleuient of Minn 
township was the gri'^t nu'lls. .\ "stump"' mill, al the p'ace where Lees\ille 
now stands, was owiied by Joliu Speer. and wa< the first uiill in the townshi]). 
The next was the I'orgev mill, on (iuthrie creek, a half nn'lc from Leesville. 
The first mill built here was constructed hv William I'bnu about the year 
1817. This structure descended to his son, Robert bdinn, who^e successor 
was Andrew Forge\'. The mill bore the name of the !a>t owuer. and was 
in operation for man\- years; in the year i8_|o it was run by horsepower, the 
tread-mill method, although in a great many cases a steer was used in ]jlace 
of the horse. Hiram fiuthrie owned the nn'll for a time, and then it jiassed 
into the bands of the Hollands. The latter owners supplied the mill with 
steam motive power, and three -^ets of buhrs. two bir wheat and one for coi-n. 
John C. \'ovles wa'^ the last owner, aud after he discarded the pl.ant it re- 
mained abandoned. 

A Mr. Phillips owned a horse null at I'm Hook about 18.^0. aud nu Pack 
creek, northwest of Leesxille. a water mill known as the McGlemery mill was 
built about the same time. Fdward Montgomery possessed a water mill on 
Back creek in 1840. operated by a turbine water wheel. This mill was the 
last in the township, failing in 1872 while under the owtiershi]) of Matteson 


Distilleries were also operated in this ])art of the country during the early 
days. A great many of the settlers were from Virginia and Kentucky, where 
"stills" were a common feature, so it is not sui-prising that they should con- 
tinue the practice here. Also it is a well known fact that corn was the prin- 
cipal produce of the pioneer region, and the facilities for conveying the crop 
to market were very poor. Consequently, the corn was brewed into whiskey, 
which commodity was easier handled and yielded a better profit than the 
grain itself. 


Leesville is the namesake of Lee county, Virginia, from whence the first 
settlers came to this locality. Tlie town was laid out in June, 1818, and is 
next to tlie oldest town recorded in Lawrence county. Bono leading. John 
Speer was the first merchant, and he owned a small huckster shop about 181 7. 
George Still began the same trade in tStq, and was followed by nierchants 
whose names became well kno\\-n in the entire county. A few of them were : 
Turner J. Holland, William n\u-pen, William IMcNeal}^, William and John 
Holland, Norman Benton, John Ferguson, W. C. Richards and John Hunter. 
In 183 1 Leesville decided to incorporate by election, and accordingly did so. 
However, the incorporation did not last verv long. The population is now 
one hundred and twenty-five. 


The two Carolinas and Virginia supplied the first settlers of Marion 
township. The township was named after Gen. Francis Marion, the famous 
Southern commander in the Revolutionarv war. The township is about 
sixty-six square miles in area, about eight miles square. The northern 
boundary is the east branch of White ri\er, the south is Orange county, the 
east Bono township, and on the w est Si:)ice Valley township. 

Tn the early fall of tlie year 1815, Lewis Phillips built himself a cabin at 
John Tolliver's upper s])ring, near the meridian line, on the southwest quarter 
of the northwest quarter of section 31, town 4 north, range t east. The cabin 
was made of round poles and was primitive in every respect. Ilie last of the 
family was Mar}^ Ann While, who died near Juliet in 1883; there are now no 
descendants of the Phillips family living. 

In November. 181 5, when the first drear signs of approaching winter 
were seen in the seared leaves and grav skies, Samuel G. Hoskins. who had 
broken through the rough country from South Carolina, pitched his quarters 


on Rock Lick creek, on the southeast quarter oi section 19, town 4 north, 
range i east. At this spot Hoskins built a cabin of hewn logs, and prepared 
to brave the winter through. This occurred when Phillips' family was the 
only other family in the townshii). The winter ])assed quietly enough; Indians 
passed by, and frequently st<)])ped, l)ut not one lixed in tlie township. Hoskins 
afterwards became prominent in the affairs of the county. He was a justice 
of the peace, and captain of tlie first military compan\- organized in this 
county south of \A'hite ri\er. He was a member of the first grand jury, was 
a surveyor and a teacher. In the spring of i8i() many new settlers began to 
come in from North and South Carolina, among them lieing George Sheeks, 
William Erwin, John Finger, J(jsei)h Pless, Elijah Murray, Thomas Rowark, 
John Sutton, James Boswell, and Joseph Roswell. .\11 of these men followed 
farming as an occupation, except Rowark. who was a blacksmith. 

In 181 7 many families came into the township from the South, and built 
their cabins along the bank-s of AMiite ri\-er, and in the valleys of Rock Lick 
and Mill creek. Roben Hall erected his home on the George Field place. 
Squire Hoskins built a hcwn-log on the old F^^\■iu ])lacc, and there the 
first election Avas held the nrsl Monday in August. There were thirteen 
voters, ten Federalists and three Republicans. The former were Samuel G. 
Hoskins, William Erwin. Joseph Rless, James Boswell, Joseph Boswell, Elijah 
Murray, James Mathis, Rol)ert Erwin, Thomas Rowark, and .\rthur Dycus. 
The Rejmblicans.were George Sheeks, John Finger and Joseph Culbertson. 
The voting place was afterward changed to Hoskins" new home on the Terre 
Haute and Louisville road until 1842. then the jjrecinct was mo\-ed to Red- 
ding, thence to Woodville, and in 183(1 to Alitchell. 

A rifle company was organized in r^larion township in 1817, and some 
thirty men enlisted, a few from Bono. The men armed themsehes and were 
clad in blue hunting shirts, trimmed with red. and cap with a feather. 

Some time previous to 1815 Sam Jackson — not Samuel — had entered 
the southwest quarter of section 32: the entry antedates the Lawrence county 
records. This fackson was a Canadian, and had seen serxice in the war of 
1812 along the Canadian border. For his services he was given a land war- 
rant, which accounts for the taking up of this land. On the tract i'; the noted 
Hamer's cave and the picturesque valley in which the old stone mill stands. 
During the period of Jackson's ownership there was a com mill erected there, 
close to where the mill stood, built of logs, and the water was carried from 
the cave by poplar logs hewn into troughs. AA'illiam AA'right, of Orange 
county, was the miller. In September, T8r6. Jackson sold the land to Thomas 
Bullett and Cuthbert Bullett, and in the spring of 1817 the stone was quarried 

i^.S i,.\\vri;mi-. and monroe colxtjks, ixdiaxa. 

for the stone mill. In 1818 the mill was linished atul was a model for the 
<la_\-. The lliil'etts sold the mill in 1823 to the two Montgomery brothers, 
who im])ro\e(l the ijropertv and started a distillery. There had been one dis- 
tilleiy pre\ious to this one. owned liy William IMallett and Dennis Frost, on 
Rock Lick, iielow Tomlinson's lime kiln. In 1825 Hugh Hamar bought the 
property of the Alontgomerv boys. i)a}ing seven thousand dollars in seven an- 
nual payments. The nevv" owner re-established the distillery, started a store, 
gathered man\- laboring men about him. Iiaulcd i^roduce to Louisville, built 
flatboats at the boat yards on AA bite river, and shipped flour, whiskey, pork, 
etc.. to Xe\\ Orleans by water. In ^S'2() the tirst postoffice was established 
at Mill Springs, and Hugh Hamar was named postmaster. The mill property 
descended to Robert B. Hamar. who in turn sold it to Jonathan Turley. 

Lsaac b'iglit Iniill a mill, with overshot wheel, at Shawnee cave in 1819. 
This mill passed into the hands (jf Shelton and William Smith, and they 
erected a distiller)- in connection in 183T. bTilton had a distillery at the head 
of Fulton's creek about 18.2^, and ground his grain on a treadmill. James 
Beasley also had a distillerv afterwards at Lind.^ey's Spring. 

The (."Av'.y land eiuries of Marion to\\iis]up are as follows: (Tithbert and 
Thomas Bullitt. 1820; Tetlow. LTughes and (n^iger. 1820: Moses Grav. 1816; 
R. Hall, !8?n: Aliraham Flartman. 1818: Samuel Jackson, 1816: Ambrose 
Carlton, 181 <^>: Rolx-rt Lewi^^, 1817 and t8t6: Samuel lirown, 1820: John 
Edwards. 1820: John Maxwell, i8i<): William Tcrrilk i8ir.; William 
Tolliver. 1818; Robert IMcLean, 1817: Williaiu AlcLean, i8if,: Zachariah 
Sparling. 1818: John AA'orkman. 1817: AA'illiam Baldwin, 1817: Theophilus 
Baldwdn, i8tq: Jesse Hill, !8r7: Martin Hardin. 1817: AAilliam Maxwell. 
1819; Charles Tolliver, 1817; AAil'iam ronuerly. T8r7: AA'illiam Denny. 1818; 
Alfred Maden and |ohn Hav-, 1818: John Lowrey. 1817: AA'illiam Blair, 
1817; John McLean. 18 T7: James Fulton, i8ir); Lewis Byram, 1817; Henry 
Speed, 1816: AA^illiam Trueblood. 1816: Jonathan Lindley, t8t6: d. Eli, 1817; 
Joshua Tavlor. \Rt~\ R.-.hert Fields, 1817: AA'iUkmi Connelly. i8t8; George 
Hinton, Jr.. Arthur Henrie and Benjamin Drake, t8i8: Ezekiel Blackwell, 
t8i8: JohU Finger. 1817; Joseph Culbertson. i8t8: AA'illiam Frwin. t8t8: 
fsom Maden, 1816; AA'illiam Carmichael, t8t8: Joel Conley, 1817: Josiah 
Trueblood. i8r8 : AA'ikiam Connelly. 1817: .Aaron Davis. 1819: Lewis Phillips. 
1817; Zeiiedec AA'ood. [820: ?\licbael Dunihue. 1817; David Harris, ^S'^-■. 
John Sutton, 1817; Robert Hollowell, t8t6; Robert Fields, T8r6: Jacob Piles 
and Jonathan AA'illiams. 181 5. 

Hunting w^as a great diversion and pa.stime in the early days of Marion 
township. There were many interesting incidents which happened in con- 


nectioii with these spurts, the hrst of which ocrurred in the fall of 1816. 
Thomas Rowark killed a panther near his caliin on Rock Lick creek. Rowark 
espied the animal in a tree and shot it. Everyone went to see the lieast. and 
all pronounced it the large.'^t ever seen in the township. The animal measured 
three yards in length. ^Nlany hears have heen killed in the townshi]). Xedd}' 
Edwards chased a hear into a ca\'e in .Allen C. Piurton's orchard and. calling 
assistance, smoked Mr. I'.ruin out and killed him. In the same year. 1820, a 
party of hunters killed a large liear in a ca\e on J(^hn E. Dodson's farm, just 
west of the Solomon Bass residence. The last bear killed in the township was 
shot from a tree l\v William Edwards, in 1821. ,\n interesting and amusing 
incident occurred in 1825, in which the chief actors were John Sutton and a 
very credulous bear. Sutton was searching for his hogs in the woods north 
of Mitchell, when he discovered fresh bear tracks in the snow, lie urged his 
horse on and took up the trail. Ele had not gone far when bruin loomed up 
before him. Sutton"s horse ca\orted and lieat a retreat, leax'ing his rider 
lying in the snow and within arm"s length of the Ix^ar. Sutton was too much 
frightened to move, so he lay still. Idie bear lowered himself c'nul smelled of 
the prostrate man, then unexpectedly walked away. Sutton, once sure of his 
solitude, arose and made ol^' in the direction the horse had gone. The many 
caverns and caves of Marion township were ideal homes for packs of timber 
wolves, and up until 1832 it was next to imi)0ssible to raise sheei), for the 
nightly raids of the jxicks were common. 1lie sport of wolf I'aiting became 
very popular, among the most skilled being ITugh Mamar and llenjamin Tur- 
ley, and it was not long until the animals were exterminated. Deer and 
turkey and numerous other small game w ere plentiful, and constituted the chief 
meat supplv. The jiresent p(^])ulation of this township is 6,482. 


Mitchell, Marion township, was named in honor of Gen. O. Al. Mitchell, 
an officer in the Federal arm\-. who died at Huntsville. .Maliama. in 1862. 
The location of the town is on the south half of section 36. town 4 north, 
range i west, and on the north half of section i, town 3 north, range i west. 
and was platted on September 29, 1853, ''}' ^^^- ^^'- Cochran and lohn Sheeks. 
Good railroad facilities are afforded the people of this town, the Baltimore & 
Ohio and the Chicago, Indianapolis & Louis\ille, or the .Abjnon, passing 
through the town at present. West Mitchell, an addition, was laid out Janu- 
ary 17, 1859, by Jonas Mnger, and on November 20, 18(15. there was another 
addition bv D. Kellev &: Company. Since that time other .additions have been 


made, and now the lo\sn co\ers quite an extent of territory. Some earlier 
merchants were Silas Moore & Son, John R. Nugent, and Robert Barnard. 
J. T. Biggs and G. A\'. Dodson were early druggists. Sam Cook was the 
premier blacksuiitli, and J. T. Biggs was the hotel keeper. In i860 the town 
contained six Imndred and twehe ]:)eoi)le. and in t88o, one thousand, four 
hundred and forty-three. 


On December 23, 18(14. Mitchell was incorporated as a town. Joshua 
Budd, R. Barnard and Z. L. AV'arren were named as the first trustees, and 
A. T. McCoy, the first clerk. McCoy resigned later in favor of H. S. Maning- 
ton. The same officers served in 1865. In 1866, S. Moore, J. D. A'IcCoy and 
F. M. Lemon were elected trustees, and H. S. Manington. clerk. In 1867, 
the trustees were S. Moore, J. D. McCoy, and William .A. Burton. In 1868, 
S. Moore. J. D. McCoy and Z. L. Warren. The following list gives the suc- 
cessive trustees, with the year of their entrance into office, from 1869 until 
the time of incorporation as a city : 1869, W. V. T. Murphy, A. L. Munson, 
Samuel Cook; 1870, same officers; 1872, Allen Edwards, J. P. Tapp, William 
A. Burton: 1873, Isaac B. Faulkner, Isaac H. Crim, James A. Head: 1875, 
Allen Fdwards. Dennis Coleman, Jacob J. Bates: 1876, James D. Moore, A. 
A. Pearson, David L. Fergurson ; 1877, John Mead, I. H. Crim, Milton N. 
Moore; 1878, John O'Donnell, James Richardson, Jacob Bixler; 1879, John 
O'Donnell, James Richardson, Jacob Bixler; 1880, George Z. Wood. James 
D. Moore, George W. Burton; i88t, Thomas Richardson, Wilton N. A-Ioore, 
William J. Flumston ; 1882, Milton N. ]\Ioore. A\'illiam H. Edwards. Thomas 
Richardson; 1883. Milton N. Moore, Charles W. Campl)ell, AA'illiam H. Ed- 
wards; 1884. John Mead. M. X. Moore. Thomas Welsh: 1883, A. Edwards, 
F. J. Wolfe, H. II. Crawford; 1886, M. N. Moore. H. A. Trendley : 1887, 
Abbott C. Robertson: 1888. H. A. Trendley, 1880, .Mien Edwards, Gus Levy; 
1890, Sam Cook, F. R. Elackwell : i8qi, Allen C. Burton; 1892. James D. 
Moore, F. R. Blackwell ; 1803, Milton N. Moore: 1894, William Newby, John 
M'ead ; 1895, J. L. Holmes, Sr.. Ralph Prosser ; 1896, Charles Coleman, Ralph 
Prosser; 1897, M. N. Moore; 1898, Thomas W. Welsh, Fred R. Blackwell; 
1899, same; 1900, David Kelly, M. N. Aloore, James F. Mitchell; 1901, David 
Kelly, Henr>' Scott, James F. Mitchell: 1902. G. \A'. Walls, Lewis Barlow; 
1903, George W. Walls, Hemw S. Scheibe, Lewis Barlow ; 1904, M. N. Moore, 
H. Scheibe, Henry Chappie; 1905, H. S. Scheibe, Harry Chappie, and Noble 
L. Moore; 1906, Harry Chappie. John L. Murphy, and N. L. Moore; and in 
1907, Chapi)le, N. L. Moore and John T. Murphy. 



On July 29, 1907, an election was held in Mitchell to determine whether 
or not the town should be incorporated as a city, under the statutes of Indiana. 
The result was a majority of four hundred and nine in favor of incorporating. 
The town was divided into three wards, and an election ordered for August 
23, 1907, to elect the mayor, clerk, treasurer, and fi\e councilmen, one for each 
ward, and two at large. The result was as follows : Mayor, William L. 
Brown ; treasurer, Harry V. Shepherd : clerk, Clyde A. Burton : councilmen, 
Thomas W. Welsh. William H. Dings, John L. Holmes, John B. Sims and 
John A. Dalton. E. Massman later took the place of Dalton. Frank L. Dale 
was appointed chief of police, Dr. James D. Byrnes, health officer, and Sam 
S. Doman, city attorney. The first regular meeting of the common council 
was held on September 2, 1907. 

Mayor Brown resigned on January 30, igoo, and Clyde .\. Burton took 
the office. Perry M. McBride succeeding as clerk. Burton, in turn, resigned 
on June 11, 1909, and AVilliam H. Dings was ap])ointed mayor ])ro tern, which 
office he held two weeks. William Stipp was elected by the council on June 
25, 1909. At the regular election on November 2, 1909. the following city 
officers were chosen, and are at present active: iNIayor, Joseph T. Dilley ; 
clerk, Kenley E. Harn ; treasurer, Edward M. Keane : councilmen. Will D. 
Ewing, Joseph A. Munger, hVank Collier, Alliert Mi>rris and Walter C. 

The city of Mitchell has had a wonderful growth during the last ten 
years. The population by the census of 1900 ^^■as 1,772, and in iC)io the 
startling increase was made to 3,438. In 1910 the total assessed valuation, 
less mortgage exemptions, was $953,505. In the city clerk's report for 1910, 
the city bonds outstanding amounted to $15,500, which has since lieen reduced 
to $13,700. The gross debt then was '$2y,-j02. l>ut this has l)een lowered to 
less than $23,000. The cash in the city treasury- at jiresent amounts tn ,$4,563. 
The electric light plant of Mitchell was established in February, 1907, with a 
one-thousand-Hght dynamo. Seven thousand dollars in bonds were author- 
ized by the council when the subject of a light plant was first forwarded, and 
accordingly the money was borrowed. The plant in iqio embraced thirty-six 
arc lights, and twenty-six hundred incandescents. The Central Union Tele- 
phone Companv was granted a twenty-five year franchise on July \(\ 1897. 


BUSINESS inti-:rests of 1913. 

The present attorne3'S of Mitchell are Calvin Ferris. John VV. Edwards, 
W. H. Edwards and Harry Kel'.ey. There are two banks, the First National 
and the Bank of Mitchell. The physicians are J. C. Kelley, ]. D. Byrnes, 
John Gibbons, George Giblions and W. C. Sherwood. Clothing .stores are 
operated by W. T. Moore &: Company and Jacob Effron ; Van Ra\- and Reed 
& Son conduct meat markets ; Samuel fhay, Harry Sanders and Hiram Gerkin 
conduct blacksmith shops: Jnhn Shamer has a harness sliop : Harry Clem- 
mons and N. P. Martin are jewelers: in the lumber trade are the Randolph 
Lumber Company and H. FT. Craw ford : Henry Schiebe is a tailor and clothier; 
Kate Mischoe and Miller & Alexander have millinery stores : John Clark runs 
a barber shop: W. M. Shanks and Emmett Brown have furniture stock, the 
fomier being also an undertaker: the grocery industry is managed by W. E. 
Lagle, C. W. Coleman, Ewing & Son. J. T. Dilley & Company, M. Mathers, 
J. F. Matthews. Holmes Brothers. T. J. Wood. AVilliam Sutton and Terrell 
Brothers ; John Shanafelt. Charles Coyle. F. 1^^. Braman & Son, W. G. Oldham 
and William Mantler have general stores: \A'. A. Burton. W. R.Richardson, 
Carr & Jones and M. C. Reed have drug stores : Noah Cassiday and Smith 
O. Smith have dray lines: H. H. Crawford. W. F. Thorne and J. F. Collier 
are grain dealers: Frank Chastain manages a garage: H. H. Crawford and 
Botorf & Simmons own hardware stores: Evans i\: Gordon have restaurants; 
Flarry Sanders is a veterinary, and R. J. Seigminnd and J. B. Gambrel are 
denti.sts. The hotels in Mitchell are the Putnam and the Grand. There are 
(wo newspapers in the city, the Tribune and the Coinntercial. 


In 1884 the Bank of Mitchell (private), with a capital of $50,000, was 
being successfully conducted, and it was doubtless the pioneer bank of the 
town. It was organized in September, 1882. by Milton N. Moore, with a cash 
capital of $25,000, which it still carries. It now has deposits amounting to 
$350,000. Their liuilding was erected in 1896. The Hrst officers were: 
Milton N. Moore, president: \V. T. Moore, cashier. The property was, how- 
ever, all owned by Milton N. Moore. The officers at this date (1913) are: 
Edward P. Moore, presiilenl : \\\ T. Moore, cashier, ll was chartered in 

The b'irst .\ational Hank was organized in 1903 by William A. Holland, 
president: Henry C. Trueblood, vice-president: A\'alter \\'. Burton, cashier. 

I. \\vj?i-:xcE AM) Moxi^oK corxTirs. ixdiaxa. _^^ 

Its first capital was $25,000, same as today. They now ha\'e a sur[)lL\s of 
$3,500, with deposits amounting lo $180,000. In 1903 a hanking house was 
erected, at a cost of $5,000. The present officers are: \\". Tl. Burloii. ]»resi- 
dent; A. B. Hall, \ice-president : Walter W. Burton, cashier; Kdwara M. 
Keane, assistant cashier. 

These two banks afford ample lianking facililic- for one of the best of 
the smaller cities in all southern Indiana. Tlie officers and directors of these 
banks are well known and highly respected in their enterprising city and 
county. The financial affairs are well cared for and depositors never question 
the integrity of the banks. The deposits in both banks, today, show a good 
business and a well settled financial policy in the community in which they are 


At JNlitchell. Indiana, are two brancli factories of the Lehigh Portland 
Cement Company, employing a thi>usand men, and under the acti\e manage- 
ment of William H. Weitknecht. 1lie daily production of these two fac- 
tories is six thousand five hundred liarrels. The raw products used in the 
manufacture of the cement are iimestone and shale, which, after being pulver- 
ized to a fineness of ninety-five and ninety-six per cent, on standard of > me 
hundred-mesh silk, is burned into a clinker at two tliousand five hundred de- 
grees Fahrenheit, and the resulting clinker is again ground into tlie pulverized 
condition. The cement from these factories is shipped to various states be- 
tween the Alleghany mountains and the Mississippi river. All the exporta- 
tion is done by the Eastern mills. 

The Lehigh Portland Cen;ent (, ompany is capitalized at twehe million 
dollars, and the general offices are situated in Allentown, I^ennsyhania. The 
main sales office is at Chicago. The officers of the comi)an\- are: Col. H. C. 
Trexler, president: K. 'M. Young. ( leorge Ormrod and \. \. (iowan, vice- 
presidents. Ciowan resides at Cleveland. f)hio. and the others at Allentown, 
Pennsylvania. There are e]e\en mills in the company, located as follows: 
Five at Allentown. two at Newcastle. Pennsyh'ania, one at AA'elLton. Ohio, 
two at Mitchell. Indiana, and one at .Mason City, Iowa. 

Mill Xo. r, at .Mitchell, was Imilt in Mini and i()OJ. and null Xo. 2 was 
constructed in 11)05 and \[)OiK The limest'me i|uarr_\- whicli supi)lies these 
two mil's is located at Mitcljell. but the two shale uuarrit-s are in Jackson 
countv. Twehe hundred acres of land are detached for factory pnrposes. 
The factories manufacture their own steam and electric i)')wer. 



Guthrie township \\as the last to lie formed in the county, and was named 
for one of the most prominent families of the early days. The township was 
formed in the early sixties, and is bounded on the south by the East fork of 
White river, on the north by Shawswick and Flinn townshii:)s, and on the east 
by Jaclcson counlv. When the countv was organized in 1818, all of the 
present ( inthrie township was included in Shawswick township, but on the 
formation of the new townshi]^ land was taken from Shawswick, Flinn and 

Although some portions of Guthrie township were settled very early, the 
record of land entries until 1820 is surprisingly small. As is the case of many 
others of the Lawrence county townships, Guthrie is too hilly to be valuable 
as an agricultural region. , 

Land entries until 1820 included: Israel Hind, 1819: Ambrose Carlton, 
1817; Eflward Johnston, 1820; William Barnhill, 1819: John Kerns, 1820; 
Solomon Rowers, i8r7: Robert Millsap, 1820; Conrad f-biopingarner, 1818; 
Thomas Butler, 1820: Daniel Guthrie. 1816; J, Edwards. 1820; Preston Beck. 
1820; Elisha Simpson. 1820: George AV. ^'lullis. 1817: Cuthbert and Thomas 
Bullitt. 1820. Others included in this earl\- list wvvc Thomas Dixon. William 
Shadrach. AA'illiam Plolland. Sr.. John Allen. Robert Millsap and his sons, 
A'Villiam and James, \bncr AA'alters. Samuel and AMlliam Foster, Benjamin 
and Isaac Xewkirk. Jriculi Mullis .nnd John Dowland. 

Probably the lirst settler of Guthrie township was James Connelly, a 
squatter, and a natixe of Xorth ("ardlina, from whence he came to (Grange 
count}-, hidiana. shortlv afterward seltbng here. The vcar was about 1815. 
Connelly brought lu's family with him. and for their home he built a doitble 
log cabin. .\m1)rose Carlton, with his large family, came after Connelly, and 
in 1816 also Pleasant and Ambrose Parks came from North Carolina to this 
townshii), after a short sojourn in P>ono township. Tulward Johnston came 
in i8i(i, raised a cro]). ,-md the ne>.t _\ear brought hi^ family. One of the first 
mills of this section was that built bv James Connellv in 1817. James Heron 
later had a mill on Guthrie's creek, and Robert and Thomas Carlton also con- 
structed mills. Tn 1840, the latter mill burned, but was rebuilt by the owners. 
Distilleries were scattered over the township, and were of \'arying ownership. 
\A'ild hogs were aliundant along the streams, and ex'erv vear large (|uantities 
of the pork was loaded into flatboats and started for New Orleans and the 
South. Wild hog hunting was one of the popular sports of the day, the animal 
being a dangerous foe, much different from his domesticated brother. 




William and Thomas Dixon platted this village in the northeast corner 
of the township on April 8, 1833. It comprised twenty-four lots. The first 
merchant of the villas^e was Thomas Dixon, and he was followed hv Elder 
T. N. Robertson. 


On the north part of section 19. township 4 north, range 2 east, on the 
28th of April, 1859, the town of Tunnelton was platted. An addition was 
added in 1863. The first merchant of this thriving little village was Alfred 
Guthrie, who began in 1859 witli a stock of merchandise. The first drug 
store was owned by T. L. Linder, w Iid was succeeded in this line liy L. .V. Crim 
& Bros. The first physician was Hugh L. Kimberlin. Henrv Kipp operated 
the first mill, which was. of the steam circular saw t^•pe. :\lfred Guthrie be- 
came the first postmaster in i860. 

The town of Tunnelton at present has an ad\-antageous position on the 
Baltimore & Ohio railroad. The country surrounding the village is valuable, 
part of it being the most productive of Guthrie township. Tn the commercial 
side of the village. Reed & Huddleston and Malott Brotliers own general 
stores, and carry a large and varied line of merchandise. H. E. Elinn has a 
blacksmith shop. There is one saw mill, operated by the Tunnelton Milling 
Company. Dr. H. J. ^Matlock is the resident physician. 

The Knights of Pythias haAc a lodge in Tunnelton, and in religious mat- 
ters the interest is divided between the ^lethodist and Christian churches. 

The present population of Tunnelton is about two hundred. 


The town of Fort Ivitucr was named in honor of Michael Ritner, a fore- 
man in the construction of a tunnel on the old Ohio & Mississippi railroad . 
nearby. Ritner was also the first merchant, having started a store while en- 
gaged in the construction work. Later merchants included the firm of Reed 
& Waters. Moses Wortham and one Brosika, John and William A. Holland. 
Gabriel Brock was the first postmaster, the office having been estalilished in 


Bono township is situated on the southeast corner of the county, and is 
bounded on the north by the East fork of White river, and on the west by 

4^ ). \\\R):.vci-: axii monroe countiks. indfaxa. 

Marion luwusliii). Due tn its locatinii, Ijcint^ near lo the older settlements in 
the smitliern i)arl of the state, and on the early roads to the north, also its 
place on the ri\er which was a nnich tra\'eled hi^-hwav, the township has 
alway- claimed the hrst white settlement of the county. William \Vrig-ht made 
the hrst land entr\' in the county on Sei)temher _'_', i-'^i^. The entr}- consisted 
of one luuidred and forty-two acres in the northeast (piarter of section 5, 
townshi]) T, north, range 2 east. 

The other entries up to and including the year \H20 were li_\- the following 
persons: Henry I'ulton. Septem])er, 1817; Cuthhert and Thomas ]^>u]litt. 
Se])temher. iSjo: j. Hikes, 1820; Richard C. Anderson. j8_'o; John Edwards, 
J820; Edward Johnson, 1820: Clark EToggatt and Kitchell. t8i8; Thomas 
Blank. r8n); .*~^amr.el Brown, i8ir); John B>rown, 1820: John Fiammersly. 
r8[S; Thom;is jo!l\-. iSji;; r)a\i(l (Ireen. i8r8: Conrad Crass, ]8r8: So'omon 
Eitzpatrick, j8io; Pa\id flumniel, 1818: Asher ^^■ilson, 1820; Elisha Simp- 
son, 18)7: William Hoggatt, 1818. 

Bono townshi]) originnll\- inclufled a pail of w h;U is now Marion and 
Cuthrie lo\\nshi])>. heing one of the h\e original town>hi])s of the co^untv- 
The first elections were held at the town of Bono, and wei'e under the super- 
vision of Inspector I^^Hsha .Simjison. In i8i() David Creen hecame insjjector 
of elections, hut the \'oting p'ace remained the same. Moses Eee and Thomas 
Tolly were the hrst oxerseers of the ]ioor and were elected to the office in 
t8i(). Rcvhevt Henderson was the first constahle. 

There is no douht that Bono townshi]) was the scene of the second settle- 
ment in the count\-. Roderick ]\awlins and his two ne])hews, James and 
Josejjh, settled in the '^])ring of 181 .', on a farm in section 22. later owned hy 
^^'illi^ml Turlew and near the \illage of .Scott xiTe. 1"hese men were verv 
])rominent in ihe earlv de\elo|)ment ()f the countv, and tor>k acti\"e jtart in the 
ranger warfare along the frontier. 

I'.eck's iuil], on Bhie ri\er, in A\'ashington county, was the ])lace the 
earl\- ])ioneers did most of their inilling. The lau'lding of llaniar"s n'i'l \u 
Marion townshi]) w as an adxantage later, and there the Bono settlers took their 
grain. Blowexcr, mills hegan to spring uj) in numerous ])laces, and the task- 
of going to the nn'll was lessened. John Hammersly made a business of Iniild- 
ing these mills and then selhne them to others. In the rixer at B)ono 11am- 
mersly constructed a grist mill ovA of the ordinary. He luilt a coiie-'^lia])ed 
dam, permitting the water to go tlu-ough an opening in the center, at a ])oint 
where a large undershot wheel was ])laced between the ilat-l)()ats. The buhrs 
were on these l)oats and the grinding was done in midstream. This mill 


worked well until a flood washed the whole construction awav. The buhrs 
were later used in a mill in Indian Creek township. 

Bono has the (Hstinclion of beino- tlic oldest town in Lawrence county, 
having been settled in 1816. Tine town was laid out (in April 4th and the 
proprietors were W'illiani Hogg'att. Alarston (i. Clark and I()sq)li Kitchell. 
The first merchant tn settle in I'ono was ^^■i]Iian^ r!o!land, aliout 1S18. ( )ther 
early merchants, mostly "Down-East Yankees." drifted in during the later 
years, some of tlie more ])romiuent l;eing John Kelly. Charle.s Miller, Thomas 
Lemon, James AW Prow, James Batman. AshL'r Wilcox, Ephraim Brock. 
Uriah Dilly. .Mberl loliu^^on. |ohn .Shade. Thomas \\'. Stevens and Cabriel 
Harvey. A\'alker Kelso is known to ha\e ])cen the first physician to settle in 
Bono, and A\'illiamson D. T)unn was another earl\- doctor. Tames ( )l(lham 
built the first grist null here Sometime during the fifties. Patrick Callan was 
prol;abIy the lir-t ]iostmaster. the oft'ce lia\ing been estaldislied about tlie vear 

Bono \\;is one of the most fiotu-ishing towns in the couut\- in agriculture 
and commercialism until the building of the Louis\ille. Xew A!I)an\- ^': Chi- 
cago, now the Alonou railroad. At that time, the trarle was drawn to the 
west, and Bono ■suffered immeastu-ably ])\ the change. 


The \illage of Lawrence])ort was laid out on Ma\- 17. 1837. ''•^'^l consisted 
at that time of one Inmdred and se'/enty-nine lots. The A'illage is situated 
at the mouth of Fishing creek on White rixer. S. 1'. Moore' ha- the honor of 
being the ])ioneer merchant of this town, w bo also ow ned a mill there. S. B. 
Barnes and Henrv Harnn-er were future owmers of tiie mill. A few of the 
early merchants and store keepers of Lawrenceport were William Turlev, 
J. T. .Andrews and Brice Xe^vkirk. Dr. Knight was ]irobablv the first plnsi- 
cian of the town. 


Of the three townshijis wdiich form the northern end of the county. 
Mai'shall is the center, and is next to the smalle^l in the count}'. The town- 
ship was named for John Marshall, the eminent chief justice of the United 
States. Land entries were made in this townshii) as earlv as t8i6. and this 


is hard to account tor. as the agricultural facilities in the greater part of the 
county are poor, the land heing broken and hilly. The southern portion, how- 
ever, contains some excellent soil, and has been the scene of stone quarrying 
on a large scale, the stone being shipped to all parts of the country. 

Until the year 1S20 the land entries were as follows: Jacob Hatta- 
baugh. 1816: William Curl. 1816; Hamilton Reddick, 1817; John Fairley, 
1819 : John Goddwin. 1818 ; Robert Anderson. 1819 ; John Hargis, 1816 ; Will- 
iam Sackey, 1817: Jesse Brown. iHi(): James Culley, 1816; Michael Hatta- 
baugh, 1816; Jacob Bruner, 1818; Henry Brown. 1818; John Zumwald, 1818; 
Henry Leonard. 1818: Patrick Tyler. 1817; Nicholas Bruner, 1816: Will- 
iam Ouillen, 1818; John Dryden, 1817: Joshua Gullett, 1816; /Vdam House, 
1816; Thomas Reynolds, 1S17; and Absalom Sargeant, 1817. 

The first mill of the county was built at Avoca about the }ear i8u). liy a 
man named l-'itzjiatrick. The next owner of this mill was Absalom Hart, an 
experienced miller. ba\ ing o\vned a mill on Indian creek. After fifteen years 
of success. Hart sold the null to the Hamer brothers, who owned the mill for 
ten years, and then sold out to Levi ^klitchell, who in turn disposed of the prop- 
erty to Dr. Bridwell. The Doctor sold out to George Thornton, of Bedford. 
Short &' Judali were the next owners, and while in their possession the mill 
burned down. Samuel Short rebuilt the structure soon after, and in 1865 
Hayden Bridwell obtained a half interest in it, holding the same until 1868, 
when he became the sole o\vner. The mill was operated by a turbine water 
wheel, and had tb.ree sets of l)uhrs. one each for corn, wheat and chop feed. 

About 1830 the Humpston mill was built. Tt was on the farm later 
owned by Ephraim Decker, and was operated liy an undershot wheel and the 
current of Salt creek. There was but one set of buhrs. The plant was 
abandoned in the late forties. Kinser S: Whisman erected a steam grist and 
saw mill in 1870 near the present site of Guthrie. This plant was successful 
from the first, and in 1880 the necessary machinery for making spokes was 
added at a large cost. 

The first merchant in Marshall township was Eliphalet Pearson, the father 
of Judge E. D. Pearson of Bedford. His former occupation had been as a 
keeper of the ferry on the Ohio river, at Jeffersonville, but he traded that 
business for a stock of merchandise valued then at about five thousand dollars. 
After this he moved to the McCrea farm, in section 5. in the northw-estern 
part of the township. This spot was on the old stage line from Leavenworth, 
on the Ohio river, to Indianapolis, stopping at Springville. Bedford and 
Orleans and Paoli in Orange county. Pearson's ideal location made his ven- 
ture a profitable one. and for three years he conducted a thriving business. 


He also owned an oil mill there, and manufactured quantities of linseed oil, 
as flax was grown then in this locality in large quantity. The method of 
making the oil, of course, would seem primitive in this day of labor-saving 
machinery; the seed was ground by a large stone operated by horse-power, 
and the oil was pressed out by a common bean press. Later Pearson moved 
his mercantile business to Springville, in Perry township, w here he continued 
until 1840. In that year he constructed a wool carding machine, operating 
the same for eight years. He also started a tan yard in 1846, but a few years 
later resumed the merchandise business, and followed the same until his 
death, in January, 1863. 

In the town of Avoca, while operating the grist mill. Doctor Bridwell 
opened a general merchandise store. He also established the first postoffice 
there, and acted in the capacity of postmaster. This office was abandoned 
after a few years, but was taken up again by O. A. Owens in 1866. Owens 
began to keep articles of merchandise, and built up a good trade. The suc- 
cessor to Owens in the merchandise line was John Heaton, and he continued 
for two years, at the end of which time he removed to Newberry, in Greene 
county, the business at Avoca being conducted by the Blackburn brothers. 
Heaton, however, soon returned. 

One mile and a half northwest of Oolitic, in Marshall township, is the 
little village of Avoca. There are alwut two hundred and fifty people in this 
village. There are no officers, not even a constable. Two churches provide 
places of worship for the people, the Baptist and the Missionary Baptist. L. 
S. Stout conducts a general store, and P. H. Bedwell owns a grocery. Earl 
Martindale is the barber, and the physicians are Claude Dollins and O. M. 
Stout. T. A. Hudson is the postmaster. 

Winepark Judah was responsible for the laying out of Guthrie on Decem- 
ber 10, 1865. The first merchant was undoubtedly W. \\'. Owens, and he 
located in Guthrie about 1854, at the time of the building of the Louisville, 
New Albany & Chicago railroad, now the Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville 
railway. Wesley Brown, James Bryant, (leorge Bascomb and James Tincher 
were later merchants. W. W. Owens was the first postmaster, the office hav- 
ing been established during the time he was engaged in the merchandise busi- 


ness. This tuwii lias ne\ er gTown to any considerable extent, bnt is still a 
small hamlet. In 1910 it had a population of one hundred and fifty. 

spjcp: v.\u;ey townsi-tip. 

Another ni the h\e unqinal townships in the southwest [jortiun of the 
county is Spice \'allev to\\n>hii'. The i)resent area of this localit}- is aj^proxi- 
mately fifty-two miles square. l!ea\er creek flows through the southwestern 
part, on the west and south it is hounded by Martin and Orange counties, on 
the north the blast fork of White ri\er is situated, and on the east is Marion 
townshi]). lM)r the most i)arl, the land in this townshi]) is too broken to be 
of much value for agriculture, l)ut is well suited, for g'razing. The grt)und 
along the i-ner is an excention, and U is to this that the earl)- settlement of the 
count\- is indebted, l^i the \ear iSjo there were thirt\-four purchases of 
land, while in Indian Creek townshi]) there were fift)-eight during the same 
time, thus indicating the relaliw \alue oi the land, 'bhese entries were 
Simon (iilbert. William T. indie) , W aufl T. Bullitt, Iv^ekiel Blackwell. Jonathan 
Lindlex-. .\cpulla (iilbert. 1 lenr\ Speed. Alisalom Field, TlK)mas Lindley, 
Joseph Hastings, .\braham lloladaw Thomas Coulter, losiah Trueblood. Joel 
Connelly, josiab Connell) in iSUi; josiah Connelly. Joel L'onnelly. Robert 
Fields, John Chapman, (iideon ("ouller. Henr\- Cosner, Jolm Connelly in 1817; 
Jesse Beazlew .X'icbols Koon. |ohn Uninn. l)a\id Bruner. U'illiam Cochran, 
John Luttre'!. Roger McKnight. and John Swaim in 18 iS; William Maxwell. 
Francis Tincher, in i8k): bTn Sander^. William Hoard, in iNjc). 

.M^saloni b'ields was the first ins])ector of elections in the townsliip. and 
the elections were held first at his home, but were later changed to the home of 
Richard Beazlev . Josiah ( 'onnelh- was the first constable, and Absalom b'ields 
and Joel Coiniel'_\ the 'ir-t o\ erscer^ of the poor, The^c latter oftices ha\'e 
long <incr pa-^^ed out o i" fxislfnce. 

Tlie milling industr) of Siiice \ ;ille\ township ni the earl\- dax's was 
mosll)- confined to I lamer's niil! in Marion townshiii. in the eastern part. Ihitil 
1840 or later the ]>eopk- oi ilu^ localil\ ])atronize(l tbis mill, becausf the mills 
in this townshi]; were snial! ann inadeijuatc. Josiah Trueblood owned a \ery 
primitixe horsemill. .W-ar iSj;o a horse mill was in o])eration near Bryants- 
ville, owned Ii\ llcnry Weatliers. but Ikin since disa])]ieared. I )istilleries were 
an im]^orlant fcalnrf in the earl\ indnstnal life, and inan\- things bawe been 
attributed to the largt- jiracticf of making b(]uor. The Rowing s])rings and 
various features of the land, al^o the earl\ training of the settlers, contributed 
to the occu])ation. b'shua Barnes c)\\ned the most im]iortant n\ these dis- 
tilleries about 1850, and he also did a great deal of fruit distilling. 


The following interesting?' items are fi'om the ])en of I". M. Brinkworth; 

■'William Hoard, at the time of his deatli. in 1833, owned about six hun- 
dred acres of land and out of this farm the town of Huron was platted in 1859 
by his heirs and descendants. No one of the earlier settlers has left so many 
direct descendants, in this and neighboring townshi])S as William Hoard. 
They furnished twelve or fifteen soldiers to the Union armv during the Civil 

■'This township was settled \er_\' slowl_\- until about the vear 1850. when 
the land entries became frecjuent : a large per cent, of these entries in the west 
end of the township bear dates between 1850 and 1858. 

"Owing to the lateness of her settlement Sjiice X^alley cannot boast of any 
Revolutionan- or 18 ij \elerans and only two Mexican \eterans (known to the 
writer) sleej) within her border>, Joseph liosler and (leoige Brinkworth. 

"But it was in the Cixil war thai S])ice \'alle\' made a record that is 
une(|ualed b\' an\- of lu-r sister townsliips in Lawrence county and doubtless 
b\' few in the entire stale. I ler (piota was always ful! and the draft was never 
resorted to. ! feel safe in sa\-ing thai this was true ol' no other township 
in Lawrence or the neigliboring I'ounties of ( )ra.nge and Martin. I dare say 
that there are more old >ol(!n'rs residmg in the vicinity of .Huron in propor- 
tion to the population than an\- '-ommnnitx in the state. Iiai'ring a soldier's 

■■'I'his township wa'- hea\il\ timbered with oak. popkir, walnut, hickory, 
beech and ash. l)ut less maple tbrni the eastern townships. The working of 
this timber was the chief inihislrv from the time of the building of the Ohio 
&: Mississip]ii railroad, wliich was com])'eted about 1855, until these fine forests 
were almost entireh" exhausted some twenty \ears ago, since when more 
attention has been given to the cultivation and fertilization of the soil, and, 
while the im.iiro\emenl in the methods of farnu'ng from yeai" to year is slow, 
yet it is stead\- and perceptible. 

"1'he schools of Spice Waliey were few and the teachers indifferent until 
about the Near 1857. when the Legislatm-e created the office of township 
trustee, giving the s\'stem « auv heail, and a marked improvement both in the 
number of school houses and in the character of teachers is noted. John \k-- 
Ginness, one of the old teachers, far ,-d)o\e the average of tliat time, was e'ected 
as the first trustee at the ,\pr;l election. 1857. I'eelected in 1858 and r85C) (the 
last time for a term of two years ) and served till 18^1 . at the Ajiril election of 
wdiich \ear Jesse Coimerly was elected trustee and served continuously until 
1868. He bears the unirpie rlistinction of being the onl\- Democrat elected to 
that office during the entire history of the township. I de was not of much 


education, but possessed a remarkable personality that drew men to him. The 
writer regards it one of the greatest fortunes of his life to have known Jesse 
Connerly. He lived at the old Connerly Switch, on the farm his father bought 
in 1823, and he lived in that same spot until his death in 1891. His home was, 
a rendezvous for the neighbors for miles around and the traveler never asked 
in vain for a rest at his place. To him and George W. Jones must largely be 
ascribed the credit for the good showing of the township during the Civil 
war. lliey saw to it that the families of the absent soldiers did not want 
and this assurance induced many a man to go to the front. Mr. Jones still 
lives, at the advanced age of eighty-six. His grandfather, Thomas Jones, 
settled a mile east of Huron in the early twenties and on this farm he was 
reared and later owned it and collected together a farm of over one thousand 
two hundred acres. He is the last of the early settlers and soon will sleep 
with the stalwart pioneers, by whose side he struggled so faithfully to build 
up a community. 

"There were many noble men who cast their lot in Spice Valley, but this 
sketch must be too brief to mention all. However, there are some that stand 
out above the rest and we will mention a few of them. The township is in- 
debted to two branches of the powerful Burton family which did so much in 
the development of the sister township of Marion. Eight of the ten brothers 
settled in Marion, but two came to Spice Valley, Hardin and Eli. The first 
was a Baptist preacher and fanner and a great deal more. He was a splendid 
type of man. He reared an intelligent family. Drs. John W. Burton and 
George W. Burton were his sons and did splendid service in their profession. 
Two other sons, Isom and Hardin, taught many schools in Spice Valley and 
were instrumental in liringing the schools to the high plane they have attained. 
A grandson, Jackson i'.urton, also did yeoman service in the uplift of the 
schools of this section. F(ir the last twenty years he has been engaged in the 
mercantile business and is now a leading merchant in this part of the country. 

"Eli Barnes, son of Joshua Barnes, heretofore mentioned, was one of the 
old teachers and served in the capacity of township assessor for many years. 

"Richard Williams, who owned much fine land near Port William, was 
among the most suljstantial and respected of our early citizens. Dr. A. W. 
Bare was another leading citizen who lived a pleasant, gentle and useful life 
in the l)eautiful valley of Bn^antsville. 

"Spice Valley has quite a deposit of kaolin and alluminum clay and at 
one time this industry employed several men. but of late years the mines have 
not been worked. 

"Some of the men of recent vears who have been most active in the affairs 


of this township are Leonidas W. Spencer, Daniel W. Sherwood, Thomas J. 
Daniel and William Trowbridge. And now, as T close this short story, I wish 
to mention one of the latterday and present teachers, \A'il]iam McNabb. Since 
1882 he has taught school almost cnntinuously. I Te is original in his methods 
and never fails to inspire his pupils ti) strive for better things. There is 
hardly a district in the township in w hich he has not taught and always with 
the highest success. Were I asked the question, wliat man in the last thirty 
years has performed the greatest service in Spice Valley, the answer would be 
without a moment's hesitation, "Bill" McNabb." 

On February 12, 1859, John Terrell platted the town of Huron, on a 
part of the northeast ([uarter of section 6, township 3 north, range 2 west, 
and in April, 1868, an addition was made. In 1857 Anderson Beasley began 
as the first merchant, later was succeeded by James Coleman, also a black- 
smith. The first mill at Huron was built by D. Prosser in 1857. In Janu- 
ary, 1873, Huron was incorporated. The United States census for 1910 
gives this town a population of one hundred and ninety-seven. 


The date of the platting of Bryantsville was May 28, 1835, and Henry 
Connelly was the first settler. The town was first named Paris, but was later 
changed to its present name. Among the early merchants of the village were 
numbered Henry W^eathers, Tucker Williams, Frederick R. Nugent, James 
Taylor and William Weathers. Alexander Coleman was the first blacksmith, 
and the first physician was S. A. Raridan. With the passing years not much 
growth has attended this town. Its population in 1910 was only seventy-five 


Perry township is situated in the northw^est corner of Lawrence county, 
and is composed of the congressional thirty-six sections in township 6 north, 
range 2 west. The name Perry was given in honor of the famous sea com- 
mander who conquered the British on Lake Erie during the war of 1812. 
When Lawrence county was organized in 1818. all of the territory now in 
Perry township v^^as a part of Indian Creek township. It was converted into 
an independent township on May 14, 1822, and included all of the land west 
of Salt creek and north of the line between townships 5 and 6 north. 


The following is a list of some of the early land entries in Perry town- 
ship, including some of the most prominent men in the county : Eli Powell, 
1817: Alexander Clark, 1817: Jesse Davis, 1818; Warner Davis, 1816; 
Robert Holaday, [816; Ralph Lowder, 1819; Benjamin Phipps. [818; Mich- 
ael and Mathias Sears. 1817: William Newcomb, 1817; William Sackley. 
1 81 7; William Kern. 1817: Thomas Hopper. 1817: William Hopper. 181 7; 
Jonathan Osborn, 1816: Azel Bush, 1818: Isaac V. Buskirk, 1818; Joseph 
Taylor. i8t6: Benjamin Dawson, t8i8; Archibald Wood, 1816: John Gray, 
1817: William Kerr, 1817; William Tincher. 1817; Reuben Davis, [816; 
Seymour Cobb. 1816; John Armstrong. 1817: Samuel Steel. 1817; John 
Duncan. 1817; Coats and Samuel Simon. 1817: John Dishman, r8i8; Adam 
Hostetter. 1817, Others noteworthy among the early settlers were: Wesley 
Short, William Whitted. Aden (jainey, Samuel Owens, Caleb Odell, Nathan 
Melton, Kenneth Dye. John Jarvis. William McDowell. James McDowell. 
Thomas Cobb, Dixon Cobb, and later. Noah Bridwell, Elza Woodward, 
Zedekiah Robinson. Melcart Helmer, Samuel Tincher. Franklin Crooke, M. 
C. Rafferty. Milton Short, John and Thomas Hert, Thomas Armstrong, 
John Pledrick. John Rainbolt, Andrew McDaniel. James Beaty, Booker Wil- 
son, Martin Plolmes, James Carton. Eliphalet Pearson. John D. Pedigo. 
John Vestal and A. H. Gainey. 

Milling w^as the. chief pioneer industry in the township, and the first 
mill was operated by Benjamin Dawson, beginning probably in the year 1818. 
This mill was a very primitive affair, and was abandoned in 1835, when 
water mills began to be built. Noah Bridwell conducted a horse mill run by 
a tramp wheel until 1840. also had a still in connection. Wesley Short also 
owned a small mill on his farm about. 1835. In the early forties Levi Butcher 
and Eliphalet Pearson had carding mills in the tow-nship. and they carded con- 
siderable quantities of wool brought in by the farmers. Pearson sold out to 
Elza Woodward, who in turn placed the mill in the hands of Zachariah 
Purdy. Under the last ownership the mill was abandoned in the fifties. Cot- 
ton was another produce raised in this portion of the county during the early 
days, and several cotton gins were constructed. Aden Gainey and Samuel 
Owens operated a gin for about seven years. This gin gained notoriety at 
the time from the fact that Lorenzo Dow preached a sermon there to one 
of the largest crowds ever assembled in the township. 

Hunting constituted the prime sport of those days, deer and bear being 
very plentiful. John Gray, who came up from Kentucky in the fall of 
181 5, became noted for his skill as a hunter, and he killed enough game to 
support his family. He performed the feat of killing four deer with one 


hnllet ; he shot two, recovered the bullet from the second deer, and later had 
two others lined up for a shot, using- the same slug of lead. 


Samuel Owens laid out the \illage of Springville on July ii, 1832, on 
section 22, in the central portion of Perry township. Later additions were 
made in 1836 and 1846. Samufel Owens himself was the first merchant, and 
he began about 1825. Other men followed him, some of whom were A. H. 
Gainey, John Vestal, Eliphalet Pearson, Giles Gainey, Samuel Reddle, Cor- 
nelius Wells, Franklin Crooke, Jabez Owen, Thomas Butler, Winepark 
Judah, Dr. W. B. Woodward, James Tincher, J. E. Dean. The postoffice 
was established in 1825, and Samuel Owens was the first postmaster. Jabez 
Owens was the first blacksmith. Henry Lingle was the first doctor to locate 
in the village, and he came in about 1835. Springville today has about three 
hundred population and the usual number of stores and shops found in 
towns of its size. Its people are seeminglv contented and happy- 


Indian Creek township is the center one of the three which form the 
western border of I^awrence county. The name is taken from the creek that 
enters at the northwest corner, leaving near the southwest corner. Salt 
creek and the Fast fork of White river form the eastern and southern bound- 
aries. The township is one of the original live, and now is much smaller 
than at first, at present comprising about fifty-three square miles. In the 
agricultural life of the county this township stands very high, by \ irtue of 
the excellence of the soil. The ground is rich bottom land in most places and 
is very productive, although not the most valuable in this resj)ect in the 

A few of the men who entered land in this township during the days up 
until 1820 were: Henry Speed, John Towell, Simon Ruebottom, Benjamin 
Beeson, Silas Dixon, Jonathan Lindley, Ephraim Lee, Isaac Williams, Joseph 
Richardson, Seymour Cobb, Archibald Wood, Felter Hughes, James Gallon, 
David Sears, Jesse Towell. and Peyton Wilson, in 1816; David Ribelin, 
James Duncan. Adam Siler, John Duncan, John Cloud, John Roberts, Reu- 
ben Short, Jeremiah Boone, Elijah Boone, John Rochester, Wesley Short, 
John Crook, Daniel Todd, Abraham Kern, Robert Garton and R. Browning, 
William Dillard, John and Michael Waggoner. Joseph Sargeant. Henry 


Waggoner, Elbert Howard, Sullivan and Duncan, John Duncan, in 1817; 
Robert Wood, William Gartin, Henry PiersoU, Holland Pitman, William 
Dougherty, James JNIulloy, Isaac Waggoner, William Cochran, Robert Mit- 
chell, Peyton W^ilson and Martin Ribelin, in 1818; Andrew Howard, Sterling 
Sims, John Short, Albert Howard. Benjamin Chestnut and William Wood- 
run, in 1819: John Donaldson, in 1820. 

The iirst elections of Indian Creek township were held by Joseph Sulli- 
van as inspector at Stepp's, but a little later were held at the house of Samuel 
Owens, not far from the present site of Springville. James Cully held the 
office of constable for the first time, and Patrick and Adam Tyler were over- 
seers of the township poor in 1819. In 1822, when Perry township was 
formed out of part of Indian Creek, the southern border was extended to 
White river, and the election place changed to the house of Frederick Hamer. 

In the early days of Indian Creek township there were many grist mills 
situated within her borders. One of the earliest was situated on Indian 
creek, and was operated by water power. Robert Dougherty operated it in 
the year 1818, and then sold it to a man named Bowers. Henry Purcell 
owned it next, and in his hands it was shut doAvn. John Craig, in 1824, 
built a horse mill on his farm, and ran it successfully for about ten years. 
This mill failing. Mr. Craig erected a new- and better one. which descended 
to his son, Robert Craig. Elijah Garton had a "corn cracker" near what is 
now Fayetteville. and the power was furnished by an inclined wheel and a 
voung steer. John Short, Simon Ruebottom, Oliver Cox and Isaac Rector 
also owned small mills. 

The making of salt was at one time a good industry in the township. 
The value of the product was high, due to the poor transportation facilities 
with the outside world. In 1824 Joseph Laughlin dug a salt well on the farm 
owned l:)y Jackson Kern, but the produce was not sufficient to pay for the 
expense of manufacture. 

Samuel Simons, one of the earlier settlers, kept a tavern where Fayette- 
ville now stands. The bill of fare was very simple, consisting at times of 
roasting ears and sweet milk, for ^^hich a sum of twenty-five cents was 
charged. This tavern was kept for a period of two years, when the owner 
abandoned it and went to farming. Among the first merchants was John 
Vestal, who came to Fayetteville in 1816 or 1817. and there set up a stock 
of merchandise in a log house. He replenished his stock from Louisville, the 
goods being hauled from there in wagons. Frederick Hamer also undertook 
the merchandise trade in 1826. and enjoved a verv lucrative trade. 



On the banks of the East fork of White river, in the southwestern 
portion of Indian Ceek township, is situated the A'illage of Williams, located 
on the Chicago, Terre Haute & Southeastern railroad. The village is one of 
the most individual in its artistic beauty of any in the county. The houses 
are built upon and at the base of a thickly wooded hill, and the winding bank 
of White river encloses the whole into a spot of natural lieauty and uncon- 
ventional form. 

There are three hundred and fifty people in Williams. McCarty & Fer- 
guson, C. Wagner, Mundy Brothers, and J. H. Beavers own the general 
stores and have complete stocks. S. O. McClung, "the prophet of Eden," 
conducts a hotel and store. H. Barnes, Z. R. Craig and J- L. Sullivan have 
blacksmith shops. The physician is J. T. McFarlin. 

One church is located here, the Church of Christ. The Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows and the Knights of Pythias both have lodges in 
Williams, the former having been established in 1907. 


One of the strongest, if not the strongest, contributing forces to the 
importance of Williams is the presence of the main station of the Southern 
Indiana Power Company on White river, just below the village. This plant 
was built during the years 1910 and 191 1, and its purpose is to supply the 
stone industiy of Indiana with electrical power. The plant also lights the 
villages of the surrounding country and the cities of Bedford and Blooming- 
ton. There is at present a sub-station located at Bedford, one at Blooming- 
ton, and one near Saunders. The officers of the company are : H. C. Still- 
well, president ; H M. Mansfield, vice-president, and Charles B. Fletcher, 
secretary-treasurer. The construction of the plant was in charge of the 
Mansfield Engineering Company, F. H. Burnette, chief engineer, and the 
electrical equipment and apparatus was designed by the Easterline Company, 
and installed by D. G. Angus, who is the present general manager. 

The present generating capacity is 8,000 K. : 4,000 K. water and 4,000 
K. of steam being generated. The plant is equipped with a hollow, rein- 
forced concrete dam, three hundred feet long, spanning the river, and it 
impounds the water to the water wheels, which are directly connected to 
umbrella-type generators. There are four of these units, 1,000 K. each, and 
with a maximum available head of seventeen feet. The steam plant consists 


of two 750 K. generators directly connected to steam turbines, and one 2,500 
K. generator, directly connected. A 2.442 horse-power boiler is being in- 
.stalled. From the main station power is transmitted to the sub-station at 
Bedford over double transmission lines, supported on steel towers. A trans- 
mission line is being constructed from Bedford to Bloomington. 


The village of Fayetteville was laid out on February 6. 1838. by Ezra 
Kern, and in October. 1874. an addition was made to the original by Noah 
Kern. Near the year t8i8 John Vestal opened up the first merchandising 
house, his -place being constructed of logs, and his stock very small, but large 
for the dav. The goods in his store were hauled by wagon from T.ouisville, 
Kentucky. Solomon R. Frazier. Ambrose Kern. .Ambrose Parks, Robert 
Boyd. William C. Pitman. Milton Short. John Lackey. Ezra Kern and 
George W. Morris were later merchants The earlier doctors of the village 
were E. F. Allen and Harvey Voyles. Tn 1910 Fayetteville had a population 
of about one hundred and twenty-five, being a mere country town trading 


Robert C. McAfee platted the village of Silvenille in 1855. on the 26th 
of July, and the whole originally comprised seventy-six lots. Eewis J. 
Baker was probably the first merchant, doing business here as early as 1850. 
Soon after Wallace Craig joined him. Dr. S. D. Honnochre was a druggist 
and doctor, also Dr. J. S. Blackburn. J. E. Kera owmed a valuable grist 
mill, operated by steam power. In 1910 the census .tables show this town 
to have a population of two hundred and seventy. 


The northeast corner of Lawrence county is the location of Pleasant 
Run tow-nship, and it was created when the county was organized in 1818. 
The.towmship now comprises sixty sections, being all of township 6 north, 
range i east, and the western half of township 6 north, range 2 east. As in 
Spice Valley township, the land is much too rough to be of great value for 
crops, although along the streams may be found some excellent land. Back, 
Leatherwood, Little Salt and Pleasant creeks cross the township, and from 
the latter the name is derived. In the list of Lawrence cotmty townships 


Pleasant Run had the fewest settlers until 1829, having but twenty-three land 
entries, as follows: Jesse Gilstrap, 1820: William Clark, 1820: Adam Hel- 
ton. 1820; William J. Anderson, 1818; Arnold Helton, i8t8; E. Terrill, 
1820; Heirs of Abraham Martin, r82o; Rene Julin. 1818; R. Brooks, 1820: 
Samuel Gwathney. 1820; Joseph Dayton. 1816: Joseph Trimble. 1820; E. 
Parr, 1820; Edmund Garrison, 1820; James Mundell. 1816; John McClellan, 
1820; David McKinney. t8t6; Edward Moore. 1820; Cuthbert and Thomas 
Bullitt, 1820; Vana Wilson. 1817; Jacob Woolerv. 1820: Edward Tewell. 
1820; and John N. Nichols. 1817. 

Mills and distilleries were the chief vocations during- the early days of 
the county. Adam Helton and a man named Alitchell owned a few of these 
mills, but on account of the scarcity of water they were compelled to wait 
until a storm before they could grind at all. Among the distilleries probablv 
the most important one was that kept by William Glark, familiarlv called 
Billy. John Hunter also kept a still on his farm. 

The first elections of the township were held at the home of Joseph 
Dayton, with Thomas Henton as inspector. William Fish and Drury Mobley 
were overseers of the poor in the township. 


The town of Heltonville. I^leasant Run township, was platted on Septem- 
ber 8. 1845. ^y Andrew Helton, on the west half of the northeast quarter of 
section 26, towmship 6 north, range i east. The town originally comprised 
twenty-seven lots, but since that time several additions have been made, en- 
larging the town. Before 1839 Andrew Helton opened the first merchandise 
store, first being a partner of William Templeton. Houston & Ragsdale were 
also among the first merchants. J. C. Foster, John R. Browning, George 
Brock, A. M. Ramsey, J. W. Browning, William Logan. James vS. Denniston. 
William Elston, Jefferson Ragsdale. W. C. Denniston. M. D. Reid and An- 
drew S. Fountain, Dr. W. T. Ellison were following merchants and business 
men of the town. David Carson was one of the first blacksmiths, and John 
Raney, Ziba Owens, the Hamer brothers. I.uke. James and John, and John 
Lane were wagon makers. 

The present population of Heltonville is about four hundred and fifty. 
The town has no officers other than the township justices of peace. William 
F. Kinser and William Stackleather. G. N. Norman and B L. Store have 
general stores ; J. S. Hanna, the postmaster, conducts a drug store ; Don 
Browning has a saw mill and the grain mill is run by the Williams Milling 


Company: J- M. Butchre, the East brothers, W. M. and George W., are 
blacksmiths ; J. W. Grubb has a dray Hne ; Otto White is the proprietor of the 
hotel; R. E. Martin has a drug stock; D. B. Stafford is an undertaker; Rags- 
dale & Alexander also ha^e a general store, and L. R. Thompson owns a 
barber shop. The ])hysicians are Drs. Jasper Cain. W. T. Ellison and Ptrvy 

There are tliree churches in Heltonville, the ATethodist, the Baptist and 
the Church of Christ. The Independent Order of Odd Fellows have a lodge 
in Heltonville. No. 532. which was granted a charter May 18, 1876. The first 
noble and vice grands were William Denniston and G. T. Starr, and the 
original lodge started with ten meiubers. The IMasons also had a charter in 
Heltonville in the early fifties and until 1822, when the charter was sur- 
rendered, and their liuilding sold to the Odd Fellows. Major Bemen was the 
first worshipful master. There are many men in Heltonville, however, who 
belong to outside bodies of the Masonic order. 


In the central part of tlie countv is Shawswick township. On the south 
the East fork of White river flows, and on the west Salt creek. The land 
adjacent to these streams comprises the best agricultural ground within the 
borders of the county. Also, Leatherwood creek flows diagonally across the 
townshi]) from northeast to southwest, and the land through which this 
stream flows is named the Leatherwood district, and is famous for the rich- 
ness and fertility of the soil. Nearly all the land to the east of Bedford is 
under cultivation and the farms are supplied with the latest and best im- 
provements all indicative of the prosperity of the region. The bottom land 
along \\'hite river is a strong rival of the land of the Leatherwood district, 
and it is exen claimed by some to be richer. The number of land entries 
made prior to and in 1820 proves how inviting the locality was to the settler 
coming on his way to the northward. These early land entries were as 
follows : Tames Mandell, Samuel Lindley, Ezekiel Blackwell. Hiram Kil- 
gore, Charles Kilgore, Preston Beck, William Bristoe, Reuben and Simpson 
Kilgore, Marguis Knight. Joseph Glover, James Gregory, John Hays, Will- 
iam Thornton, William Foot, John Gardner, John Williams and William 
Fisk in 1816: Dixon Brown, David Johnson, Thomas Thompson, John Hor- 
ton, Melcher Fehgelman, Robert Whitley, Vinson Williams, Peter Galbert, 
Martin Ribelin, William Dougherty, John Hawkins, Thomas McManus, Ross 
and McDonald, James Maxwell, Samuel Dougherty, Robert Dougherty, Alex- 


ander Butler, George Silver, Thomas Elrod. Roger ]\'lcKnight, Jacob Castle- 
man and Thomas Allen in 1817; Pleasant Padgett, Lewis Woody, James 
Blair, Andrew Owen, James Riggins, Mark Tully, William Denson, Stephen 
Shipman, Absalom Hart, Abraham Mitchell, John Spears, David Wilson. 
Timothy Ward, Arta Garrison, Ebenezer McDonald, Fetler and Hughes, 
Peter Harmonson, James Erwin and Henry McGree in 1818: T. McAfee, 
Michael Johnson, R. Bowles. James Blair, James Denson, Joseph James, 
James Owens, in 1819; Jacob Hikes, Cuthbert and Thomas Bullitt, Dixon 
Brown, Roger McKnight, Jacob Geiger, Bartholomew Thatcher, Fetler and 
Hughes, Phillip Starr. J. Thompson, James Allen, Jonathan Henderson, 
Isaac Jamison, Samuel Gwathney, Thomas Maffith, James Pace, Thomas 
Hill and Jacob Clark, in 1820. 

Shawswick was one of the original five townships, and the name came 
in the following manner: A judge in the early history of the state bore the 
name of Wick, and he had many admirers in this county who insisted that the 
township should be named after him. One of the county commissioners at 
the same time, by the name of Beazley, had a comrade by the name of Shaw, 
who was killed in the battle of Tippecanoe. Beazley advocated the name of 
Shaw and had many supporters in his desire. The two parties finally com- 
promised on the name Shawswick. 

It is highly probable that the first elections were held at the town of 
Palestine. Pleasant Parks was the inspector at the first voting,- but in the 
following year was succeeded by William Kelsey. Joshua Taylor and James 
Mimdle were chosen overseers of the poor in the same year. Instead of one 
constable, Shawswick township maintained that the dignity of the law could 
be upheld by no less than three, so accordingly Nathaniel Vaughn. William 
Dale and John Sutton were appointed as constables. 

The many streams in the township gave rise to many water mills of 
various types, some for grinding grain and others for sawing timber. Early 
in the twenties Alexander Butler and Robert Dougherty built a saw mill on 
Leatherwood creek, about a mile and a half southeast of Bedford. The mill 
was run by a flutter wheel, which was faster and easier of operation than 
the undershot w'heel. Edward Humpston, whose name was prominently 
identified with mills over the whole country, built another saw mill above the 
above mentioned one and on Leatherwood creek. After a time, and as was 
his custom, he sold the mill to Richard Evans, who ran the plant for seven 
years before abandoning it. Humpston also built a grist mill in 1826, which 
lasted for several years. It was operated by a breast water wheel. Farther 
up the creek, and near the present site of Erie, a grist and saw- mill was 


built in 1832 by Wesle} and Michael Johnson. Also the Rawlins mill was 
among the best of the day, and was built by Joseph Rawlins about 1835. It 
was (ine nf the largest in the county, having three runs of buhrs, and quan- 
tities of flour were ship])ed from here to all parts of the country By rail- 
road it was shipped north to Detroit and other northern cities, while the 
soutliern transpnrtation was conducted by means of flatljoats. i)rincipally 
down the Mississippi to New Orleans. There were many other mills, but 
each in turn suffered an ignominous end, either being abandoned by the 
owners or being: waslied out bv a sudden rise in the streams. 

Three miles and a half northwest of Bedford in Shawswick township, 
is situated the town of Oolitic with a present population of about two thou- 
sand, a substantial growth since the census of iqto, when it was 1.079. 
Under the statutes of Indiana, the village of Oolitic was incorporated as a 
town in igoo. The present town officers are: Trustees, Marshall Miller, S. 
L. Roberts and' Ira A1. (.'amiichael : marshal, lose|)h Pace: clerk and treas- 
urer, R. V. Worman. The town has no water system, l:>ut is supplied with 
electricity l)y the Oolitic Light, Heat & Power Comiiany. whicli was estab- 
lished in \])ril, M)13. The c\\\ has a town hall. 

The business interests of 1013 are as follows: H. L. Pa.xton .-md Wal- 
ter Mosier. attorneys; blacksmiths, .Vl. Anderson and T\. L. Clark; barbers, 
Smallwood ^s: Johnson, and Noali Flarney : clothing stores. R. IT Riddell ; 
dry goods, K. Dobbins, Berney Mitchell and Isaac Siletz ; drug stores. L. A. 
Sma'lwood. C \'. Gforge and Har\e\' II. l>elfon; furniture. Ooolitic Inuni- 
tm-e ('oni])any. Meadows &- Meadows, projirietors, and the Miller Furniture 
Company; grocerx- stores. Cook &- Cook. D. Watson, \V . M. Cuddy, Plarry 
Bvers, Deford Brothers; (h-av lines, TI. L. Clark. Ira M. Carmichael ; shoe 
stores. I. A. Busli, also a iewelr^- and general store keeper; grain dealers, 
William Cuddy. Claude Cook and Delberl Watson; livery. H. L. Clark and 
Thrasher P.rothers ; liardNvare. .\. ( ". Clark; lumlier. Ziba Owens. Gilbert 
Pierce and the Oolitic Lumlier Company; grain mill. .\rch .'\nderson; mil- 
linery, Mrs. Joseph Pace and Mrs. Clarinda Smallwood; meat markets, Del- 
bert Watson and Deford Brothers. The i)hysicians of Oolitic are R. B. 
Short, Oliver McLaughlin, Claude Dollins and Dr. Ray. Dr. J. B. Blessing 
is the dentist. Tliere is one newspaper, the Prof/ressk'c. 

The town, of C)olitic owes its existence mainly to the stone industry. 
The town is a center of nianv quarries and mills liearing a world-wide reputa- 


tion. Among the principal ones surrounding the town are : The Indiana 
Stone Company, the Reed Stone Company, the Indiana Quarries Company, 
the Consohdated Stone Company, the Furst-Kerber Company, and the Ingles 
Stone Company. A drive through the country nearb}- reveals mammoth 
stacks of cut stone, black smoke from myriad mill chimneys, and stone- 
heaped cars sidetracked ready to be rushed to different points of the countrx-. 
The workers live in the picturesque and beautiful hills of Lawrence county, 
close to their working ground, little noting the magnificent proportions and 
impressive detail of the wooded and rockv elevations around them. 

In Oolitic there are three churches, the Baptist, the ^Methodist and the 
Church of Christ. The lodges are the Knights of Pythias, the Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows, including the encampment and the Rebekah. 


Scattered over the county are se\eral towns, or rather, sites of towns, 
which stand as lonely monument^ tn villages once flourisliing, l>ut abandoned 
to decav on account of sonic climatic or commercial reason. 

Liberty, four miles and a half southwest of Bedford, is one of these. 
This x'illage was platted iii iSjg. and sexeral small buildings immediately 
sprang u]). John S. Daughlon, b'rank 7'illy. Alexander H. Dunihue were 
among the early merchants. The health condition^ finally l;ecame so bad 
that residence there was dangerous, and accordingl\- ihe town was abandoned. 

W'oodville. laid out Deccuilier ro. iS-jc;, by F.dwin Wood, was located 
on the Louisville, Nen ,-Mban\' &- Chicagr. railroad. The proprietor of the 
town manufactured lumber. 

I\ei!ding w ai^ laid oiu l)y kol)erl PoUer and lolm R. Xugent. on .\ugust 
2^. 1H.1.J. and was situated on tiie southwest i|uarter of section J^. This 
town has jia-'^ed into history. 

Juliet, also, has been relegated to the ages. This village was opened in 
1850 on the _southwest corner of section i i. jiuring the first years, the town 
was the terminus of th(> Louisville, Xe\\- .\llian)- ..K- ("hicago railroad, and con- 
sequenth' became a trade center. The comisletion oi the road to the north 
ruined the town, bowexer, and early death was its fate. 

For other defunct places see "A'illage Plats" in Miscellaneous chapter of 
this work. 



At one time Lawrence county was a part of Washington and also, at an- 
other date, of Orange county. The act of the Legislature creating Lawrence 
county out of a part of Orange county was approved January 7, 1818, and 
reads as follows : 

"Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Indiana, That 
from and after the third ^Monday of March next, all that part of the county 
of Orange contained in the following bounds shall form and constitute a 
separate county. \'iz. : Beginning at the range line dividing ranges 2 and 3 
west, at the center of township 3 north, and running thence east to the line 
dividing the counties of Washington, Orange and Jackson; thence north with 
said line dividing townships 6 and 7 north ; thence west with said line dividing 
ranges 2 and 3 west; thence south with said range line to the place of 

"Section 2. — The said new county shall be known and designated by the 
name and style of the county of Lawrence, and shall enjoy all the rights and 
privileges and jurisdictions which separate counties do or may properly be- 
long or appertain : Provided, that all suits, pleas, plaints, actions and pro- 
ceedings in law or equity which may have been commenced or instituted be- 
fore the third Monday of March next, and shall be pending in the county of 
Orange shall be prosecuted and determined in the same manner as if this act 
had not passed; provided, also, that all taxes which may be due on the said 
third Monday of IMarch next shall be collected and paid in the same manner 
and by the same officers as if the said new countv of Lawrence had not been 

"Section 3. — Al:)raham Huff, of Jackson county, Abraham Bosley, of 
Orange county, Joel Holbert. of Daviess county, William Hobbs, of Wash- 
ington county, and George Boone, of Harrison county, are hereby appointed 
commissioners agreeable to the act entitled '.A.n act for the fixing the county 
seat of justice in all new counties hereafter to lie laid off." The commission- 
ers alinve named shall convene at the house of James Gregory in said county 
of Lawrence on the third Monday of M'arch next, and shall immediately 
proceed to discharge the duties assigned them by law. It is hereby made 


the duty of the sheriff of Orange county to notify the said commissioners, 
either in person or by written notification, of their appointment on or before 
the first day of March next, and the said sheriff of Orange county shall receive 
from the said county of Lawrence so much as the county commissioners shall 
deem just and reasonable, who are hereby authorized to allow the same out 
of any moneys in the county treasury, in the same manner other claims are 

"Section 4. — The circuit and other courts of the county of Lawrence 
shall be holden at the house of James Gregory, in the said county, until suit- 
able accommodations can be had at the seat of justice, and so soon as the 
courts of said county are satisfied that suitable accommodations can be had at 
the county seat, they shall adjourn thereto, after which time all the courts of 
the county shall be holden at the county seat of Lawrence county established 
as directed by this act. 

"Section 5. — The agent who shall be appointed to superintend the sale 
of lots at the county seat of Lawrence county shall receive ten per sent, out 
of the proceeds thereof, and pay the same over to such person or persons as 
may be appointed by law to receive the same for the use of a library for the 
county, which he shall pay over at such time or times as may be directed by 
law. This act shall take efifect and be in force from and after the third Mon- 
day of March next." 

Approved January 7, 1818. 

From this enactment it will be observed that originally Lawrence county 
did not comprise two tiers of sections north and south along the eastern side 
which now fall within her borders. These two tiers included the towns of 
Leesville and Fort Ritner, both of which were in existence in 1822, at which 
date, through the influence, mainly, of these towns, by means of petitions, the 
following enactment of the Legislature was secured : 

"Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Indiana, That 
from and after the first day of January next, all that part of the county of 
Jackson included within the following boundaries, to-wit : Beginning at the 
northwest corner of section 16, township 5, range 2 east, thence east two miles 
to the northeast corner of section 15, thence south to the Driftwood fork, of 
White river, thence down said river to the line which at present divides the 
counties of Jackson and Lawrence, thence to the place of beginning, be and 
the same is hereby attached to the county of Lawrence, and shall after the 
date above mentioned be deemed and taken as a part of Lawrence to all in- 
tents and purposes to form and constitute a part of said county of Lawrence : 
Provided, however, that all suits, pleas, plaints and proceedings which shall 


have been commenced and pending within the said county of Jackson previous 
to the said first day of Januar\' next, shall be prosecuted to final efifect in the 
same manner as if this act had not been passed; provided, further, that the 
state and county taxes wliich may be due on the said ist of January next 
shall be collected and paid in the same manner and by the same oi^cers as if 
this act had not been passed. This act to be in force from and after the first 
day of January, 1823." 

Approved Decemljer 31, 1822. 


Before the organization of Lawrence county in 1818, and while the 
territory was yet attached to Orange county, all the present county north of 
the river, except two tiers of sections on the east and a small tract on the 
southeast, was organized as Leatherwood township, and that pdrtion of the 
present county south of the White river was part of the northern tier of town- 
ships in Orange countv, except the old township of Bono, which had l)een 
created by the commissioners of Orange county, in January, 1817, with the 
following limits: Beginning on White ri\er at the northwest corner of 
Washington county, thence south to the Cincinnati road, thence west to Fish- 
ing creek, thence north to White river ; thence north \\ith the section line 
which at the mouth of said creek three miles, thence east to Jackson 
county, thence south to the beginning. Leatherwood township had been 
created early in 18 16. The following is the results of the August, 1816, 
election, in Leatherwood township : 

For (iovernor — Posev 12, Jennings 4: for Congress — Hendricks 16, 
Thom none, Sullivan none; senator — Rawlins 16, DePauw none, Clark none; 
representative — Jonathan Lindley, 13. Pinnick, none, Lewis none; sheriff — 
Rolierts 7, Lindley 6; coroner — Crawford 13, Clendenin, none. 


March ii, rSi8, the countv commissioners, ,\ml)rose Carlton, Thomas 
Beagley and James Stotts, met at the house of James Gregory for the trans- 
action of such business as might come before them. The election of the cir- 
cuit clerk was contested and a new election was ordered. James Stotts, Jr., 
was appointed lister ; John Anderson, county treasurer, and Robert M. Carl- 
ton, county agent. On the third day of this session, the commissioners pro- 
ceeded to divide the county into two civil townships, Shawswick and Spice 


Valley. Shawswick was as follows : Beginning at the mouth of Salt creek, 
thence up to the line dividing townships 5 and 6 ; thence east to the county 
line; thence south to Guthrie creek; thence down the same to where sections 
II, 12, 13 and 14 unite: thence west with the line dividing sections 11 and 14 
one mile; thence south with the line dividing sections 14 and 15 to the county 
line; thence west to the southwest comer of section 17, township 3, range i 
west; thence north to White river; thence up to the beginning. 

Spice Valley township included all of the present Spice Valley town- 
ship, together with all of Indian creek township south of the dividing line of 
sections 19 and 30, township 5, range 2 west. Indian Creek township in- 
cluded all of Lawrence county west of Salt creek and north of the line divid- 
ing sections 19 and 30, township 5 north, range 2 west. Bono township com- 
prised all of the county southeast of Shawswick township. Pleasant Run 
township comprised all of the count\- east of Indian Creek t(nvnship and north 
of Shawswick township. 

Pleasant Parks was appointed inspector of elections in Shawswick and 
elections were ordered held at the cabin of Thompson, on the north bank of 
White river, near Palestine. Elections in Spice Valley were ordered held at 
Absalom Field's, with himself as inspector: Indian Creek, at the house of Mr. 
Stipps, with Joseph Sullivan, inspector: in Bono, at Bono Village, with Elisha 
Simpson, inspector: in Pleasant Run, at the house of Joseph Dayton, with 
Thomas Henton. inspector. Two justices of the peace were ordered elected 
in each township, April 25, 18 J 8. The report of the 
commissioners was adopted and spread upon the county's record as follows : 


"To the Board of Commissioners in and for the County of Lawrence, 
State of Indiana : We, the Commissioners appointed by an act bearing date 
January 7, 1818, to fi.x; the seat of justice in the county of Lawrence have 
in conformity to our appointments met at the house of James Gregory, and in 
pursuance of the duty assigned us In- law. after being sworn, proceeded to 
discharge the duty enjoined upon us by law, and therefore take the lil^erty 
of reporting accordingly that we liave selected and fixed upon two hundred 
acres of land on the north side of White river and on both sides of the second 
principal meridian line, which said land is given as a donation to the county 
aforesaid by Benjamin and Ezekiel Blackwell, Heniy Speed and Henry H. 
Massie. Said land is bounded as follows : Beginning on the river below the 
meridian line sixty-four poles : thence north sixty-nine degrees west thirty 


poles to a gray ash: thence north thirty-six degrees west eighty-two poles; 
thence north fourteen degrees west eighty poles; thence north fifty-four de- 
rees east one hundred and sixty-seven poles to the river ; thence west with the 
meanders of the same to the beginning — containing two hundred acres. Hav- 
ing taken the necessary lx)nd for the title, your commissioners find nothing 
further to do in the discharge of the duty assigned them by law, and beg 
leave to report. Given under our hands and seals this 21st day of March, 
1818. Furthermore, we the commissioners aforesaid have thought proper 
to make a reserve of one lot for Benjamin Blackwell, provided the said 
Blackwell will for the same pay such price as lots lying in the same situation 
and in value sell for at the sale of lots in said town. 

"Abraham Huff, 
"Abraham Boslev, 
"Joel Holbert. 
"William Hobbs. 
"George Boon, 
"Locating Commissioners." 

"We, the Commissioners as above, do state that we spent each the num- 
ber of days affixed to our names: Abraham Huff, 8 days. $24; Abraham 
Bosley, 8 days, $24; Joel Holbert, 8 days. $24: William Hobbs, 8 days, $24; 
George Boon, 11 days, $33." 


At the suggestion of Benjamin Blackwell. the first county seat of Law- 
rence county was named "Palestine." The commissioners were given war- 
rants for their services and to be paid out of the first money paid in on the 
sale of town lots. Under the direction of the county commissioners, early in 
May, 1818, County Agent Robert M. Carlton laid out two hundred and 
seventy-six lots in Palestine, which were ordered ad\ertised for sale May 
25, 1 81 8, in the LouisviUc Correspondent, the Indiana Gazette, the Western 
Sun, the Salem Tocsin and the Madison paper. Steps were immediately 
taken to build a courthouse and jail. 

Thus fairly launched on the sea of a separate county, Lawrence began 
to transact her own business, which will be treated in the following chapter. 

From time to time, the county has created new townships and changed 
the boundaries of other townships, until it is now well sub-divided. 

After the first township divisions above mentioned, came the creation of 


Drawn from memorj' by the late Alfred C. Hamm, who. as a carpenter's 
apprentice, assisted in building it. 


Perry township in May, 1822, and Indian Creek township was extended south 
to the river. FHnn township was created about that date. That portion of 
the county to the south of Fort Ritner, in the bend of the river, was attached 
to Bono township. January 23, 1826, Marion township was created, with its 
limits eight miles east and west, and from Orange county to the river, north 
and south. In June, 1855, Marshall township was created, its limits being 
all and no more than congressional township 6 north, range i west; all south- 
west of Salt creek was in 1856 attached to Shawswick. In March, 1866, a 
petition signed by one hundred and eighty residents of the territory con- 
cerned was presented to the commissioners, asking for a new township to 
be formed out of Shawswick, Bono and Flinn, asking that the same be called 
Morton township, but after much deliberation the township was named Guth- 
rie, after an old pioneer family of Lawrence county. It was bounded about 
the same as it still exists. 

The latest changes in township boundaries in this county was effected in 
the winter of 1910-11, when Flinn township met with several changes, which 
also affected other townships surrounding it. It was ordered by the board 
of county commissioners at their December meeting in 19 10 that the lines be 
changed as follows : 

"Beginning at the southeast corner of section 35, township 5. range i 
east; thence running east to the southeast corner of section 31, township 5 
north, range 2 east, thence north to the northeast corner of section 6, town- 
ship 5 north, range 2 east ; thence west to the northeast corner of section 2, 
township 5 north, range i east, and the territory east of the present bound- 
ary line of Shawswick township, including in the aforesaid is added and 
annexed and from said date shall be a part of said Shawswick township. 

"And be it further ordered, that the boundary line of Guthrie township 
in said Lawrence county, Indiana, be and the same is hereby altered and 
extended from and after the first day of January, 1911, as follows: 

"Beginning at the southeast corner of section 31, township 5 north, range . 
2 east: thence north to the northeast corner of section 18, township 5 north, 
range 2 east, thence east to the corner of section 15, township 5 north, range 
2 east: thence south to the southeast corner of section 34. township 5 north, 
range 2 east, and all the territory north of the present line of said Guthrie 
township and including within the aforesaid lioundaries hereby annexed to 
and after January i. 191 1, will be a part of Guthrie township. 

"And be it further ordered that the southern boundary of Pleasant Run 
township, Lawrence county, Indiana, on and after Januaj-y i, 1911, be and 
the same is hereby altered and extended as follows : Beginning at the north- 


east corner of section 6. township 5. range 2 east, thence south to the north- 
east corner of section 15. township 5 north, range 2 east; thence east to the 
northeast corner of section 3. township 5, range 2 east, and that all the terri- 
tory south of the present line of said township and included within the afore- 
said boundary is hereby annexed to and after said date will be a part of said 
Pleasant Run township." 



Under a democratic form of government, counties, like states and 
nations, must needs have their local organization, and so here in Lawrence 
county, after the organization steps were perfected, it remained for the board 
of county commissioners and the various county officials to organize such 
local government' as would, in their own judgment, best meet the demands of 
those pioneer days. The following chapter will treat of the doings of the 
commissioners and the county officers, and enter into detail regarding the 
building of county buildings and the choice of a permanent seat of justice, etc. 

Among the first acts of the county board were the looking into various 
petitions for roads and appointing road viewers. The following county tax 
levies were made: On each hundred acres of land (first class), thirty-seven 
and a half cents; on second class land, thirty-three cents: on third class land, 
twenty-two cents. A license was granted to Blackwell & Company to operate 
a feriy, at twenty dollars; Towell & -Dixon, for same privilege, same rate; 
also one very early, to Milroy & Collins, at six dollars ; horses were taxed 
thirty-seven and a half cents each. 

In August, of the first year, meetings were lield at Palestine. John 
Lowerv was ])aid t]iirtv-se\ en dollars for countv record books. A seal was 
adopted, being a scrawl with the words "Commissioner's Seal." Numerous 
roads were ]jrojected and superintendents ai:)pointed. John Brown, John 
Milroy and John Lowrey assisted in the survey of Palestine. The following 
ferry rates w ere established : Wagon and fciur horses, seventy-five cents, and 
on each extra horse six and a foiutb cents ; a two-wheeled, one-horse vehicle, 
twelve and a half cents; with a lead horse, six and a fourth cents more; 
each i^erson over twehe years, six and a fourth cents: under twelve, two 
cents; sheep, each, one and a half cents; hogs, one cent each. The tavern 
rates were fixed at: Each meal, twenty-five cents; bed. twehe and a half cents; 
liorse over night, fifty cents; single feed, tweh'e anr] a half cents. 

The second sale (^f lots was held in Palestine in November. Robert 
Mitchell, who listed the county in iSt8 instead of James Stotts, Jr., was paid 
thirty dollars. The sherifif under whose .supervision the elections of February 
and April, i8r8, were held, was paid twenty-two dollars. 


Early in 1819 the board adopted a seal for Lawrence county, which was 
designed with a harp, a plow and three sheaves of wheat, and a pair of scales, 
and a weathercock on top. 

Andrew Evans, contractor, cleared off the public square at old Palestine, 
for which he was allowed thirty-eight dollars. Up to this time court had 
been held at the house of James Benefield. In 1819 the tax on each hundred- 
acre tract of land was thirty-seven, thirty-three and twenty-five cents, re- 
spectively. Robert Mitchell was paid thirty-two dollars for listing the county 
in 1819. It was during that year that the work of pushing the courthouse to 
completion went forward. In November, 1819, County Agent Carlton re- 
ported total receipts for town lots, $6,579.38; paid to the county treasurer, 
$5,303.56; paid to the county library, $657.93; balance on hand. $618.09. 
For some reason now unknown, the county agent failed to make a satisfactory 
settlement with the board and was removed. William Templeton being ap- 
pointed to take his place ; Carlton refused to settle with him, or to turn over 
the funds to him. Then Winthrop Foote, attorney was engaged by the 
county to commence action at law on his bond. Finally, County Agent 
Carlton made a sufficient showing and was allowed to hold the responsible 
position of agent for more than thirty years consecutive years. 

John Brown took the census in 1820. Isaac Farris furnished a house in 
which court was held in March, 1820. The following bills allowed county- 
agent in 1820 may be of interest to the reader of these later years : 

Laying out lots in Palestine $132.00 

Selling 249 lots, giving bond, etc i3-50 

Drawing 432 notes at six and a fourth cents 27.00 

Superintending erection of temporary court house 7.00 

Taking Bonds, advertising courthouse, etc 10.00 

Taking Bonds, advertising jail, etc 6.00 

Letting the clearing of the public square 4.00 

Letting the Building of the stray pen 2.00 

Total $201.50 

By the 3rd of February, 182 1, the sale of lots amounted to $17,580; 
cash, $8,639; notes, $5,551 ; due bills, $2,927. It was early in that year that 
Allen Brock was appointed inspector of flour, beef and pork. Much of the 
money received for the town lots was in the shape of bills of all the banks 
of the Southwest, the value of which was variable and at all times exceed- 



ingly doubtful. In 182 1 the county had on hand several hundred dollars of 
very doubtful bills, which were sold to the highest bidder. Mbney affairs in 
these davs were not what we find them today, with all the fault some citizens 
find with the banking system of this country. In June, 1821, $49 in counter- 
feit bills, taken in by mistake, were burned by the county board ; also $126.50 
in doubtful bills were sold at auction for $29.98. In connection with this 
incident the record has the following entry: "Ordered that William Kelsey 
(treasurer) be paid out of the treasury', out of moneys arising from the sale 
of town lots in Palestine, the sum of three dollars for liquor furnished by 
him and for his attendance at the sale of uncurrent money belonging to the 
county." The county agent was ordered to receive nothing but specie for 
debts due the county, but this order was soon rescinded. Robert Mitchell 
was county lister (assessor) for the years from 1818 to 1821, inclusive. 
Among the great cases in the circuit court about the time last named was that 
of the State against James Chess, for counterfeiting gold coin. 

In August, 1822. Samuel Dale was appointed agent to have a well dug 
on the public square at Palestine. John Brown made the first map of Law- 
rence county, for which he received two dollars. 

In 1823 all inn-keepers were compelled to adhere to the following 
charges : Meals, twenty-five cents ; lodgings, six and a fourth cents ; one half 
pint of French brandy, twenty-five cents; one half pint rum, eighteen and 
three-fourths cents; half pint of wine, twenty-five cents; half pint of apple 
or peach brandy, twelve and a half cents ; one half pint of whisky was six 
and a fourth cents ; horse feed over night, twenty-five cents : single feed for 
one horse, twelve and a half cents. 


Notwithstanding the elevated position in which Palestine, the first seat 
of justice of the county, had been located in, it was decided very unhealthy, 
as many deaths had occurred within a brief space of time after its settlement. 
This led to the demand for a change of location, which was seized upon by 
speculators, no doubt in the near-by section of country, and these men greatly 
exaggerated the condition at Palestine. The matter finally came up in the 
Legislature and that body appointed a new commission to re-locate the county 
seat. This act was approved February 9, 1825. The subjoined is the report 
of such commissioners : 

"To the Board of Justices of the County of Lawrence, State of Indiana: 
The subscribers, being the commissioners appointed by an act of the General 


Assembly of the said State entitled 'An act appointing commissioners to re- 
locate the seat of justice of Lawrence county,' approved February 9, 1825, 
make the following report, to-wit : That we all met at Palestine of said 
county of Lawrence, on the second Monday of March, instant, were duly 
sworn as the law prescribes for the faithful performance of our duties, and 
immediately proceeded to the discharge of the same and have continued in 
from day to day until the present time, and have obtained by donation the 
following described tract or parcel of land for the permanent seat of justice 
of said county, to-wit : Beginning on the dividing line of sections 23 and 24. 
in township 5 north, range i west, one hundred poles south of the corner of 
sections 23, 24, 13 and 14; thence west one hundred and sixty poles to a stake; 
thence north two hundred poles ; thence east one hundred and sixty poles to a 
stake on the line (li\iding sections 13 and 14; thence soutli two hundred poles 
to the beginning, containing two hundred acres of land, for which said tract 
we have taken a bond for conveyance to the board of justices of said county, 
as the law provides, within twelve months from the date hereof in the penal 
sum of twentv thousand dollars, conditioned also that the donors shall within 
six months from the re-location or survey of said town plat, dig and stone 
on the public square of said town a well of living and dural^le water, and 
within the same time erect and finish in a suitable manner a temporary court- 
house of hewn logs to be at least of equal dimensions with the old temporary 
courthouse at Palestine, which bond is executed by Samuel F. Irwin, Joseph 
Glover, John Owens. Reul^en Kilgore, Moses Woodruff and Lsaac Stewart as 
principals, and Moses Fell, Joseph Rawlins, Robert M. Carlton, Marquis D. 
Knight, John D. Laughlin and Joseph Lowery, as sureties, and which we now 
give to the board as a part of our report. We have therefore agreed on the 
tract of land before mentioned and selected the same for the permanent seat 
of justice of said county. We have also valued the donation which was 
given to said county of Lawrence for the county seat at Palestine, agreeably 
to the provisions of the act aforesaid mentioned, and have appraised the valua- 
tion thereof at the sum of three dollars per acre. In witness whereof we have 
hereunto set our hands this 9th day of March, A. D. 1825. 

"Jonathan Lyon, 
"Amassa Joselyn, 
"John Ketchum, 
"William A^arshall, 
"E. S. Riley." 


Immediately after the report of the re-locating commission, arrangements 
were made to impro\e the new county seat location, and to dispose of the 
town lot interests in the old town of Palestine. The name Bedford was 
selected for the new county seat. The ground for a ])uhlic square was 
ordered cleared off. At that date the business of the counties in Indiana 
was conducted by a board of justices, who assisted the county agent to lay 
out the new county seat town, Bedford. This was accomplished March 30, 
1825. Roads \yere then projected in almost every direction from the new 
town site, like the spokes in a wagon wheel. The county clerk was directed 
to remove his office to Bedford at the earliest moment after the completion 
of the temporary courthouse. Committees were appointed to appraise the 
values of the lots in both the old and new town, according to legitimate enact- 
ment, so that no lot owner in the former seat of justice should be the loser by 
the change. The county buildings located at Palestine were ordered leased to 
merchants there and to others. N^umerous claims were filed against the 
county, differences in valuations in the two places being the main issues. The 
men who had originally donated the lands were to receive three dollars per 
acre for their lands. Every lot owner in Palestine could claim a correspond- 
ing lot in Bedford by complying with the law. Many did not do this at first 
through neglect and ignorance of the inevitable consequences, so finally the 
Legislature passed the following act as a means of honorable relief to the 
suffering parties : 

"Be it enacted, etc. — That John Rawley and all such uther i)ersons, their 
heirs and legal representatives and lawful attorneys, as may have been, on 
the 9th day of Febmary, 1825, owners of any lot or lots in the town of Pales- 
tine in Lawrence county, for which the purchase money has been paid to the 
agent of said county, and who may have neglected to apply for the benefit of 
the act to which this act is supplemental, shall and may within eighteen months 
from the first day of February, apply for an exchange of lot or lots so by him 
or them owned in said town of Palestine, for the corresponding lot or lots in 
the town of Bedford, according to the provisions of this act. .And if such 
corresponding lot or lots shall ha\'e been .sold, such owner or owners shall be 
entitled to receive from the county treasury of said county by order drawn 
by the board of justices of said county, the price such corresponding lot or lots 
sold for." Approved December 26, 1828. 


The county records were hauled from Palestine to Bedford by Richard 


The public well on the square in Bedford was completed in September, 

Abraham Music was allowed twenty-nine dollars and fifty cents for clear- 
ing the public square of trees and grubs in Bedford. 

In May, 1826, the townships were all laid off into road districts. That 
year brass clocks, watches and pinch-back jewelry were taxed for the first time 
in this county. 

Samuel S. Francis was paid fifty-five dollars for a pump in the well on 
the public square. 

In 1827 it was found necessary to bring suit on the bonds of the donors 
of land to the county at Bedford, to enforce the signing of the deeds of con- 
veyance. Town orders were received in payment for town lots. Consider- 
able monev commenced to be paid out for wolf scalps. 

In 1830 the county agent was authorized to dispose of the prop>erty held 
at Palestine by the county. He was allowed to sell on credit in case no better 
terms could be made with purchasers. 

In September, 1831, the Legislature re-established three county com- 
missioners instead of the board of justices. 

John Brown was employed to make the second county map of Lawrence 
county; this one was to show all the streams within the county, also the sec- 
tion lines. 

The postoffice. that had been kept in the county clerk's office for several 
years up to 1834, was then ordered removed to other quarters. 

The first sale of lots in Bedford was in June, 1826, and amounted to only 
one thousand eight hundred and forty-nine dollars, and two hundred old dol- 
lars of this was not realized. Of course the sale was necessarily smaller than 
at Palestine, owing to the even exchange of lots to men who had purchased 
over there. 

In 1840 the rate of liquor license was placed as follows: Bedford. $40; 
Leesville, $40 : Bono. $30 : Lawrenceport. $30 ; Fayetteville, $30 : Springville, 
$30; Paris, $25; Port William. $25; Pinhook, $25; Helton's store. $25 (this 
was in Pleasant Run township), and each of all other places in the county $25. 

That year a fence was constructed around the courthouse by Rol^ert M. 
Alexander and William Stone, at a cost of S140. Richard Butler was paid 
$100 for laving a stone pavement around the public square. The several 
banking brokers who held offices in Bedford in those days had to put up a 
hundred dollars a year to do business. The county had a surplus in 1840 of 
$10,202.91, and it was in the hands of George G. Dunn. 


In 1845 the Masonic lodge was allowed the use of the jury room once 
each week, at nightime. 

In 1848 the county offices were built by B. F. Huston. All shows and 
dances were then excluded from the courthouse. In 185 1 all secret orders, 
including the Masons and Sons of Temperance, were excluded from the court- 
house. A lot owned by the county library in Bedford was sold in 185 1. In 
1853, G. A. Thornton, county clerk, was paid seventeen dollars for registering 
seventeen slaves, negroes and mulattoes. 

In the month of August, 1861, the first year of the Civil war struggle, 
the county board began to furnish means from the county treasury for the 
relief of the soldiers' families ; but it was not long before this act was not 
approved by many within the county, hence the question was submitted to the 
people at the 1861 October general election, and was approved of by a large 
majority who voted to sustain the appropriations. Under the call of Decem- 
ber, 1864, for more volunteers, Lawrence county's quota was one hundred 
and forty-nine men. To raise this number of men a bounty of one hundred 
dollars was offered by the board for each volunteer, and bonds to the amount 
of fourteen thousand nine hundred dollars were ordered sold. Large amounts 
of funds were distributed for the relief and keeping of soldiers' families. In 
this the county acted liberally and \yisely, notwithstanding there were not a 
few who showed their hatred for the Union cause by trying to thwart the 
plans of the loyal men and women of the county. 

The records of the board show that in 1868 the commissioners paid one 
hundred and fifty dollars for a new county map for each of the leading county 

In the summer of 1869 it was decided to commence preparations for the 
erection of a larger courthouse. 


Of the various courthouses built and owned by Lawrence county, it may 
be said that the first was the temporary log house erected in the spring of 
1818, at Palestine, which was ordered built twenty by twenty-four feet of 
hewed logs "that will face one foot front," and to be two stories high, "built 
in a good and workmanlike manner," with a cabin roof. This building was 
completed late in the autumn of 18 18, and was used about two years until the 
first real courthouse was erected at Palestine, which was the first county seat 
of this county. 



It was in Xovemher, rSiS, when steps were lirst taken to erect a court- 
house at the newly laid out county seat. Palestine. John AIcLane was ap- 
pointed to superintend the construction of this building. It was first designed 
to be built in (iCTagi mal form, with stone foundation and brick walls, with 
forty-five windows of twelve lights each, and to be two stories and "twenty- 
three feet to the square." Wisely, in December of that vear, this order was 
rescinded. In January. 1S19, the sale of the building of the courthouse was 
ordered advertised in the Salem Tocsin, and the Indiana Gazette at Corydon, 
the plan of the structure to be drawn l)y Robert ]\I. Carlton and John Lowrey. 
It was t() be a two-story brick building, the height of first story to be sixteen 
feet and the height of the second storv fourteen feet, the foundation to be of 
stone, forty-five b}- forty-five feet, with walls of brick, two feet thick, three 
doors, thirty-six windows, four chimneys, six fire hearths, each window to 
ha\e twenty- four lights of ten bv twelve each, the judge's bench, to be fifteen 
feet long and five feet wide, the building to be surmounted with a cupola bear- 
ing an iron rod and two brass balls with a brass eagle between the latter, three 
feet from tip to tip. "the liody to be hollow and the eagle to be curiously and 
artistically wrought," the building to have four rooms above and to have a 
steel lightning rod and a bell weighing three hundred pounds and to be ready 
for occupancy within two years. The contractor was to receive one thousand 
five hundred dollars in advance, two thousand dollars when the roof w^as on, 
and the balance when the building was finished. James Gregory and John 
Anderson took the contract, and were allowed the privilege of making brick 
and dressing stone on the public square. Work was commenced at once, and 
numerous changes in the plans were made from time to time. In February, 
1819. the contractors received their advance payment of one thousand five 
hundred dollars. Sixteen windows were omitted from the first plans. The 
second installment was paid the builders December 17, 1819, showing that the 
roof of the structure was on. From that date on, the work lagged, and, for 
a reason not now understood, the contractors failed to go ahead with the build- 
ing operations, and in July, 1821, the board appointed a committee of three 
bricklayers and three masons, William Rodman. Peter Nagel, Lemuel Ford, 
James S. Means, John E. Clark and Jabez Anderson, to examine the building 
and estimate the value of the work already done. They reported the building 
worth $3,670.70. and Samuel D. Bishop was engaged to finish the structure, 
which he did in the autumn of 1821 at a cost of $1,791.37. This made the 


building cost, all told. $5,500. It was not ready for real occupancy until Aug- 
ust, 1822. 

The old courthouse was then leased at fifty dollars a year to Kelsey & 
Mitchell, merchants. It was weatherboarded and painted a Spanish brown 
color. Later the rental was reduced to thirty-three dollars per year. 

The history of the Palestine courthouse having been given, the reader will 
be interested to know of the change to Bedford, the relocated county seat 


At Bedford, early in 1825 a temporary courthouse was erected of logs, 
twenty-two by twenty-six feet, two stories high, and in all ways similar to the 
one just mentioned above, as the county's first log courthouse, both being 
designed only for temporary use. 

The cost of the Bedford building was about five hundred dollars. This 
building was used for many purposes for a long period of years. In 1827 it 
was weatherboarded by Samuel D. Bishop for thirty-four dollars and sixty- 
six cents. No one thought of ])roviding a new courthouse for a number of 
years, "let well enough alone" being the policy of the county at that pioneer 
date. In 183 1 the board of county commissioners took up the matter of build- 
ing a more suitable temple of justice and advertised for bids for a courthouse 
similar to the one at Salem. Robert 'SI. ^Mitchell was accordingly sent to 
Salem in May, and there obtained complete plans of that structure. The old 
buildings at Palestine were ordered sold, the proceeds to be used in the con- 
struction of the new building. The contract was finally awarded to John 
Lowrey at five thousand dollars, to be paid in three equal installments, except 
the one thousand dollars allowed him in advance. His liond, still in the 
county records, bears date of May 3. 1831, with W'inthrop Foote. William 
Kelsey and Moses Fell as sureties. The contract was carried out to a letter 
and the building finished and accepted in May, 1834. This courthouse served 
well its purpose until after the Civil war period. In the summer of 1869 the 
commissioners looked into the matter of providing Lawrence county with its 


Plans were prepared in July, 1869, and the work was let to William and 
George Muir for twelve thousand seven hundred dollars. It was advertised 
that the old courthouse could be used in the construction of the new. The 
contract with the Muirs was not fulfilled, and July t6. 1869, Napoleon B. 


Wilson bid to erect the building for sixteen thousand nine hundred dollars, 
but he finally withdrew his bid. The record shows that on August ii, 1869, 
Thomas N. Stevens and Thomas A. Whitted proposed to erect the structure 
for eighteen thousand three hundred dollars, and gave bonds to fulfill such 
contract. It was just at that time that a strong pressure was brought to bear 
on the commissioners to locate the building at some other point in the city 
of Bedford, claiming that the noise and dirt occasioned by the nearby Monon 
railroad (as now known) was objectionable. Other reasons advanced were 
that the old buildings, if torn down, would not be of the value they might 
be if left standing, to lease, etc., for business purposes. The commissioners 
finally went so far as to purchase Lot No. 27 of W. C Winstandley for seven 
hundred dollars and Lot No. 28 of Clarissa Acoam for one thousand dollars, 
intending to erect the building thereon. The matter did not materialize until 
in April, 1870, when the board were petitioned to erect the house on the 
public square, and a donation of about one thousand five hundred dollars was 
tendered as an inducement, which offer was accepted by the board. But with 
this change there came a demand for a better structure, and hence new plans 
were drawn, and a contract entered into with Thomas N. Stevens for the erec- 
tion of a court house to cost $75,000, including the two lots 27 and 28, which 
had been bought by the board as before stated and which were turned over to 
Stevens for one thousand seven hundred dollars. Prior to this, however, 
Hall & Harrison had laid the foundation for the courthouse at an expense of 
about $8,000. In September, 1870, courthouse bonds were issued to the 
amount of $10,000, bearing ten per cent, interest and sold at par. June 5, 
1871, the courthouse bonds to the amount of $50,000, in denominations of 
$1,000 each, bearing ten per cent, interest, $12,000 due in two years, $12,000 
in three years, $13,000 in four years and $13,000 in five years, were issued and 
sold at par, $48,000 to Joseph Rawlins and $2,000 to E. D. Pearson. With 
the sale of bonds, the work went forward rapidly and the building was com- 
pleted in 1872. The old courthouse was sold in June, 1871, to Davis Har- 
rison for $1,100. In September, 1872, bonds were floated to the amount of 
$7,000, with which money the county graded and made suitable the public 
square. These bonds only run nine months, when they were redeemed. This 
building was constructed of the celebrated Bedford stone (St. Louis gray 
limestone), and cost, everything included, about $100,000. This is the pres- 
ent courthouse, and holds its age remarkably well. While the architecture 
would not be selected today, it was well planned for the date in which it was 
erected and has been a comfortable, safe home for the various county officials 
during all these two score and more years. 




The hrst jail in Lawrence county was constructed in ]\Iay, 1818, and 
the building was both a jail and jailor's house. It was at old Palestine and 
was built under the bid of Thomas Beagle>-. It was about fifteen by seven- 
teen feet in size and two stories high, of heavy logs one foot square, eight 
feet between floors, lined with heavy planks spiked on perpendicularly. In 
February, 18 19, Thomas Beagley was paid one thousand dollars on his 
contract, and in August, 1819, five hundred dollars more, but then the work 
dropped. In 1820, on petition of twelve citizens, suit was brought upon the 
contractor's bond, which, after search, could not be found, and therefore 
proceedings were suspended. The committee appointed to value the court 
house also placed a valuation on the "gaol and gaoler's house." making a 
reduction of two hundred and thirty-seven dollars on the contract price, 
which was two thousand dollars. The balance due was paid and the build- 
ing immediately completed. 

The second jail was proposed ten years later, 1828, and in May of that 
year proposals were called for to build a jail in Bedford and in July the con- 
tract was let to Samuel D. Bishop for six hundred dollars. This house was 
of logs, and was paid for in installments of two hundred dollars, and finished 
late in 1829. It was used for many years and had it been gifted with the 
power of speech what a tale it could have told of life among the lowly and 

The third jail of this county was the one known as the "1858 Jail.'' In 
December, 1857, the work of building a new jail and jailor's residence was 
commenced. Specifications were made calling for a brick jailor's house and a 
stone jail to be built together, and proposals were called for. During that 
winter the contract was awarded to John X. Miller at nine thousand nine 
hundred dollars, and early spring found the work being pushed forward. It 
became necessary to issue county bonds to the amount of four thousand three 
hundred dollars. The building was completed in September, 1859. This served 
the needs of the county until 1904, when jail bonds were floated to the 
amount of thirty-three thousand dollars, with which the present massive 
stone jail and sheriff's house were built. It is but a few blocks to the south- 
west of the public square. 


"The poor ye always have with you." is as true today as when spoken 
by the Master nearlv two thousand vears ago. The care given the unfortun- 
(6) ' ' 


ate poor in any communit)' bespeaks the true character of the people of such 
community. Here in Lawrence county the records show that a year after 
the organization of the county. 1819, there ^yas an order issued by the au- 
thorities to pay to James H. Johnson, of Bono township, who furnished the 
first relief to the poor of this county. The order called for thirty dollars. 
The pauper was Matthew Rose, who continued upon the county for several 
years. The same year Air. Johnson received twenty-nine dollars more for 
such relief and Dr. Winthrop Foote received five dollars for medical attend- 
ance upon this poor person. .Soon afterwards each township had a person 
appointed and known as the overseer of the poor. He hunted out the poor 
persons within his township and farmed them out to the lowest responsible 
bidders, received and audited the expense accounts of the keeper, and sent 
the bills to the county board for final allowance. In 1820 there was spent 
for paupers $73.20, and in 1822, $103. In 1825 the amount was $122; 
1827, $130; 1830,- $157: 1833, $187. and in 1835, $467. By this time the 
poor had come to be a burden to the taxpayers of the young county. Dr. 
John C. Cavins was appointed county physician at about this date. 

The first poor asylum was provided for in June. 1842, when William 
Newland was appointed agent to purchase a site fur a poor asylum, in 
amount not to exceed a quarter section of land, nor not less than eighty 
acres, and to be within eight miles of Bedford. By the fall of that year he 
had purchased a hundred-and-sixty-acre tract of Greenbury Owens, for 
eight hundred dollars. There was on this fami an ordinary dwelling, which 
was at once refitted and new floors provided for the rooms, and Mr. Owens 
appointed superintendent of the poor, he being provided with all needful 
articles by the county board. Dr. Winthrop Foote was engaged as county 
physician at one dollar per visit, medicines to be paid for extra. In March. 
1843, tliere were seven inmates in this institution for the keeping of the 
county's poor. Owens filed his bills, which were paid by the board, the bill 
of March, 1S43, being ninety-seven dollars and thirty-five cents for the 
quarter for pork, lard, corn, coflfee, sugar, dressed deer-skins, etc. One cold 
night, James Bird, an inmate, AAandered away from the asylum and was 
found frozen to death later. In 1846 new and improved arrangements were 
enacted for the caring for the paupers at this place. In 1845-46 the expense 
was greatly reduced and only amounted to about one hundred and sixty- 
five dollars. Messrs. Fredman, Malott and Owens were then superintend- 
ents. In 1847 ^1"^ apple and peach orchard, also cherry trees, were planted 
out on tlie poor farm. There were only seven inmates in the asylum in 1847. 
In 1849 ^ iiew roof was put on the poor farm, or asylum as it is now styled. 


In 1 85 1 there was a new building erected on the farm by Levi Overman, 
costing $790, and was moved into in November of that year. At that date a 
visiting committee has charge of the asyhim and farm. The expense of the 
place in 1855-56 was $1,619. Each permanent pauper cost the county $80 
per year in those times. The rules of maintaining this institution remained 
the same from 1855 until about 1869. The cost of keeping the poor in 
1859-60 was $2,132; 1862-63, $1,941. In 1867 the farm rent was free to the 
superintendent and he was allowed $140 a year to keep each permanent 
pauper. In 1864-65 the expense had grown to $4,412; 1868 it was $5,004. 
In 1873 there were eighteen paupers in the asylum. Early in the seventies 
Archibald Anderson was paid $1,700 to erect a new frame poor house. It 
was two stories high. In 1S84 there were thirty inmates in the asylum. 

Among the superintendents of this institution may be recalled the fol- 
lowing: Greenbury Owens, 1842 on for a number of years; James W. 
Freeman. John Colwell and Owens served jointly for some time. In 1846 
M. A. Malott was superintendent. In 1847 came J. T. Woodward; Jonathan 
Loveall was superintendent three years in the forties. In 1857-58 Daniel 
Baker was superintendent: then came John Henderson, 1859-60: W. C. 
Mitchell, 1861-70: William Day from 1870 on into the eighties. 

The state reports show that in 191 1 the poor relief fund amounted to 
$3,067. The receipts from the farm that year was only $249.50. 

The present superintendent is Clay Tirey, who is paid a salary and all 
supplies purchased for the asylum are by bidders among the merchants in the 
county. The same old asylum buildings that were named above are still in 
use by the county. 


Like individuals, counties are known by their financial standing. No 
record of the finances of Lawrence can be given for the earlier years, as the 
records have long since been scattered. For the year 1833 the total receipts 
of the county was v$3.i45 and the expenditures for that year were, elections, 
$12.75; wolf scalps, $3.00; poor, $187; attorneys, $40; county board, $48; 
bailiffs, $41.50; third payment on court house. $1,333: jailors fees, $32.31; 
assessor's fees, $50: fuel. $19.50: the pay of road viewers, $3.00: contested 
election, $14: road supervisors, $102.25: associate judges. $36.00: grand 
jurors, $67 ; petit jurors, $88 : delinquencies. S246 : treasurer's fees, $79 ; 
collector's fees. $161: orders redeemed, $450: cash on hand, $123.27. 

At the end of 1835 tlie county treasurer had on hand $271.65. At the 
close of 1845 there was a balance on hand of $1,415, and the expenses of the 


county .that year had been $3,541. In 1850 the county's expense was $2,730 
and the year closed with a balance on hand of $1,352; in 1853 t^''^ balance 
on hand was $809; in 1856 the county expended for all purposes, $5,170, 
and had on hand at the close of the year $1,669; in i860 the cash left on 
hand, after spending $13,203, was $4,836; in 1863 there was on hand, after 
paying out $7,821, the sum of $6,679; i" 1868, after paying out expenses, 
$36,988, the sum of $8,998; in 1870 there was on hand $4,098, after paying 
the running expenses of $26,987; in 1873 there was on hand $11,932, 
after paying out $36,141. In 1875-76 there was on hand $22,140; in 1877-78 
there were receipts amounting to bridge bond sales, $19,800; county revenue, 
$49,701 ; bridges, $23,402; county officers, $3,983; balance on hand, $1,454. 
In 1884 the county indebtedness amounted to $68,248.00, according to the 
account kept by Auditor Isaac H. Crim. 

With the passing of years and the growth of the county the expenses 
have necessarily grown higher. The matter of providing modern roads, 
bridges, schools and many other internal improvements have all added to 
the expenses and made the amounts collected much greater. 

For example, as early as 18 19 a bridge two hundred and eighty feet 
long and sixteen feet wide was built over Guthrie creek on the Palestine and 
Bono road, at a cost of over $2,000. The next bridge of importance was over 
Salt creek, built in 1832-33, at a cost of $1,258; various other bridge struc- 
tures prior to 1870 cost the county $25,000. From that date up to 1884 the 
main bridges of Lawrence county were the Salt Creek, in 1870, $2,400; 
White River, at Davis Ferry, $27,000; \Vhite River, at Tunnelton, $27,000; 
White River, at Dawson's Ferry. $25,000: White River, at Williams' Ferry, 
$19,000. These bridges were all built nearly thirty years ago. and many if 
not all have now been replaced by better structures and have cost vast sums 
of money. Then the improvement of the roads of the county has called for 
an endless number of bridges, large and small, which have to be kept in good 
repair by the taxpayers of the county. 

The financial statement of the county officers for 191 1 gives this exhibit: 
Total receipts of treasurer, $136,511.91; total expenditures. $96,532.02. The 
county's debt in 1911 was, for county bonds, $83,000: the amount on hand 
was $35,801. and the net debt amounted to $47,198.00. 

In Januan-. 19 12. there were gravel roads in Lawrence county to the 
amount of three hundred and sixtj^-five miles. The cost of repairs on these 
roads at that time was about $36,722 per year. The total outstanding road 
bonds December 31, 191T, was $354,805.00. 



The assessed valuations of property in Lawrence county, by townships, 
in 1912, less exemptions, was as follows: Bono township, $406,910; Flinn 
township, $290,000; Guthrie township, $889,185; Indian Creek township, 
$945,075; Marion township, $1,662,915; Marshall township, $1,112,195; 
Perry township, $409,845 ; Pleasant Run township. $689,820 ; Shawswick 
township, $1,796,435 ; Spice Valley township, $692,635. 



While it is not the aim of the writer to go in detail into the political 
conditions that have obtained in Lawrence county during its history, yet it 
will be well to note the men who have held local and higher offices from this 
county, with a few facts concerning the political campaigns, especially the 
results in presidential elections, etc. 

During the early days in this county the vote was usually Democratic, 
and generally by large majorities. The returns for many years were not 
preserved, hence it is impossible to note them in this chapter. However, the 
votes cast in the fifties, as shown below, will give the reader of today an 
understanding of the complexion of politics at that period of the county's 
history. When very popular, a Whig candidate sometimes slipped into office, 
but generally it was Democrats who held the offices from this portion of 
Indiana. The Free Soil movement, of the forties, had but little following 
here. From 1858 to i860 the county gradually went toward the Republican 
side in politics, and so remained for many years. The Greenback and other 
independent parties have also had a respectable following among the voters 
of Lawrence county. 


Commencing with 1852, the results at presidential contests have been as 
follows: In 1852, the standard bearers of the Democratic party were Pierce 
and King, who polled, in this county, a total vote of 1,113, ^-S against the 
Whig candidates, Winfield Scott and Graham, who had 1,054 votes in the 

In 1856 there were three Presidential candidates in the field. Democratic, 
Republican and American parties. The total vote for the first named party, 
with Buchanan and Breckenridge as candidates, was 1,126; Fremont and 
Dayton, Republican, had 480 votes, and Fillmore and Donelson, of the Ameri- 
can party (the "Know Nothings"), polled 660 votes. 

In i860 four tickets were in the field. Republican, Democratic, Southern 


Democrats, and Union party. By townships the vote of that eventful cam- 
paign was as follows : 

Lincoln, Douglas, Breckenridge, Bell, 

Townships. Republican. Democratic. Southern Dem. Union. 

Shawswick 317 130 216 61 

Bono 80 87 45 

Marion 217 167 t,^ 79 

Spice Valley 132 91 8 41 ' 

Indian Creek 96 ^6 50 5 

Perry 141 41 23 — 

Marshall 79 18 28 12 

Pleasant Run 55 96 31 i 

Flinn 41 loi 128 4 

Total T.I 58 787 525 208 

In 1864 the result was : Total in county, for Lincoln and Johnson, Rep., 
1,423; for McClellan and Pendleton, Dem., 1,087. 

In 1868, the total vote for Grant and Colfax, Rep., was 1,781 : for Sey- 
mour and Blair, Dem., 1,468. 

In 1872, Grant and Wilson, Rep., had 1,833. ^"^1 Greeley and Brown, 
Liberal Democrat, 1,503. 

In 1876, Hayes and Wheeler, Rep., had 1,941, as against Tilden and 
Hendricks. Dem., 1,669; Cooper and Cary, Ind., 90. 

1880, the three tickets were the Republican, Democratic and Indepen- 
dent. The votes cast stood as follows: Garfield and Arthur, Rep., 2,057; 
Hancock and English, Dem., 1,701 ; Weaver and Chambers, Ind.. 146. 

1884, Blaine and Logan, Rep., 2,336: Cleveland and Hendricks, Dem., 

1888, Harrison and Morton, Rep., 2,256; Cle^■eland and Thurman, Dem., 

1892, Harrison and Reed. Rep., 2,529: Cleveland and SteA'enson, Dem., 
2.134; Bidwell, Proh.. 34; Weaver, Nat. Dem., 157. 

1896, McKinley and Hobart, Rep., 3,103; Bryan and Sewall, Dem., 
2,421; Levering, Proh., 29; Palmer, Nat. Dem., 13. 

1900, McKinley and Roosevelt, Rep., 3,535 ; Bryan and Stevenson, Dem., 

1904, Roosevelt and Fairbanks. Rep.. 3,924; Parker and Davis. Dem.. 


2,672: Swallow. Proh., 97; Thomas E. Watson, Peoples, 11; Socialist, 58; 
Socialist Labor, 12. 

1908, Taft and Sherman, Rep., 3,834: Bryan and Kern, Dem., 3,118; 
Chafin, Proh., 93; Socialist, T19: Social Labor, 4; Independent, 3. 

191 2, Taft and Sherman, Rep., 1,631 : Wilson and Marshall, Dem., 
2,579; Roosevelt and Johnson, Prog., 2,106; Proh., 91 ; Socialist, 308; Social 
Labor, 33. 


John DePauw, 1S18; James Gregory, 1821 ; Samuel Chambers, 1822; 
John Milroy, 1826; John G. Clendenin, 1829: Samuel Chambers, 1832; Rich- 
ard W. Thompson, 1836: Gustavus Clark, 1838; George W. Carr. 1841 ; Hugh 
Hamer, 1844; M. A. Malott, 1847: George G. Dunn. 1850: * * * ; A. J. 
Hostetler, 1855; Thomas R. Cobb (Lawrence and Martin counties). i858'; 
Aaron Houghton (Martin and Lawrence), 1867: James Hughes (Lawrence 
and Monroe), 1869; George W. Friedley (Lawrence and Monroe), 1872; 
W. B. F. Treat (Lawrence and Monroe), 1877; William Taylor (Lawrence, 
Monroe and Dubois), 1881 ; James H. Willard (Lawrence, Martin and Du- 
bois), 1883. 

The recent state senators have been : \A^illiam N. McDonald, 1890; Louis 
Schneck, 1894; T. J. Brooks. 1898; William N. Matthews, 1902; Henry P. 
Pearson, 1906: Oscar Ratts. 1910. 


Samuel Chambers (Orange county), 181 8; Joseph Glover, 1822; Vinson 
Williams, 1823; William Erwin, 1824; Lewis Roberts, 1826; Vinson Will- 
iams, 1828: Pleasant Parks. 1829; Hugh L. Livingston and William B. 
Slaughter, 1832; John Brown and Absalom Fields, 1833; Pleasant Parks and 
Richard W. Thompson, 1834; R. W. Thompson, Noah Boone, 1835; Vinson 
Williams and Noah Boone, 1836 ; Vinson Williams and Melcher Helmer, 1837 ; 
M. Hehiier and George W. Carr, 1838; Hugh Hamer and Robert M. Carlton, 
1839: H. Hamer and G. W. Carr, 1840; Ralph G. Norvell and John J. Bar- 
nett, 1 841 ; same 1842; R. G. Norvell and William Burton, 1843; W. Burton 
and Lucian O. Hoggatt, 1844; G. W. Carr and John Edwards, 1845; same 
1846; Samuel W. Short, 1847; G. W. Carr. 1848 (speaker of the House) ; G. 
W. Carr, 1849; George Lsom, 1850; Melcher Helmer, 1851 ; David S. Lewis, 
T852: * - *: D. S. Lewis, 1854; * * *; Robert Boyd, 1856; 
Nathaniel \\'illiams, 1861 ; Robert Boyd, 1864; Moses F. Dunn, 1866; Will- 
iam H. Edwards. 1872; A. J. Williams, 1874; Alfred Guthrie, 1876; Lycurgus 


Dalton, 1878: Joseph Gardner, 1880; James McClelland, 18S2: J. H. Willard. 
1888: E. A. Gleazen, 1890; Stewart, 1894: Porter, 1894; T. J. Brooks. 1896; 
R. B. Scott, 1898; S. Adamson, 1900; John H. Edwards, 1902: Edwards. 
1904; Edwards, 1906; Calvin Paris, 1910: William E. Patton, 1912. 


John Anderson. March, 1818; Samuel W. Biggs. 1819; William Kelsey. 
1819; Rollin C. Dewe}', 1822; Ezekiel Blackwell, 1823; Rollin C. Dewey, 
1824; John Brown. 1828; R. C. Dewey, 1829; Francis F. Williams, 1831 ; 
Edward C. Moberly, 1832: William Templeton, 1834; A. H. Dunihue, 1835; 
Joseph Rawlins, 1836; Winthrop Foote, 1839; John W. Thompson, 1841 ; 
Henry Davis, 1853; George Sheeks, 1856; Dean Barnes, 1858; Thomas H. 
Malott, 1862: Hugh Erwin, 1864: John B. Glover, 1868: Robert Kelly. 1872; 
E. C. Newland, 1874: F. A. Sears, 1877^ J. D. Moore, 1880; Robert Kelly, 
1882. Robert Kelly, 1884; J. McClelland, 1888; J. N. Daggy, 1890; J. N. 

Daggy, 1892; J. N. Daggy, 1894; J. N. Daggy, 1896: Brown, 1898; 

William H. West, 1900: William H. West, 1902; Curtis E. Ray, 1904; Curtis 
E. Ray, 1906; B. Frank Pitman, 1908; B. Frank Pitman. 19T0: Lincoln Bur- 
ton, 1912. 


Robert C. Stotts, March 2, 1818: John Lowrey, 1819; John Brown, 1829; 
John Vestal, 1831; John Lowrey, 1845: Andrew Gelwick, 1852; Charles G. 
Berry, i860: W. A. Mathes. 1864: John F. Richards, 1868; William Erwin. 
Jr., 1875; William En\nn, 1880; James H. McPheeters. 1884: James H. Mc- 

Pheeters, 1888: Frank B. Hitchcock, 1892; Keithley, 1896: Charles 

H. Allen, 1904; Charles H. Allen, 1908; Thomas N. Chapman, 1912. 


John Lowrey, 1818: John Brown, 1829; Robert Mitchell, 1832: Gustavus 
Clark, 1845; George A. Thornton, 1852; David Harrison, i860: John Riley, 
1864: John M. Stalker, 1872: Roljert H. Carlton, 1880; Thomas V. Thornton, 
1884 ; Thomas V. Thornton, 1888 : Isaac H. Crim, 1892 ; Isaac H. Crim, 1896 ; 
Boone Leonard, 1900; Boone Leonard, 1904; Elbert J. Stalker, 1908: Fred 
E. Jackson, 191 2. . ■ 



Before 1841, the clerk was ex-officio auditor. John Peters, 1841 ; James 
A. Pender, 1855; John M. Harson, 1859; Andrew Gelwick, 1863; Charles T. 
Woolfolk, 1867: J. E. Dean, 1874; Isaac H. Crim, 1878; Isaac H. Crim, 1882; 
J. R. Overman, 1886; J. B. Mallott, 1890; J. B. Mallott, 1894; John M. 
Gainey, 1898; Walter G. Owens, 1902; Walter G. Owens. 1906; Ezra W. 
Edwards, 19 10. 


Joseph Glover, 1818; Moses Fell, 1882; Joseph Glover, 1826; Robert 
Mitchell, 1828: Joseph Glover, 1831 ; Isaac Fish, 1835; Lucian O. Hoggatt, 

1841; Felix L. Raymond, 1843; Andrew Gelwick, 1847; Jesse K , 

1851 ; William W. Cook, 1852; Thomas S. Enochs, 1852; Dixon Cobb, 1855; 
E. S. Thompson, 1856; J. R. Glover, 1858; Joseph Tincher, 1862; William 
Daggy, 1864; V. V. Williams. 1868; Isaac Newkirk, 1872; M. A. Burton, 
1876; F. T. Dunihue, 1878; J. M. McDowell, 1882; William Day, 1886; Will- 
iam Day, 1888; R. W. Day, 1890; George W. Holmes, 1892; George W. 
Holmes, 1894; E. R. Dobbins. 1896; E. R. Dobbins, 1898; James F. Smith, 
1900; James F. Smith, 1902; Thomas W. Box, 1904; Thomas W. Box, 1906; 
James L. Gyger, 1908; William H. Sitler. 1910; WiUiam H. Sitler, 1912. 


Robert Mitchell, 1818; William Duncan, 1828; Boliver Duncan, 1852; 
Lycurgus Duncan, 1858; Dodridge Short, 1870; John B. Mallott, 1872; John 
Mallott, 1874; J. B. Mallott. 1876; John B. Mallott, 1878; John Mallott, 
1880; John B. Mallott, 1880; John B. Mallott, 1884: L. Duncan, 1886; L. 
Duncan, 1888; L. Duncan, 1890; Heniy Mclntire, 1892; Henry Mclntire, 
1894; L. Duncan, 1896; Quincy Short, 1898; Noble McPheeters, 1902; 
Ernest Hunter, 1902; William M. James, 1906; William M. James, 1908; 
William H. Field, 1910; HeniT- Kindred, 1912. 


Benjamin Blackwell. 1824; William Erwin, 1829; Rollin C. Dewey, 
1832; Asher Wilcox, 1833; William Duncan, 1836; Isaac N. Senter, 1844; 
William Newland, 1846. 



John Milroy and William Erwin. 1818; William Field, 1890, vice 
Milroy; Joseph Athon, 1831 ; Pleasant Padget, 1831 ; Elzy Woodward, 1835; 
John Whitted, 1838; Joseph Hostetler, 1841; Alexander Butler, 1845; .lohn 
Whitted, 1849; Zachariah Whitted, 185 1. 


Judges court common pleas: Jeremiah Bundy, i860; William Herod, 
1868; Archibald C. Voris (circuit court), 1870; E. D. Pearson (circuit 
court), 1878; E. D. Pearson, 1884; H. C. Duncan, 1890; W. H. Martin, 
1896; James Benjamin Wilson, 1902; James B. Wilson, 1908; Joseph Shea, 
1910; Oren O. Swails, 1912. 


Ambrose B. Carlton, i860; Archibald C. Voris, 1868; Joseph Throop 
(circuit court), 1870; Wilson Swingle (circuit court), 1870; George G. 
Dunn, 1876; W. H. Edwards, 1878; L. Duncan, 1880; J. E. Henley, 1882; 
J. E. Henley, 1884; Simpson Lowe, 1886; S. B. Lowe, 1890; Edmondson, 
1892; Edmondson, 1894; J. A. Zaring, 1896; J. A. Zaring, 1898; Robert G. 
Miller. 1900; Robert G. Miller, 1902; Fred N. Fletcher, 1904; Fred N. 
Fletcher, 1906; John H. Underwood. 1908; William M. Louden, 1910; John 
H. Underwood. 


Wiley Dixon, Newton F. Malott and James T. Shields, 1858; Newton 
F. Malott, Eli Baldwin and Wiley Dixon, 1859; A. C. Vorhis, John L. 
Stewart and Dodridge Short, i860; W. N. Bullett, A. C. Vorhis and Dod- 
ridge Short, 1861 ; George Sheeks, June, 1861, under new law for three 
years alone. A. D. Lemon, September, 1861, vice Sheeks, gone to the war; 
J. M. Stalker, 1866; William M. May, 1867; James B. Crowe. 1868; William 
B. Chrisler, 1872; James P. Funk, 1873; first superintendent, William B. 
Chrisler. 1874; e/ B. Thornton, 1879; W. B. Chrisler, 1881 ; W. D. 
Ellison, 1883; G. M. Morman, W. E. Stipp, R. W. Tirey, L. B. Sanders. 


Thomas Henton, i8r8; Peter Hannason, 1819; Joseph RawHns, 1820; 
Samuel F. Irwin. 1824: T. H. Briggs, 1826; Elbert Jeter, 1828; Russell 
Mitchell, 1832: E. P. Kennedy, 1833; Lewis Younger, 1837; E. P. Kennedy, 
1841 ; James W. Freeman. 1843; Henry Anderson, 1847; L. W. Thompson, 
1850; Henry C. Hardy. 1852; Christian Seibert, 1854; Henry Anderson, 
1856; William A. Cook. 1857: J. P. Potter, i860: H. C. Hardy. 1861 ; John 
Reath. 1863; A. G. Young, 1864: Charles Cramer, 1865: W. C. Carson, 
1867; Lewis Younger, 1870: Joseph Stinehazen. 1872; Ezekiel Stout, 1874; 
Joseph Stinehazen. 1876; Alfred C. Harrison, 1877; Alfred Hamm, 1878; 
A. C. Hamm. 1880: A. C. Hamm. 1882: Hamilton Stilson. 1884; Julian 
Calonge, 1886: J. C. Pearson, 1888; J. C. Pearson. 1890; James Pearson, 
1892; Dr. Rariden, 1894: Harvey Voyles, 1896; Harvey Voyles, 1898; 
Perry Woolery. 1890; Richard E. Plummer, 1902: Richard E. Plummer, 
1904: Harvey Voyles, 1906; Harvey Voyles, 1908: George L. Gibbons, 
1910; Thomas L. Harris, 1912. 


Ambrose Carlton. Thomas Beazley and James Stotts. March. 1818; 
James Fulton. 1819. vice Carlton: Richard Williams, 1819. vice Fulton; 
James Wagoner, 1820, vice Stotts: James S. Mitchell, 1820. vice Wagoner; 
Benjamin Blackwell, 1821, vice Beazley; Winthrop Foote. 1821. vice Black- 
well; William McLain. 1821. vice Williams: Moses Lee. 1822. vice McLain ; 
John R. Crooke. 1823. vice Mitchell: John D. Laughlin. 1823. vice Foote; 
John Brown. 1824. vice Crooke: Winthrop Foote. 1824. vice Laughlin. In 
September. 1824. the justices of the peace took the place of the county com- 
missioners in the transaction of county business, but were replaced by the 
following commissioners in September. 1831 : Samuel F. Irwin, Absalom 
Fields, John Newland, 1831 ; Hugh Hamer, 1833, vice Fields; Joseph Raw- 
Hns, 1834, vice Irwin; Vinson Williams. 1835. vice Rawlins; Thomas Lemon 
and William Fish. 1836. vice Williams and Newland: William Johnson, 
1838. vice Lemon; Felix G. Rawdins. 1839, vice Hamer; Vinson R. Williams, 
1840, vice Fish; Thomas Dixon, 1841, vice Johnson; Ephraim Brock, 1842, 
vice Rawlins; Vinson Williams, 1843: Thomas Dixon, 1844: Ephraim Brock, 
1845; Vinson Williams, 18^16; Thomas Dixon. 1847: David S. Lewis, 1848, 
vice Brock; Abraham Kern. 1849. vice Williams: Thomas Dixon, 1850; 
Tohn Rains, i8m. vice Lewis: David Mclntire. i8;2. vice Kern: Thomas 


Dixon, 1853; Uriah Dilley, 1854. vice Mclntire; John Rains, 1854; Lewis 
J. Baker, 1855, vice Rains; Thomas Dixon, 1856; David Mclntire, 1857, 
vice Dilley; James W. Prow, 1858. vice IMcIntire; John Rains. 1858, vice 
Baker; Robert R. Stewart, 1858, vice Prow: Henry C. Huston. 1859; J. W. 
Prow, i860; Stewart; Ambrose Kern. 1861, vice Rains; \\\ A. Holland, 
1861, vice Huston; Allen C. Burton, 1862, vice Huston; ^^'illiam H. Ander- 
son, 1864, vice Kern; H. M. Guthrie, 1865, vice Holland; Allen C. Burton, 
1865; Alfred Guthrie, 1866, vice H. M. Guthrie; Oliver P. Anderson. 1867, 
vice W. H. Anderson; Thomas Reed, 1868. vice Guthrie; Allen C. Burton, 
1868; David L. Sheeks, 1870; Ari Armstrong, 1870; ^^'illiam A. Holland, 
1871 ; Wesley Edwards, 1872, vice Sheeks; Ari Armstrong, 1873; William 
Hunter, 1874, vice Holland; Wesley Edwards, 1875; Alexander C. Glover, 
vice Armstrong; Cranston T. Dodd, 1877; David L. Sheeks, 1878, vice 
Edwards; A. C. Glover. 1879; \^■illiam Stickles, 1880, vice Dodd; Tilghman 
H. Williams, 1881, vice .Sheeks; A. C. Glover, 1882; William Stickles. 1883; 
John M. Sellers, Aaron Wright, 1884; T. S. Stipe, Wesley Edwards, 1886; 

J. W. Cossner, Stipp, 1888; J. W. Cossner, W. Edwards, 1890; 

Aylett R. Houston, William H. Bryant, 1892; J. W. Cossner, M. Robertson, 

1894; Sears, Henry C. Trueblood, 1896; Wesley C. Denniston, 

Henry C. Trueblood, 1898; Amos Scoggan, George B. Ross, 1900; Amos 
W. Scoggan, Anselm Wood, 1902; James M. Sowder, Anselm Wood, 1904; 
Preston M. Mavity, Joel L. Hobbs. 1906; Preston M. Mavity, William T. 
Embree, 1908; Joel L. Hobbs. David S. Cox. 1910; Walter A. Jones, 1912. 



The newspaper has always, since its first introduction into civiHzed Hfe, 
been a potent factor toward advancing the best interests of the community 
in which it is published. It is true that sometimes designing men get control 
of a newspaper and through its columns mislead the rank and file of the 
people, but this only lasts a short time, because public opinion, as a general 
rule, especially under a democratic form of government, can be relied upon 
as standing for the right. So, as a general rule, editors are in harmony with 
the best interests of a community. The weekly and daily press has, of late 
years, come to be the household guide and these publications are read with 
interest by almost all thinking, reasoning men and women. It is the greatest 
medium for the dissemination of truth and knowledge. 

The first paper published in Lawrence county was the JFestern Sun. a 
small five-column folio, subscription rate two dollars per year, and its politics 
was Whig. It was owned by a stock company of about seven leading Whigs, 
who bought the material and placed it in charge of C. H. Allen, as publisher, 
and whose name appeared as editor, though R. W. Thompson was in fact 
the editor of the paper, and he gave full tone and strength to the publication. 
Allen was succeeded by several others, including Marcus L. Deal. For five 
years it was conducted under many disheartening circumstances, and was at 
last abandoned. 

In 1841 Isaac Smith founded the Bedford Rez'iew and conducted it three 
years, more or less. He had W'illiam Newland associated with him for a 
short time. This paper also had the Whig banner at its head. In 1S45 
Comingore and Marts commenced the publishing of a paper known as the 
Bedford Sini. a Democratic sheet, edited by Judge James Hughes, but pub- 
lished by Jacob Marts. It was discontinued about 1848. 

In the spring of 1848 James V. S. Maxwell began the publication of the 
Bedford Herald, and continued for about two years, and it is believed that it 
was succeeded by the People's Adz'ocatc. conducted for a short time early in 
the fifties by James C. Carlton. In September. 1849. the White River Stand- 
ard made its appearance with Leonard Green as its editor and proprietor. 
Green was an able man, far above the average, and his was the best paper 


published in Lawrence county up to that date. It was a strong Whig organ. 
In November, 1852, it passed to Judge E. D. Pearson, who ran it until 1855, 
when it was sold to Mathis & Berry, who, after a few issues, on January 24, 
1856, changed the name to the Bedford Independent. In May, 1856. C. G. 
Berry was alone in its management, and later his son was associated with 
him, as well as others. Still later a religious journal was issued here by S. 
H. H. Mathis. Just how long Beny conducted the Independent is not now 
known. It is certain that in the year 1863 it was in the possession of Eli 
Dale, who had changed its name to the Bedford Press. October 6, 1863, 
number 7, volume XIV, was being issued. Early in 1864 it passed into the 
hands of William A. Gable, who changed the name after a few issues back 
to the Independent. Later in 1864 and early part of 1865 S. H. H. Mathis 
was again at the head of this paper, but was later succeeded by Gable, who 
continued until May, 1867, when the property passed into the hands of W. 
S. Benhani. At this time the paper was a seven-column folio and was an 
excellent newspaper. In April, 1868. I. H. Thomas took the property over 
as his own and l>ecame its editor, conducting it until 1874, having for his 
associate, for some time, A. B. Cole. 

The Laivrence Democrat was established in 1856 in the month of June, 
by Messrs. W. R. Johns and X. F. Malott. It was from the outset a bright, 
sparkling local sheet, and, as its name signifies, the organ of undefiled Democ- 
racy. It went through several changes and after three years was discontin- 
ued. Its successor appeared in Februar}', i860, under the management of 
George Sheeks and A. D. Lemon, and it was called the Bedford Enterprise, 
a Democratic paper, carrying Davie Crockett's famous saying. "Be sure 
you are right, then go ahead." It only lasted one year and a few days. In 
September, 1863, Henry M. Beadle commenced the publication of a paper 
called the Bedford Appeal, a seven-column folio, strong in the Democratic 
faith, politically. It was issued about a year and a half. 

The Bedford Weekly Nezvs was established in Jannaiy. 1870, l)y Yockey 
& Conlev. This was an eight-column folio. X^othing much is known of it. 

The Bedford Leader, a seven-column folio, was founded by James Glover 
about June, 1872. In 1876 the True Republican was established by G. A. J. 
Thomas. In May, 1879, appeared the first issue of the Bedford Republican, 
under the editorial management of R. A. Connor and W. S. English. John 
V. Smith, a veteran newspaper man, purchased the two named offices and 
united them and commenced the publication of the Bedford Journal, which 
publication lasted, with success, until August, 1884, when he sold to F. B. 
Hitchcock. August 2d that year Mr. Smith commenced the publication of 


a small daily paper to be conducted during the campaign of 1884, — the Blaine- 
Cleveland campaign, — but after fourteen issues, owing to the sale of the 
office to Hitchcock, abandoned the enterprise. 

In Februar>-, 1873, M. A, Gelwick commenced the issue of the Law- 
rence Gazette, which was continued some time with much success. In 1876 
H. H. Friedley was the editor of this journal. 

The Democratic Banner was launched by Yockey & Conley, editors and 
managers, about 1868-69. The material was largely furnished by the leading 
Democrats of the \icinity. Tlu's paper soon had great influence in this 
county, among the Democratic portion of the county, and in fact continued 
so many years. It was sold, however, in 1871, or possibly a year later, to 
Tames Carlton, but soon went back to Mr. Yockey, who later sold an in- 
terest to A. J. Hostetler, who worked up a large circulation and did an exten- 
sive job business and had his columns full of paying advertising matter. 

The Bedford Star, a Democratic organ, was established in 1875 by John 
Johnson, Jr. It was started as a four-column folio, then enlarged to a five 
and still later to a six-column paper. 

James Glover established the News about 1875, but in two months' time 
it was counted among the defunct papers of Lawrence county. 

A paper known as the Morning Call was issued for a time by Mr. Vestal. 
The Bedford Magnet, a Republican paper, was founded in 1879 by Henry 
S. Osborne, first as a daily, then a tri-weekly, then as a bi-weekly. In 
August, 1884, it was consolidated with the Bedford Journal, just purchased 
by Frank B. Hitchcock, of Flora, Illinois. This new paper was first called 
the Lazvrence Mail, but the name was afterward changed to the Bedford 
Mail Osborne & Hitchcock were the proprietors and editors. In 1889, 
nearly two years after the death of Mr. Osborne, Fred B. Otis bought his 
half interest, the firm becoming Hitchcock & Otis. In 1892 the daily edition 
of the Mail was started. In 1896, soon after the death of Mr. Hitchcock, 
Thomas J. Brooks bought the Hitchcock half interest, and the fimi became 
Otis & Brooks, with Messrs. Brooks and Otis as editors and proprietors. In 
19 1 2 the Mail, having outgrown the building on the south side of Sixteenth 
street, half a block east of the public square, which it had occupied for 
twenty-three years, the firm exchanged its old building and lot for a larger 
lot directly across the street, and erected a handsome stone-front brick 
building forty by seventy-five, and installed a modem plant, with a No. 8 
linotype and Duplex press. 

In 1885 John Johnson, Jr.. owner of the Bedford Star, an independent 
Saturday paper, bought the Bedford Banner of A. J. Hostetler, and merged 


the two papers under the name of the Bedford Democrat, the new paper be- 
coming the Democratic organ of the county, with John Johnson, Jr., as owner 
and editor. In 1892 the daily edition was started. In 1903, following the 
death of Mr. Johnson, the paper was bought by Charles P. Butler, of North 
Vernon, Indiana, who established the plant in its own building, erected for 
the purpose, on the west side of J street, one-half block north of the public 
square, put in a new cylinder press and linotype. 

In 1895 Fred Way, a job printer, started a little paper called the 
X-Ray, and later, taking F. A. Likely into partnership, changed the name to 
the Republican, making it both daily and weekly. In 1900 D. Y. Johnson and 
O. H. Griest purchased the paper, but afterward sold it to Lee Robinson. The 
paper did not prosper, and after changing hands, at short intervals for a 
while, finally suspended and the plant was "scrapped." 

Another newspaper was established in 1873, called the Bedford Mirror, 
but it was not long lived, 


The first newspaper to lirighten the homes (jf the town of Mitchell was 
the Republican, which paper was established just at the close of the Civil 
war period by J, M, Griffin, who brought his presses from Vincennes, In- 
diana, in the summer of 1865. He did not prove to be the right man in the 
right place, so after a few issues it was discontinued and the press was sold 
to parties in Paoli, and from it was issued the Republican of that place. 

In February, 1866, a man named Rumrill, of Seymour, associated him- 
self with Mr, Woodward, under the firm name of Woodward & Rumrill, and 
they started the Mitchell Conuucrcial. The ])aper was under the control of 
Mr. Wood-ward, as editor, publisher and printer. He was a racy writer and 
made an interesting ])aper for the people of Mitchell, but, with the coming 
of the spring sunshine, he sought other fields. ^Ir. Rumrill then sold the 
office fixtures and good will (what there might have been of it) to Messrs. 
Simpson Burton and J. K. Howard, who were at that date joint principals of 
Mitchell Seminary, and Frank H. King, wlio was their music teacher, took 
editorial charge of the paper. His time being demoted tcj nuisic more than to 
his editorial duties, the paper did not fill a great and "long-felt want" in the 
town and community 'round about. King also issued from that office The 
Mimical Monthly. In 1867 Charles G. Berry became editor and publisher 
of the Commercial. Berry was a fine scholar, a good man and well suited 
for such position. He was also a practical printer, which also counted for 


much in the running' of a paper. For a time his son, H. L. Berry, was asso- 
ciated with him. In July, 1872, Dr. E. S. Mclntire bought the office and 
became its editor and pubHsher. Under his administration the paper was 
radically Republican, but thoroughly independent, which, of course, made 
him many warm friends and also not a few bitter enemies, politically. The 
circulation was extended and his advertising was liberal. In the autumn of 
1 88 1 a new fast press was added to the office's equipment, and the old Frank- 
lin hand-press, then supposed to be the oldest in southern Indiana, was shipped 
to the foundry, after having been in constant use since 1835. The good 
Doctor, however, tiring of this sort of professional career, sold the office to 
M. N. Moore & Son in May. 1883. M. T. Moore, the son, was a brilliant 
head-line writer, but he, too, soon tired of the dingy walls of a country print 
shop, and the office was sold, in October that year, to George Z. Wood, who, 
in 1884, was still publishing the paper, with T. J. Tanksley as his local editor. 
At that date the Commercial held the distinction of being the oldest paper 
within the radius of forty miles. In September, 1884, it was sold to John V. 
Smith, late of the Bedford Journal. Since then there have been many changes. 
Judge W. FI. Edwards was in charge for some time, then E. L. Lee and 
Hane & Thurston and they followed by McShane & Thurston. January i, 
1897, the office was sold to Woolheather & Chitty, who came here from 
Kansas, this being the birthplace of Howard Chitty, the junior member of 
the firm, and for three years they worked hard, getting out two pages at 
home and two "patent" from Cincinnati, and printing one seven-column page 
at a time on a large job press. On account of the antiquated condition of the 
material in the office and the limited amount of business in sight at that time, 
it was decided there was not profit sufficient to support two heads of families, 
so, on January i, 1900, H. E. Woolheater sold his interest in the Coiiiiiercial 
to Howard Chitty, who is yet in charge, and has been connected with the 
Commercial for sixteen vears. There is now nothing in the office of the 
original purchase excepting two solid black walnut type cabinets, prized for 
their antiquity, and the fact that type cabinets made of solid black walnut 
are not on the market, and not to be had at any price. There is also one 
small jol) press that was ])ought with the office. The equipment now consists 
of a rapid two-revolution news press, two jobbers, linotype machine, cabinets 
for all type, instead of the old home-made racks of yore, and the Commercial 
issues from four to six pages each week, all printed at home. At this time 
four people are employed in the Commercial office. Howard Chitty, as editor 
and publisher; Mrs. William Shanks, city editress: Roy Lanham, of Sey- 
mour, foreman, and Miss Maude Hamilton, of Shoals, as linotype operator. 


The Mitchell Times was established January. 1876. Charles L. Yockey 
at that date published the Bedford Banner, and he made one side of his sheet 
the Mitchell Times, and the joint newspaper was issued in the two towns 
that year. The local editor at Mitchell was Dr. John T. Briggs. In 1877 
this two-sided paper was abandoned, and Dr. Briggs gave the Times a separ- 
ate existence in the field of journalism. He made it a Democratic organ for 
the south side of Lawrence county. It was, from the start, a bright, newsy 
sheet, intensely partisan, and not unfrequently sparkled with genuine wit. 
He continued as its editor until January 18, 1884, when he sold the office to 
Charles L. Yockey, a practical printer, and a man of many years' newspaper 
and editorial work. 

There were a few other newspaper ventures in Mitchell, in early days, 
not already mentioned. Init all were short-lived attempts. One Albert Johns- 
ton, when a mere boy, published an amateur sheet called the Star. The En- 
terprise was another paper started by Harry Davis, a printer of the Commer- 
cial office. This was launched in 1874, but it was soon snuffed out of exist- 

At Leesville a miniature newspaper was established in 1877 by Micajah 
Allen. This was known as the Sun, but later called the Index. These were 
both very small concerns. The Graphic was established in May, 1882, by 
McHenry Owen. It was a four-column folio sheet, but changed later to a 
six-column paper. It was running in 1884, and was Democratic in its poliitcs. 

At Oolitic the Progress was launched a few months since, but no history 
of it was to be obtained by the historian. 



In the march of civilization the common school has been a potent factor. 
Before the present system of public schools, this county had only the sub- 
scription and private, select schools. The pioneer band who invaded the wilds 
of Lawrence county did not neglect the education of their children, but 
sought out every then known means of providing at least a fair schooling 
for their rising sons and daughters. Four years prior to the county's real 
organization, or in 1814. the first school was taught in the territory now 
within Lawrence county. This school was taught at Leesville, and for two, 
and probably three, years was the only school in this county. It was taught 
by an Irish monk named Langdon, who was highly educated. He continued 
hereabouts until 181 7. It was during that year that the second school in the 
county was opened and he became its teacher. This term was taught on the 
farm of James Conley. in what is now Guthrie township. The house was 
located three hundred yards west of the small tunnel, near Lawrence- 
port. Iliree months was the duration of this second school in Lawrence 
county. The building in which it was held was built for the purpose by 
Mr. Conley, whose children, Charles, Joshua, Hugh. Joseph, Nancy, Peggy 
and Diana, principally composed the school. After this term, Langdon, the 
Irishman, went down the ri\er to the Johnston settlement, where he taught 
for two years. Probably the third school in what is now Lawrence county 
was on the present site of Lawrenceport in 1818, by Thomas Fulton. The 
school Imilding stood near the mouth of Fishing creek, and among the schol- 
ars may he remembered James and Elizabeth Chess and a Miss McManis. 
In 1820 a temi was taught near where later stood the Guthrie bridge, on 
land subsequently owned by George Foster. Later, an old cotton-gin house 
was pressed into service for school purposes. About that date numerous 
schools were being held in log cabins here and there over the settled portion 
of the county. 

In Indian Creek township there were several early-day schools, for 
there were many settlers in that part of the county. The first of such schools 
was doul)t]ess tlie one kept a few hundred yards south of present Fayette- 


ville. This has been graphically described as "A small round log house, with 
a clapboard roof, a 'cat-clay' chimney, a puncheon floor and greased-paper 
windows." The furniture was of the roughest type, the benches having been 
made from saplings split in two, with legs inserted in auger holes through 
them. Writing desks were made by hewing out a slab and hanging on pegs 
on the side of the walls, where the light was the best. No wonder so many 
of the earlier generations were ])oor writers, or could not write their own 
names at all. The school children of the present age do not begin to appre- 
ciate the comforts and advantages which are thrown around them in their 
school life. The conditions that confronted our fathers and grandfathers 
were entirely different, yet those days really produced many illustrious men 
and gifted, accomplished women. The first to teach in the last named school 
was a Mr. Ditto, who taught but one term. In 1822 a new school house was 
provided for this settlement, on land later owned by Noah Kern, but then 
by Peter Smith.. Here John R. Cooke was first to serve as master, as school 
teachers were commonly styled then. A few years after it was erected, this 
school house was destroyed l)y a whirlwind, and a child of Abraham Martin 
was killed by the falling of a beech tree. The building was finally repaired 
and served for school purposes several years longer. 

In Marion tow nship, where schools early took front rank, the first school 
house was the hewed-log structure built in 1824, and was the first one of its 
kind in Law rence county. \\'iley G. Burton later owned the land where this 
building stood. Probably John McLean was first to teach there, and follow^- 
ing him came the one-legged teacher. Samuel Daltun. Xext to teach here 
was Mr. Evans, who lost his position as teacher l)ecause he was frequently 
caught napping during school hours. He was succeeded by one of a different 
temperament, a Mr. Bethey, who. it is related, cleared off ten acres of land 
outside of his regular school hours. Daniel Watkins came next. He was a 
Welshman and remained a teacher in this hewed-log house for seven years. 

Year after vear educational matters in this state took on better phases, 
until finally the common free school system was established in the thirties 
and early forties. It would be useless to attempt to trace all the schools in 
the early settlement, for it is impossil)le to do so. 

Coming down to 1883. thirtv ^•ears ago. the records of the county show 
that the various townships made the following showing in way of schools 
carried on at the expense of the taxpayers : 

The total numljer of persons between the ages of six and twenty-one 
years in 1883 was 6.658. Of these, there were, of white. 3.339 males and 


3,125 females; of colored, 56 males and 78 females. The school reports for 
1884 have this exhibit, in substance: 

Flinn township, 290 pupils, six school houses. 

Pleasant Run township, 619 pupils, twelve school houses. 

Perry township, 307 pupils, five school houses. 

Indian Creek township, 601 pupils, fourteen school houses. 

Spice Valley township, 722 pupils, thirteen school houses. 

Marion township, 665 pupils, twelve school houses. 

Bono township, 264 pupils, seven school houses. 

Shawswick tov/nship, 627 pupils, fifteen school houses. 

Marshall township, 437 pupils, seven school houses. 

Guthrie township, 362 pupils, seven school houses. 

Mitchell, Town of — 755 pupils, one school building. 

Bedford, City of — 956 pupils, two school buildings. 

Total number of pupils, 6,604; number of houses, loi. 

At that date the teachers' wages were: Males averaged $1.58 per day; 
females averaged $1.50 per day. The total numl:)er of teachers in the county 
was 51 male and 68 female. 


From a description of educational facilities written about a third of a 
century ago, it is learned that Flinn and Pleasant Run townships ranked 
alx)ve the average in the country districts of Lawrence county. Longer 
terms were then taught there than elsewhere in this county; however, the 
school buildings were not in as good repair as in other portions of the county. 
The one in the township styled Jackson was nearly new and was provided 
with patent seats and other modern appliances for the children's comfort. In 
1858 there was organized at Leesville a very excellent high school. This 
was owned and established by a joint stock company organized for that pur- 
pose. The building was a two-story brick structure, with two study rooms 
and one recitation room. Its cost was not far from five thousand dollars. 
After 1883 there was no school held here, however. The first teacher was a 
Mr. Maxwell, who was followed by Messrs. Boston, Rev. Stalker, L. W. 

Johnson, Hobbs, R. W. May, Albert May, W. T. Branaman and 

D. H. Ellison, who became the superintendent of schools for Lawrence county 
in the early eighties. 

Next after Flinn township came Pleasant Run, where fully one-third of 
the school houses were frame, nearly new, and the balance in good condition. 


This township in 1884 had the only log school house in use in Lawrence 
county. One of the best school houses in the county was at that date in 
Springville, Perry township. It was a two-story building, covered by a slate 
roof. In Indian Creek township, in the eighties, the school buildings were in 
the poorest condition of any in this county. In Spice Valley the houses were 
but little better, although there were some almost new^ ones, which were soon 
followed by others. In Marion township at that date there were some of the 
best buildings in the county. The furniture and fixtures were modern for 
that time, but the terms of school \vere the shortest of almost any within the 
county. The best school in Bono towmship was then kept at Lawrenceport, 
yet there were sevei-al others nearly as good. In Shawswick township the 
schools were far more numerous than in any other section of Lawrence 
county in the early eighties, in fact in some parts they were said to have been 
too numerous, exhausting the resources of the township without doing the 
general good they might have done if there had not been so many to main- 
tain. The only brick school building in the county in 1884, aside from the 
one at Bedford, was the one located at the town of Mitchell. That was 
well equipped with everything up-to-date, and no school in any township of 
the county was doing better w^ork, week in and week out, than this one. A 
house was erected at Guthrie in t88i at a cost of one thousand five hundred 
dollars. One of the best township schools in the county was at Tunnelton, 
in Guthrie township. 

At Mitchell there was erected in 1856 a small brick school house. The 
first term of school there was taught in the wnnter of 1856-57 by E. M. 
Baldwin. All the terms of school taught in that liuilding were on the old- 
fashioned subscription plan. The school of 1859-60, which used the public 
money, supplemented this, and the building later was used for the colored 
people of the town for meeting house purposes. 


This educational institution was established in 1869, and it was one of 
the first in southern Indiana. The first high school building was constructed 
at an expense of three thousand dollars; it was a two-story frame, and was 
utilized until the erection of the 1879 school house. The last mentioned was 
a brick building costing ten thousand dollars. In 1882 the prospectus of this 
school stated "forty-five teachers have gone out from Mitchell graded school, 
six physicians, six attorneys and two ministers." 

i04 lawrence and monroe counties, indiana. 

Bedford's first school. 

The pioneer school of Bedford was taught by Captain Hill during the 
winter of 1826-27, in the old court house, and it was attended by thirty- 
six pupils. This was in the days of "select schools,"' maintained by subscrip- 
tions. The pupil was required to pay in advance two dollars each quarter, 
and instructions were given in grammar, algebra, rhetoric, higher arithmetic 
and lower branches. This was continued until the change of policy and the 
establishment of the County Seminary, through the act of Legislature dated 
January, 193 1. Indeed, the contrast between those years and the first decade 
of the twentieth century is very striking. Now the schools are first class ; 
the buildings are first class ; the fixtures and apparatus are excellent and the 
instructors none but the highest type of scholars. But, to go back a step in 
the school history of the county seat town, it should be stated that in 1869 
an attempt was made to establisli a graded school for the ])enefit of the entire 
civil township, and the enterprise had proceeded so far as that a foundation 
was laid for such a building. The movement caused much trouble in the 
community, between those within and those living outside the town plat of 
Bedford. This really resulted in the incorporation of Bedford as an inde- 
pendent school district. This resulted further in the completion of the al- 
ready commenced building in town by the town people, which was accom- 
plished in 1871. It was a six-room structure and seated three hundred pupils. 
Its cost was not far from twenty-seven thousand dollars. School opened in 
it September 1. 1871, and in November, the same year, it was destroyed by 
fire, from some unknown cause. There was no insurance on the property, 
hence it was a total loss. The day of this fire the citizens ordered the trustees 
to go ahead and build a larger, better building over the ashes of the one 
just consumed by the angry flames. Rooms were temporarily leased through- 
out the town, in which the schools were kept running until the completion 
of the new building in 1873. This house had nine rooms, and seated five 
hundred scholars. It was constructed from brick, was two stories high, and 
cost twenty-seven thousand dollars. In 1S72 a separate school was opened in 
Bedford for the colored children of the town. From that time on the school 
history here is kno\\ n well to the older readers of this work, and the late re- 
ports of tlie schools will appear elsewhere in this work. 

other educational IN.STITUTIONS OF THE COUNTY. 

In this connection will be mentioned the Southern Indiana Nonmal Col- 
lege, the Lawrence County Seminary and the select schools. 


The last named was the outgrowth of the going down of the County 
Seminary, by the repeal of the law l)y which it was created. In the autumn 
of 1854 Rev. J. M. .Stalker opened an academy in the basement of the Presby- 
terian church at Bedford. In 1856 Professor Conley began the Lawrence 
high school. In this J. M. Stalker and others taught until about 1869, when 
this school was merged into the Bedford Male and Female College. This 
institution was incorporated by Messrs. Stever Younger, J. M. Mathes, Joseph 
Stilson, A. J. Hotetler, David G. Gray, John M. Daggy. George VV. Adams, 
J. N. Hostetler and William B. Chrisler. The corporation articles stated, 
among other things, "establish and perpetuate in the town of Bedford, Law- 
rence county, Indiana, an institution of learning of the highest grade, for the 
education of males and females : to promote the arts and sciences and incul- 
cate the evidences and morality of the sacred Scriptures." This school was 
held in the basement of the Christian church, and it continued until 1880, and 
then went down. 

What was known as the Lawrence County Seminary was just such a 
school as was provided for all over Indiana by an act of the Legislature. 
For a time (until the free school system came into existence) these schools 
bid fair to be of great value to the people. A good brick building was built. 
The attendance was large, pupils coming in from all sections of the county. 
The first to instruct here was Professor Lynn, who did not remain very 
long and was succeeded by others better known. In 1832-33 the institution 
was headed by that well-known man. Hon. Richard W. Thompson. His 
successor was Hon. George W. Dunn, after whom came Joseph Stilson, who 
was long one of Bedford's best physicians. The school was managed by a 
board of trustees appointed by the district court. In March. 1838, the trus- 
tees reported to the county conimissioners as follows : "Upon examination 
they found the seminary building considerably out of repair, and in a con- 
dition subjecting it to rapid decay, destitute of a teacher, under the control 
and supervision of the trustees, the institution in (lel)t and without a very 
exalted reputation as a high school. The board caused tlie necessary repairs 
to be made to the building without delay and have it now in good order for 
the comfort and accommodation of two teachers and at least a hundred pupils. 
All debts except some trifling amounts against the institution have been paid 
off and there is yet remaining in the treasury the sum of $93-59' which, to- 
gether with such sums as may be constantly coming in from fines assessed 
before the justices of the peace and in the circuit court of said county, will 
be amply sufficient to keep up repairs, make all necessary improvements and 
in a short time we trust to purchase a suitable librar}- for such institution. A 


female school, by Miss Lovey Kittredge, has been taught in one room of the 
building under the inspection of the board, and by the reports of the exam- 
ining committees of the schools it appears that the conditions of that depart- 
ment of the school are highly creditable to Miss Kittridge and beneficial to 
those tinder her care. The best of order is observed in her school, although 
large; entire harmony and good feeling exists in her school between the pupils 
themselves and between them and the teacher, and the scholars are making 
rapid improvement in all the useful branches of female education. The other 
room is occupied by Mr. Minard Sturgis, a young gentleman of superior 
acquirements, amiable disposition, gentle manners, industrious habits and 
strict morality. These qualities render him a valuable acquisition to the sem- 
inary, as he proposes taking it permanently under his charge. The present 
condition of his department is prosperous and interesting in every respect, 
we believe meeting the entire approbation of the public. The following are 
the rates of tuition: Reading, writing and arithmetic, three dollars per 
quarter; English grammar, bookkeeping, geography, composition and decla- 
mation, three dollars and fifty cents per quarter; the classics and other higher 
branches, six dollars per quarter, to which is added upon each pupil the sum 
of twenty-five cents per quarter as a contingent fund, out of which are de- 
frayed all expenses necessary for the comfort and convenience of the pupils 
and teachers connected with the seminary. The board thought it necessary 
to fix the rates thus high in order to secure competent teachers and guard 
the institution from degenerating into a mere town school, benefiting only a 
few individuals, instead of being, as it was intended, the resort of all who 
desire to procure the advantages of a liberal education." 

This report was signed by G. R. Dimihue and George D. Dunn, as com- 
mittee and gives a good idea of the school at that time. In May, 1841, an- 
other board was appointed and of this Gustavus Clark was president, John 
Vespal, treasurer, and Alichael A. Malott, secretary. In September, 1842, the 
report was made by the secretary and from that it is learned that John Dale 
had for some time before then been in charge of the school as teacher and 
part of the time employed an assistant. The institutions lingered along under 
various instructors until the Legislature, in 1852, provided for the sale of 
county seminaries and applying the proceeds to the common school fund. 
This was sold at public sale to R. M. Parks, who had formerly been one of its 
teachers, for one thousand fifty dollars, and thus died the Lawrence County 



This was one of the most prosperous and popular educational institutions 
in the state. It was located at Mitchell, this county, April 6, 1880, and re- 
ceived its articles of incorporation June 7th, that year. Many prominent 
men in southern Indiana felt the need of a training school where teachers 
could be instructed for the profession of teaching. Mitchell was chosen the 
place for this school, because of the enterprising, untiring zeal her people 
took in the matter. Among those who aided in securing this school may be 
recalled Prof. J. N. Selby, Prof. \V. F. Harper. Dr. H. L. Kimberlin. M. N. 
Moore, Dr. J. L. W. Yost, J. Y. Bates, John Dodson, Alfred Guthrie, Dr. 
W. A. Burton. Allen C. Burton. Anselm Wood, M. A. Burton, Isom Burton, 
Dr. G. W.' Burton, E. P. Eversole, James D. Moore, Dr. E. S. Mclntire and 
many more. 

About the beginning of 1880 active steps were taken in securing a 
faculty and advertising the opening of this normal school or college. Prof. 
W. F. Harper was selected as president, and Prof. J. N. Selby, business 
manager. A very acceptable corps of instructors headed each department. 
April 6th,' the morning on which the school was to open, orders had gone 
forth that all bells in Mitchell should be rung for a full half hour. The stores 
were closed, and merchants and their families all repaired to the Baptist 
church to witness the organization. In July of the first year, a class of six 
were graduated, the number in attendance being in all departments about one 
hundred and fifty. This was a good start for the first year's work. On ac- 
count of overwork. Professor Harper was forced to resign in 1882. and was 
succeeded by one of his professors, W. E. Lungenbeel, who built the school 
up wonderfully in a short time. In 1883 a small-pox epidemic (mostly a 
scare) injured the school for a year, but its president went forth and suc- 
ceeded better than ever before, so that in 1884 he had enrolled over five hun- 
dred teachers and those seeking training for this profession. The fame of 
the school spread throughout the entire Union and men of prominence every- 
where backed it and talked for its policy. This school certainly did revolu- 
tionize the common schools in southern Indiana. A similar school was estab- 
lished at Milan. Tennessee, September, 1884, the same being promulgated by 
this Mitchell College, and its teachers were all of the Mitchell College alumni. 
The Tennessee college had two hundred and fifty pupils on hand at its first 
day of opening. With the passing of years these institutions have been 
superseded by those of better value. 



Today educational advantages are to be found in every township in the 
county, where good buildings obtain, where thorough teachers are employed, 
and where general interest is taken. The summing up of the schools of 
Lawrence county, with the buildings, teachers and enrollments, may be found 
by reading the following digest from the annual report of the county school 
superintendent, issued for the last year : 

Average High School 

Township or Town. Attendance. Schools. Teachers. Houses. 

Bono 219 096 

Guthrie 329 i 15 10 

Indian Creek 492 2 22 14 

Marion 437 o 19 16 

Marshall 471 i 19 13 

Perry 115 i 8 5 

Pleasant Run 1 372 i 16 12 

Shawswick 657 i 29 17 

Spice Valley 501 2 17 12 

Total 3,503 9 154 105 

Towns and Cities. 

Bedford 1.606 — 55 5 

Mitchell 625 — 20 3 

Total 2,331 — 75 8 

Grand total 5,734 — 229 113 

Of the one hundred and thirteen school houses in Lawrence county, 
seven are brick and one hundred and six are frame. 



While the greatest industry of Lawrence county is that of the Bedford 
stone quarries and the shipment of this wonderful material to all sections of 
the country, it may be stated that long before this valuable mineral product 
was discovered and developed to any great extent, the lands of this portion of 
Indiana had attracted many settlers. While there are much more fertile soils, 
there are many more sterile. The forests of excellent timber, the running 
streams and numerous never- failing springs, found bubbling up from the 
earth, all had their value and charm for the hardy pioneer who first looked 
upon this county. The soil is well adapted to raising blue grass and it has 
been produced in large amounts from the earliest settlement. It was first 
sown in Indian Creek tow nship by Alirahani Kern and Stever Younger dur- 
ing the winter of 1819-20 on sections 13 and 24 in township 5, range 2 west, 
and from that small beginning has grown to be a leading crop and has had 
much to do with the raising of live stock throughout this county. The early 
settlers were well satisfied that the richest portion of the county was in the 
fertile bottom lands, and there they naturally located and built homes for 
themselves. While Indian township was at first considered the choicest in 
the county, as years went by other sections were found equally productive, 
and soils that were once thought almost valueless for the production of crops 
have come to be known as excellent farming sections. 

This county is fast becoming famous as a fruit region. Joel A. Burton's 
great orchards, lying near the southern boundary line of the county, where 
many fine bearing trees are now growing, is a rare sight to behold. Many 
smaller orchards are found around Mitchell. 

The dairying business is also coming into prominence, on account of the 
greater growth of Lawrence county's famous blue grass, which produces an 
excellent grade of butter. 

The state agricultural reports for 1911 show these figures: .-Veres of 
wheat, 11,247; average yield, thirteen bushels. Corn, 33.812 acres, with a 
million bushels, averaging twenty-eight bushels per acre. Oats, 7,112 acres, 
less than twelve bushels per acre. Rye, 614 acres. Barley, seven acres. 


Buckwheat, tliirteen acres. Irish potatoes, 334 acres, 13,622 bushels. To- 
bacco, three acres, producing 2,000 pounds. Tomatoes, 126 acres, producing 
421 tons. Timothy hay, 10,000 tons. Alfalfa. 170 tons. Prairie hay, 1,017 
acres, producing 1.224 tons. Clover, 4.324 acres, made 3,838 tons. Horses 
and colts on hand January, 1912. 4.792. Mules. 1.485. Average of cows 
milked. 4.008. Butter made, 472.000 pounds. Cattle on hand. 9,416; cattle 
sold, 5,590. Hogs sold, 12.964; hogs died. 1.250. Sheep on hand. 4.722; 
sold, 2.763. Wool sold. 20,452 pounds. Poultry sold. 5.867 dozen; average 
number of hens, 6.500. Dozen eggs produced, 617.000. 


The first attempt at organizing a county agricultural society in Lawrence 
county was at a preliminary meeting held at Bedford on the Fourth of July. 
185 1, when a committee was appointed, of which William Duncan was chair- 
man, to prepare a constitution and by-laws of the proposed agricultural so- 
ciety. The same season, on August 9th, a large mass meeting was held at 
the Bedford court house to effect the organization. John McCrea was made 
chairman and Leonard Green, secretary. Then the constitution and by-laws 
were adopted and inany signers were placed on the file as members of the 
County Agricultural Society. No fair was held that year, but full plans were 
efifected for holding one in 1852. It was determined to make this first fair 
largely a stock show. It was to be held just to the southwest of Bedford, on 
land of Jesse A. Mitchell, and the date was fixed upon as November 9th. The 
officers for 1852 were: Pleasant Parks, president; John Whitted, vice-presi- 
dent; Isaac Rector, treasurer; R. R. Bryant, secretary. There was quite a 
respectable number of Lawrence county's citizens — farmers, stockraisers and 
townspeople — in attendance. Premiums were awarded on cattle to G. M. 
Brown, Lewis Rout, Isaac Rector, Jesse Johnson, William Stipp and G. B. 
Owens; on sheep to Enoch Faubion and Jesse Johnson; on horses to Fred 
Stipp, William Fisher, John Rogers, William Duncan, G. M. Brown, Ben 
Newland and David Ikerd; on jacks to William Duncan and Daniel and 
Peter Mvers ; on poultry to R. R. Bryant ; on manufactured articles to Enoch 
Faubion; best beet was exhibited by John B. Buskirk. and it weighed eight 
and three-fourths pounds. Judge Duncan read an essay on tlie management 
of stock, and R. R. Bi-)'ant one on fowls. 

In 1853 there was no regular fair, but rather a stock sale took its place. 
This was an interesting gathering and was well attended by many farmers 
and stockmen. In 1854 a strong effort was made to merge the Lawrence 


county society with those of Orange and Washington counties, but the ma- 
jority ruled against this plan. So far there had been no gate fees charged to 
the county fairs here. In 1851 the membership fee was eighteen dollars; in 
1852 it was placed at fourteen and in 1853 ^t thirteen dollars. 

In the spring of 1854 arrangements were made to purchase fair grounds 
by means of a stock subscription. Before that grounds had always been 
leased. Nothing, however, was accomplished along this line until April, 
1856, when a committee was appointed to purchase grounds, and they re- 
ported in June, that year, that they had bought a tract of land just west of and 
adjoining the town, thirty by forty rods, or equal to about eight acres, of 
Jesse A. Mitchell. But for some unknown reason no fair was held there, and 
in 1857 the grounds were sold, and a more suitable tract bought northwest 
of town, consisting of ten acres, which was purchased from William Fisher 
for one thousand dollars. Tlie original subscription stock was fifty dollars 
per share, and the total amount subscribed was two thousand three hundred 
dollars, a portion of which, however, was never raised. 


Lawrence county's first real agricultural fair was held in 1857, and was 
a veiy successful affair. The total receipts from all sources were $2,369.15, 
mostly raised by the payment of stock subscriptions. The value of the real 
estate and improvements was ^2,090. The liabilities of the society were 
$1,941. The ten acres of ground were surrounded by a tight board fence, 
seven or eight feet high, and there were a hundred and fifty stalls for stock, 
and also a trotting track and an ampitheater capable of holding two thousand 
people, besides smaller buildings for floral and domestic displays. 

The second fair was held in 1858, and this was also highly creditable to 
the people of Lawrence count}'. The total receipts were one thousand two 
hundred dollars, while the premiums amounted to four hundred and seventy 
dollars. There were five hundred and twenty entries and one hundred and 
seventy premiums awarded. In 1857 the president had been Robert Boyd; 
in 1858, Isaac Denson. By the last date the fair grounds were covered by a 
mortgage. There were then two hundred and twenty-eight stockholders, and 
so large was the debt that all hopes of holding a fair in 1859 faded and the 
cloud had not been cleared away by i860. In the month of November, i860, 
however, a joint-stock company was formed to pay off the delDt then due the 
estate of George G. Dunn. Matters were getting in fair shape when the Civil 
war cloud of 1861 made its appearance and all local and home interests were 


forgotten when the Hag of the Union was assailed by traitors on the Southern 

Nothing further was attempted at holding an agricultural exhibit in this 
county until 1869. On October 8th, that year, a meeting was held to reor- 
ganize the old society, Henry Davis being chairman, with Isaac Rector as 
secretary. Committees were selected to form a new constitution and to circu- 
late a subscription list with which to procure funds, on the stock-membership 
plan. Later a constitution was adopted and officers as follows were elected : 
Jesse A. Mitchell, president; Henry Davis, vice-president; C. T. Woolfolk, 
secretary; W. C Wintstandley, treasurer. William Daggy was made super- 
intendent. Several meetings were subsequently held and the one which con- 
vened October 30th appointed a committee to purchase grounds, and then the 
shares of stock were fixed at twenty-five dollars each. July 14, 1870, the 
committee reported that they had purchased of Thomas A. Whitted land de- 
scribed as follows: The south part of the west half of the southwest quarter 
of section 11, township 5, range i west, in all 13.75 acres; also two and a 
half acres of the same tract of Stever Younger. These grounds were then 
ordered improved, and a fair seems to have been held in 1869, the gross 
receipts of which were $1,304. Thus well begun, the fairs continued in their 
annual order. In 1870 the fair continued for four days, and gave gross re- 
ceipts amounting to $1,189.50, all of which was awarded in premiums, as 
follows: $774 on horses; $25 on mules; $141 on cattle; $46 on swine; $30 
on sheep; $3.00 on poultry; $74 on farm implements; $19 on domestic manu- 
factures; $16.50 on equestrianism, etc. The treasurer reported that year 
$2,377.75 spent on the grounds, and that the fair had cost incidentally, 
$278.70. In August, 1871, ten acres of adjoining timber land was bought of 
Mrs. George A. Thornton for $200. Extensive plans were effected for the 
fair of 1871, and the awards that season amounted to $1,128 in premiums on 
470 entries, and in special premiums the awards were increased to $1,443.90. 

In 1872 there were one hundred and twenty stockholders and the debt of 
the society was about $313. 

The figures for several years were as follows: 1873-, $1,763, expenses, 
$1,698. 1874, receipts, $847; expenses. 767. In 1875, receipts, $321; ex- 
penses, $285. In 1877, receipts, $1,120; expenses, $1,030. In 1878, re- 
ceipts, $1,596; expenses, $1,427. In 1880, receipts, $1,056; expenses, $1,033. 

The fairs were held until about a dozen years ago, but finally the society 
went down for lack of agricultural interest. 



Law is a necessity in an_y civilized community. The opinions of men 
differ on many questions of right and wrong, and honestly, too. Then there 
are always law-breakers in every section of the world, men who have no just 
regard for the rights of their fellow men. It is the lawyer who comes in to 
adjust and try to make right these matters. While the lawyer follows his 
profession primarily for the pecuniary remuneration it affords, yet he is a 
man of great value in his community and no profession can boast of men 
who have been of more service to the world than the attorney at the bar. He 
it is who most frequently becomes a law-maker himself. Look over the list of 
illustrious statesmen in this and foreign lands, and in a majority of cases the 
men who have had to do with the making and enforcing laws have come from 
this profession. It is generally looked upon as among the most honorable of 
all professions. The standard of legal ethics has advanced some with the 
passing years, but even way back hundreds of years ago, the lawyer was noted 
for his honor and integrity, and among themseh'es and in court their word 
was as good as a 1x)nd. The profession has as few bad men. in proportion to 
the number who engage in the legal ])ractice, as any other profession. In 
this country one has but to point with pride to Webster, Choate, Everett. 
Marshall, Lincoln, Douglas, and those of more recent years, to note that they 
were all men of great learning and prominent factors in the placing of im- 
portant legal enactments upon the statute books of many commonwealths. 

The pioneer lawyers had not the advantages of those of today, but man)-" 
of them were legal giants. In this chapter will be recited some things con- 
cerning the early courts and members of the bench and bar in I^wrence 

At the house of James Gregory, in Lawrence county, on June 4. 1818, 
the first circuit court of the county was held. Those present were Thomas 
H. Blake, John Milroy and William Erwin. The home of James Gregory 
was located in Leatherwood. east of the site of the present Bedford, on the 
David Ikerd farm, afterwards belonging to Capt. Isaac Newkirk. James 
Gregory was a native of North Carolina, and came to Indiana in 181 3. In 



the war of 1814 he was a Ranger. In 1818 he located in Lawrence county, 
and in 1820 was a representative in the Legislature. His death occurred in 
Yucatan, whither he had gone on a trading expedition in 1842. He was the 
father of R. C. Gregory, later one of the judges of the Indiana supreme 

Among the first circuit court judges were Thomas H. Blake, John Mil- 
roy and William Erwin. Jonathan Jennings, as governor, signed their com- 
missions, and each was sworn to support the Constitution of the United 
States. Blake was later, in 1839, a candidate for the United States Senate, 
but was defeated. John Lowrey became clerk, and also at this term of court 
John F. Ross, of Charlestown, was admitted to the bar. The first grand jury 
was composed of the following men: Jeremiah Rankin, foreman: John 
Horton, James Fulkerson, Samuel G. Hoskins, William Leaky. Reuben Kil- 
gore. Robert Brooks, Isaac Anderson, James Mundle, Thomas Henton. 
William Tulley, David Cummings, Isaac Mitchell, Daniel Piles, Dixon Brown, 
Joel Vanderveer, Beverly Gregory and John Ikerd. The sheriff, in all proba- 
bility, was Joseph Glover. 

Ebenezer McDonald, George R. C. Sullivan and John Law were ad- 
mitted to the bar at this term of court. The early cases included an assault 
and battery, in whicli Eli Powell was the complainant and Thomas House 
the defendant: another, of Joseph Thompson vs. Richard Evans, and another 
of similar nature. 

The court met again in September, 1818, and Jeremiah Rowland, Isaac 
Naylor, William Hoggett and Henry Stephen were admitted to the bar. The 
circuit court at this time included several counties. The case of Thomas 
House came up again, and he was fined ten dollars by the judge. The 
Thompson-Evans case also was argued, and tlie judge imposed a fine of one 
dollar each on the men. The jury in these cases was composed of the follow- 
ing men: John Leaky, Robert Mitchell, Joseph Rawlins, James Cully, Al- 
bert Howard. William Elrod, George McNight, John Gardner, Robert Hun- 
ter, William Dougherty, Joseph Sullivan and James Garten. 

The first civil case tried in the county was that of Phillis, the slave, and 
was called Susannah \\'itcher vs. F'hillis (a woman of color), recognizance. 
As Phillis was a negro, she could not testify against Su.sannah, and accord- 
ingly the court decided that she was the legal property of the Witcher woman. 
The record of this case has strangely passed from memory of the oldest 
inhabitant, and the detail^^ have been forever erased from the legal records 
of the county. 

The judgment taken bv James Kitchell against John Brown for seventy- 


three dollars, stayed by Patrick Callan, was the first. At this term of the 
circuit court there were twelve indictments returned, eleven of them on the 
charge of assault and batter}-, a notable fact. Four of these vvcre made 
against one man, namely, John Andreson. who must have been very much of 
the nature of a "bruiser." James Cusick. John Laughlin, Francis Williams 
and Robert Erwin were the individuals who bore the brunt of his pugnacity. 
For his clean-up, Anderson was fined a paltry fifteen dollars. 

Gen. W. Johnson, commissioned by the governor of the state, took his 
seat as judge of the first circuit at the March term, 1819. Having had a 
brilliant militaiy record, there evidently was much local apprehension as to 
his methods of settling a dispute, and accordingly his oath of office contained 
words that he had neither "directly or indirectly given, accepted or knowingly 
carried a challenge to any person or i^ersons. to fight a single combat, or 
otherwise, with any deadly weapon, either in or out of this state, since the 
29th day of June, 1816: and that I will not directly give, accept or knowingly 
carry a challenge to any person or persons, to fight in single combat or other- 
wise, with any deadly weapon either in or out of this state, during my con- 
tinuance in office." At this term of court, Robert Holly, Jr., and Winthrop 
Foote were admitted to the l)ar. At this term Joseph Benefield was allowed 
tw^o dollars for the use of a house for a court house, and the grand jurors 
were allowed one dollar and fifty cents each for the term. 


On the banks of beautiful White ri\er rested the little town of Palestine, 
once the ])remier village of the county, luit long since relegated to become a 
mere hamlet. The first term of the court was held at this town in June, 1819, 
at the court house, which was built of lirick. I'ntil 1823, Palestine was the 
location of the seat of justice, and at that time was abandoned owing to the 
fever and ague developing in the community. At the first term of court held 
here, Jonathan Doty was the judge, and James R. Higgins and Daniel Shell 
were admitted to the legal ])ractice. The first divorce in Lawrence county 
was granted at this session, the princi])als being Benjamin and Xancy Dawson. 

In October, 1819, court was again held here. John Martin, a traverse 
juror, was fined for contempt of court. Howe\er, a non-suit was ordered, 
a juror withdrawn, the rest discharged, and thus the plaintiff reserved the 
right to bring his suit again. Winthrop l''"oote became prosecutor in place 
of John Ross. 

In the March term, 1820, the first sentence of the lash was executed in 


the county. The prisoner was John Workman, and his indictment was for 
larceny. He pleaded not guilty. The jury, which was composed of John 
Short, David Green, David Love, James Fulkerson, John Grey, Joseph 
Rawlins, Robert Hunter, Samuel Simons, George Sheeks, John Bates, William 
Elrod and Samuel McBride, heard the evidence in the case, and returned the 
verdict of guilty, and assessed "his fine at one dollar, and that he receive five 
stripes." Trouble ensued over this verdict, and unquestionably justice was 
given a twist in the case. There was a damage suit brought at this term of 
court by the commissioners of the county vs. Robert M. Carlton, Alexander 
Walker, Reuben Kilgore, George Sheeks, Pleasant Parks, Edward Johnson 
and Joshua Taylor. However, the case never came to trial. At the June 
term, 1820, Charles Dewey and Hugh S. Ross were admitted to the bar. 
Twenty-one indictments were returned by the grand jury, fifteen for assault 
and battery, foiu- for affray, one for counterfeiting, and one for attempting 
to steal a hog. 


Rollin C. Dewey and James Bramin were admitted to the legal practice 
during theOctol)er term, 1820. and the former became the first resident at- 
torney of the county. Rollin C. Dewey was a native of Massachusetts and a 
very competent lawyer, although in many ways a failure, in part, due to lack 
of direction. He was afterwards elected justice of the peace, an office which 
he filled very creditably. His death occurred in 1832, of the cholera. 

At this October term, 1820, John Bailey was fined thirty-seven and one- 
half cents for assaulting Vv'inthrop Foote, the prosecuting attorney. Also 
the order of the court to pay Foote seventy-five dollars for service during the 
year M'as rejected liy the altruistic prosecutor. John Anderson, mentioned 
before, was again in the dock for his characteristic ferociousness, and was 
fined the startling sum of six dollars, four and one-tenth cents. William 
Fields gave his commission of associate judge for seven years, and, being 
qualified, entered the position. At this term, the name of the sheriff appeared, 
Joseph Glover, in his case with Robert M. Carlton. 

At the March term, 1822, William ^^^ ^^'ick, of another circuit, was 
the presiding judge. It was he who quit after three years service because 
"it was starving him out." Judge Wick also presided at the June temi, and 
then the following were admitted to the bar: Addison Smith, John Kings- 
bury, Thomas M. Allen, Henry A. Coward and James Whitcomb. This was 
the Whitcomb A\ho later became governor of Indiana. At that time he was 


a struggling young lawyer in fjloomington, Monroe county, and practiced 
at this bar until 1836. He died while a member of the United States Senate. 


The Hon. Ben Blackwell took the office of presiding judge in the Septem- 
ber term, 1822, and in this session came the first slander trial of the county. 
The case was James L. Mitchell vs. Thomas McMannis. The plaintiff re- 
ceived thirty-fi\e dollars. With the inception of this slander case, they became 
the fad. The majority of trials for the next few years were for abusive 
words, or other causes, which make up a slander charge. At one time there 
were eleven cases on the docket. The Glover-Foote case was perhaps the 
most notable of these old cases, and from that particular one many others 
were born, and assumed equally as large proportions. 

In the June term, 1823, Henry P. Thornton. Edgar C. Wilson, Thomas 
H. Blake and James Whitcomb were admitted to the bar. This was the sec- 
ond time for Whitcomb, and it probably resulted from an oversight. Thorn- 
ton was a picturesque example of the old-time attorney. He was born in 
North Carolina, educated in Kentucky, and trained in the law courts of south- 
ern Indiana. His legal experience had included clashes with such men as 
Amos Lane, James Marshall. Stevens, Cai-penter, Howk, Harbin H. Moore 
and others. He was not a great and powerful lawyer ; he was too lenient with 
his opponent to be so, but he was a conscientious, faithful and exact attorney, 
and commanded the universal esteem and respect of his friends and clients. 

The Indiana Fanner, published at Salem, Avas ordered to receive and 
publish record of the John Connelly-Susannah Connelly divorce case, and in 
the same term of court it was ordered that RoUin C. Dewey be appointed 
prosecuting attorney, in place of Winthrop Foote, who resigned. Three 
indictments were returned against supervisors of highways, namely : Hiram 
Donica, Elijah Currj' and Bartholomew Thatcher. At this time the first alien 
was made a citizen of the United States in this court. Samuel Wilson, an 
Irishman, so declared his intention. Samuel Lockhart also renounced the 
English government, and was made an American citizen. 

In the April term, 1824. John F. Ross, his commission duly signed by 
Governor William Hendricks, took his seat as judge of the second circuit. 
John H. Sampson was the only gentleman admitted to the bar during this 
term. An application was made at this time by John A. Smith for a pension, 
in return for his services during the Revolutionary war. After this, there 
were many such cases before the court. 



In the same term, .Vpril, 1824, occurred the first arson case of Lawrence 
county. It was listed in the records as "The State vs. James Taylor, Pleasant 
Taylor and William Leaky." James Taylor and Leaky were exonerated, 
but Pleasant Taylor was not so fortunate. He was given a year in the state 
prison. At this session Daniel Rogers was recommended to the county bar; 
Ebenezer Post applied for l>enefits due him for Revolutionary service. Rollin 
C. Dewey was appointed to the oflice of master of chancery. 

At the April term, 1825. William Connelly and John D. Laughlin were 
qualifiied as associate justices. John Lowrey was continued for seven years 
as clerk of the circuit court, he having already served seven years. William 
W. Wick (late judge), Reuben W. Nelson and Hugh L. Livingston were 
admitted to practice. Mr. Li\'ingston, a native of South Carolina, was an- 
other resident attornev of Lawrence countv for a number of years, sharing 
the honor with Mr. Dewey. He afterward moved to Bloomfield and Sullivan, 
where he practiced. In the August term, 1825, John Kingsbury was selected 
as state prosecutor. 


On Februarv 6. 1826, the first term of the circuit court was held in the 
city of Bedford, the seat of justice having been removed from Palestine. On 
the east side of the public s([uare, in a two-stoiy log house, on the ground 
afterward occupied by the Gardner Imilding. this court was held. The build- 
ing was in poor condition, the cracks between the logs open, the house without 
paint, and a general air. of destitution about the place. Often the juries 
reached a verdict while sitting on the logs back of the building. The records 
kept by the clerk and recorder were in the upper story. 

Harbin H. Moore and Milton Stapp were admitted to the bar in the 
August term, 1826, and in the April term, 1827, Heniy Handy, N. G. Howard. 
Isaac Howk. William K. Howard and Albert S. White were admitted. Mr. 
Howk was the father of Judge Howk. later of the state supreme court. Mr. 
White was in after years a member of Congress, serving two temis. In the 
August, 1^27, term. John Farnham was admitted. Many cases were tried 
during this term, chief among them being the application of Patrick McManus 
for a pension ; the furnishing of a guard for Jameson Hamilton, convicted 
of assault and battery with intent to kill George Miller. In April, 1828, 
James Collins was admitted to the legal bar. 



Perhaps one of the most notable cases of this day was the one of Ezekiel 
Blackwell vs. the Board of Justices of Lawrenc-e county. Blackwell had re- 
fused to take lots in Bedford corresponding to his lots in Palestine, and he 
had sued the county for the value of his lots in that town before the removal 
of the county seat. The supreme court reversed the lower court, and the 
case went, on change of \enue, to Washington county. 

The April term, 1829, saw the admission of Enos Fletcher to the bar, and 
the trying of a hog marking case, by a jury of three, namely, Stever Younger, 
Horatio Jeter and Elbert Jeter. John Lowrey, clerk, resigned, and John 
Brown was appointed pro tem. Brown was regularly commissioned for 
seven years at the next court. Another Bedford lawyer appears on the rec- 
ords at this juncture, \\'illiani R. Slaughter, a native of Virginia. He began 
the practice of law in a frame shanty, represented the county in the Legisla- 
ture, and was afterwards appointed register of the land offices in Michigan. 

Other distinguished men were admitted to the bar soon after this, among 
them being Tilghman A. Howard, partner of James Whitcomb at Blooming- 
ton. He was elected to Congress, and came near being both senator and 
governor. He held the office of charge d'afTaires to Texas, a republic then, 
in 1844, and in that southern land he met his death. Howard was admitted 
to the bar in March. 183 1. In March. 1832, Pleasant Pagett and Joseph 
Athon were made associate justices, and Robert Mitchell, clerk. Richard W. 
Thompson was admitted in September. 1833. and at the Septeml^er term. 
1833, Oliver H. Allen and Phrelan G. Paugh were admitted. John H. 
Thompson presided at this term, and was later succeeded by John H. Allen. 
In September. 1835. Elsy Woodward was placed as associate judge in place 
of Joseph Athon, who resigned. 


The first murder indictment returned by the grand jury in Lawrence 
county was in May. 1843. 3-nd against Polly Ann Wymore. The jury pro- 
nounced the verdict of not guilty. 


There are certain names linked with the legal history of Lawrence county 
which became notable in the annals of the state as a whole. Some of them 
are as follows : James Hughes. Jonathan K. Kinney, George H. Monson, 
John H. Butler, Cyrus L. Dunham. John J. Cummiiis, Daniel Long. William 


T. Otto took the place of David McDonald on the bench, and Alexander Butler 
became an associate judge. William W. Williamson, William A. Porter and 
Frank Emerson were also admitted to the bar. In the November term, 1846, 
McDonald presided, the clerk was Gus Clark, and the sheriff, Felix Raymond. 
Andrew J. Simpson, George A. Thornton, Samuel W. Short, John A. Miller, 
T. R. E. Goodlet and Curtiss Dunham were admitted during this year and in 
1847. In 1848, Lovell H. Rousseau, Jesse Cox, Jacob B. Low, A. B. Carlton 
and George A. Buskirk were added to the list of attorneys. In 1850 A< G. 
Cavins, Alexander McCleland and E. D. Pearson were admitted. 


George A. Bicknell took his .seat as sole judge in March, 1853, and the 
reversion to the one-judge style of court created no little dissatisfaction among 
the legal men of the time. The associate justices became a thing of the past. 
John Edwards, Morton C. Hunter, Nathaniel McDonald, Horace Heffron and 
Newton F. Malott were admitted during the term this change was made. 

Others who became members of the Lawrence county bar in the years 
following shortly after were : John D. Ferguson, Thomas L. Smith, Jonathan 
Payne, J. S. Buchanan, Frank Emerson, Thomas M. Brown, I. N. Stiles, W. 
W. Browning, Samuel P. Crawford (ex-governor of Kansas), S. H. Bus- 
kirk, A. C. Voris, William Weir, William R. Harrison, Francis L. Neff, 
E. E. Rose, *P. A. Parks, C. T. Woolfolk, William Herod, Oliver T. Baird, 
A. D. Lemon, Newton Crook, William Paugh, Gideon Putnam, Theodore 
Gazley, John H. Martin. Thomas L. Smith, Michael C. Kerr, Fred T. Brown, 
R. C. McAfee, Lycurgus Irwin, Madison Evans. Alfred Ryers. 


In the September term, i860, the case of the State vs. John Hitchcock, 
murder in the first degree, came up for trial. Hitchcock shot a man named 
Graham, who was pursuing him for stealing a horse. The court sent Hitch- 
cock to prison for a life term, but he afterward escaped and was never heard 
from. At one time during his incarceration he begged Governor Morton to 
be allowed to enlist in the army, but his request was refused. 

In September, 1862, Jefferson Brannan was indicted for the murder 
of Thomas Peters. After nine years of haggling, the case finally came up 
for trial, in September, 1871, and Brannan was given a prison sentence, dur- 
ing the service of which he died. 


The case of the State vs. WiUiam Sanders, charged with a triple murder 
in Orange count)^ came up in the March term, 1867, and the defendant had 
such attorneys as Daniel W. Voorhees, Thomas B. Buskirk and Putnam and 
Friedley. The prosecutor was Robert M. Weir, assisted by Francis Wilson, 
of Orange county. The jury failed to agree, and the defendant gave bond 
for eight thousand dollars for each of the three cases, in security for his 
appearance next term. He never appeared, and nothing was ever done with 
the bond. 

The State vs. John IT. Morrow and Luzetta V. Christopher was one of 
the most conspicuous of the early murder trials. Morrow was residing at 
the home of Mrs. Christopher's husband, and late one night the neighbors 
found the body of Christopher, wounded by knife cuts. Morrow himself, 
Mrs. Christopher, and the children were all more or less injured by knife 
wounds. Morrow and Mrs. Christopher were indicted and the first trial re- 
sulted in a ''hung jury."' Afterwards, however, the two were convicted for 
a term of years. Mrs. Christopher died in the woman's prison at Indianapolis. 

In February, 1874, W, T. Walters, W. A. Land and D. O. Spencer 
were admitted, and in May Samuel C. Wilson, William Farrell and John R. 
East. In 1875. M. C. Hunter, Jr.. Albert H. Davis, Allan W. Prather and 
C. W. Thompson were admitted: in 1876, B. E. Rhoades, C. F. McNutt 
and Harry Kelly; in 1877, James McClelland, Ben Hagle, H. H. Edwards, 
S. B. Voyles, Frank Branaman and Fred T. Rand; in 1878, John Q. Voyles, 
H. H. Friedley. Thomas G. Mahan, Gen. W. T. Spicely, C. H. Burton, 
Joseph R. Burton, Aaron Shaw, John T. Dye and L. C. Weir; in 1879, 
John S. Denny, D. H. Ellison, J. H. Willard, Ferdinand S. Swift, George 
A. Thornton; in 1881. Simpson B. Lowe, S. S. Mayfield and John M. 
Stalker; in 1882. Harry C. Huffstetter. and in 1884. Francis B, Hitchcock 
and Eli K. Millen. Oificial records show that the resident attorneys of Bed- 
ford at this time were E. D. Pearson, George W. Friedley, John Riley, 
Newton F. Crooke, George O. Iseminger, James H. Willard. Moses F. 
Dunn. George G, Dunn. Robert N. Palmer. W. H. Martin, Samuel D. 
Luckett, Simpson Lowe and F. B. Hitchcock. 

About the year 1882 the narrow gauge railroad case was the main inter- 
est of the county. Subscriptions had been made to the road, and a tax 
amounting to forty thousand dollars voted by Shawswick township. Eflforts 
were made to nullify the payment of this tax, but was unsuccessful after 
going through many courts and employing the efforts of the ablest lawyers 
of the day. the case being heard in the Monroe. Washington and Orange 
countv courts and in United States courts. 


The court of common pleas, when estabHshed, was very Hmited, but 
afterward was ,^■i^'en more scope. It did all probate work, with limited 
criminal and civil jurisdiction. The first judge was J. R. E. Goodlet, and 
he took his seat in January, 1853. Others who occupied the position were 
Col. Frank Emerson, Ralph Applewhite, Beaty McClelland and J. D. New. 


The following is a list of the attorneys practicing at the Lawrence 
county bar in 1913 : 

At Bedford — John D. Alexander, James E. Borufif, Ray R. Borufif, 
Thomas J. Brooks. William F. Brooks, Logan R. Brow^ning, William E. 
Clark, Moses F. Dunn, Fred N. Fletcher, Albert J. Fields, Charles R. 
Gowen, George O. Iseminger, Joseph S. Ikerd, Harold Kelley, Simpson B. 
Lowe, William H. Martin, Walter J. Mosier, William R. Martin, Lee E. 
Ragsdale, Robert L. Mellen, McHenry Owen, Henry P. Pearson, Robert N. 
Palmer, Eli B. Stephenson, John L. Smith, John H. Underwood, Thomas C. 
Underwood, F. Marshall Woolery, James A. Zaring. 

At Oolitic — H. L. Paxton. 

At Mitchell — Samuel S. Doman, John H. Edwards. Calvin Paris, Joseph 



Perhaps there is no harder topic to write upon, in the annals of any 
county, than that of the medical profession, from the fact that physicians, 
either through lack of time or inclination, seldom keep records of their prac- 
tice and of the various meetings of medical associations that in almost all 
counties are formed from time to time. Yet, the family physician is always 
on hand with the earliest settlement in almost every community. He goes 
with the tread of pioneer life and is ever watchful after the health and life 
of his fellow men. He has ever been noted for his daring and self-sacrificing 
life, even braving the severest of wintry storms, over almost impassable roads, 
in the face of great hardships, frequently at the jeopardy of his own life. 
He was in an early day read}' to leave his own warm bed to face a biting 
frost to gain the bedside of some sick man, woman or infant, without regard 
to the financial standing of his patient. The books of early-day doctors were 
filled with accounts for services for which not a farthing was ever forth- 
coming. Unaided by the modern hospitals and surgical appliances, these 
old-time doctors used to manage to set the broken or dislocated limbs and 
care for the ugly wounds of tlieir patients, in a most remarkable manner, 
and usually with great success. 

With the march of years and decades, the science of medicine has 
greatly advanced, until today the cases that once seemed hopeless are treated 
with ease and a good degree of certainty. The mode of administering medi- 
cine has also materially changed in the last fifty years. The schools of 
medicine, whose name has come to be Tegion, are all more liberal than in 
former davs, and the day has forever gone when a "regular" looks down 
with a sneer on the work of a homeopath or even an osteopath practitioner. 

It will be impossible, for the reasons given, to give much concerning 
the life and character of the early physicians in Lawrence county, Imt some 
tribute should be here appended to their memory. 


It is not positively asserted, but generally believed, that the first doctor 
to practice medicine in Lawrence county was Dr. Winthrop Foote, who was 


in Bedford when the town was laid out as a county seat. He was also ad- 
mitted to the legal profession here in 1819, and became an attorney of some 
note, but he is said to have been a better judge of medicine than of law. 
He was a native of Connecticut and had superior educational advantages. 
He was a man of eccentric manners, of extended information, of pungent 
wit and fine conversational powers. He was universally known throughout 
this county in the early days of its settlement. 

Dr. William W. Yandell, a native of Tennessee, born in 1828, had an 
exciting youth and young manhood. He was one of a number who caught 
the 1849 California "gold fever" and crossed the plains in that eventful year. 
He also \isited tlie Sandwich islands, as well as the uncivilized man-eating 
Fijis. He carried on speculation and mined much until 1855, when he came 
home and took up the study of medicine. He attended medical schools in 
Louisville. Kentucky, and located at Bryantsville, this county, in 1858, re- 
maining until 1861, when he became a private soldier in Company K, Seven- 
teenth Indiana Regiment. He served until honorably discharged in 1865. 
He then resumed practice at Knoxville, Indiana, but in 1874 removed to 
Huron, Lawrence county, where he continued in active practice. 

Dr. A. W. Bare, born in Indiana in 1826, died in 1910. He graduated 
at Hanover College, Indiana, in 1848, read medicine and entered Louisville 
Medical University, practiced medicine at Brownstown, finally locating in 
Bryansville. where he built up an excellent practice. From 1864 to 1865 
he was assistant surgeon, located most of the time at Louisville. 

Dr. William H. Smith, born in Salem, this state, in 1830, died in Bed- 
ford in i()i2. He entered the Corydon Seminary, and later the college at 
Bloomington. and studied medicine under Dr. Elijah Newland, of Salem. 
He attended Louisville Medical College and Bellevue Hospital Medical Col- 
lege, New York City. He located at Leesville, this county, in 1863, prac- 
ticed medicine, and also was a merchant and successful farmer. He owned 
at one time nine hundred acres of land and had much live stock. He was a 
Freemason and in politics was a Democrat. 

Dr. Elihu S. Mclntire, bom in Marietta, Ohio, in 1832, was reared on 
his parents" farm in Spencer county, Indiana, began teaching at the age of 
nineteen years, and soon thereafter took up the study of medicine. In the 
autumn of 1856 he entered the medical department of the Iowa University 
at Keokuk, graduating in the spring of 1858, and at once commenced the 
practice of his profession at Dallas City, Illinois, but in 1862 enlisted and 
was appointed assistant surgeon of the Seventy-eighth Illinois Regiment. 
He resigned in 1863 and went to practicing in Crawfordsville, Indiana, re- 


mained there until 1865, then came to Mitchell, this countv, where he soon 
became a leading doctor of his community. Subsequently, the Doctor aban- 
doned his profession and edited the Mitchell Coimnercial for eleven years. 
He was a strong anti-slavery man; in church connections a Methodist, and 
was a member of the Masonic order. As both a physician and editor he 
had few superiors in Lawrence county. 

Dr. John B. Larkin was born in Burlington. VernKjnt. in 1833. of Irish 
parentage. He followed farm life with his father, attending the common 
schools. He also worked in cotton and woolen mills in the New England 
states and at Newburg, New York, until 1852, then went South, visiting 
several cities by flat-boat. Tn 1854 he went to Ripley county, Indiana, taught 
school and went to Shelbyville. Illinois, where he attended an academy, 
taught and studied medicine. He then attended medical college at Ann Arbor, 
Michigan, and commenced the practice of medicine at Huron, this county. 
In August, 1862, he enlisted and was made an assistant surgeon, later sur- 
geon, serving till the end of the Civil war, then located in Mitchell, this county, 
where he was still in practice in the eighties. He was a graduate of the 
Hospital Medical College of Louisville and won class honors there. He was 
made secretary of the board of medical examiners for pensions at Mitchell. 
He was an Odd Fellow, and in his church relations was of the Methodist 

Dr. William T. Ellison, born in 1849, ''^ Lawrence county. Indiana, re- 
mained at home until his father's death in 1867, when he began the study of 
medicine with Dr. May, with whom he remained some time, finally graduating 
at Bellevue Hospital Medical College. He commenced practice in Illinois, 
but two years later located at Heltonville, this county, where he soon won a 
fine medical practice. He was a consistent member of the Christian church, 
and in politics was a Democrat. 

Dr. John H. Faucett was born in Orange county, Indiana, in 1840. In 
1 86 1 he enlisted in Company K, Forty-ninth Indiana Regiment, and was at 
the famous siege of Vicksburg, where he was severely wounded. Having 
been honorably discharged in 1863, he came home and in 1866 commenced 
the study of medicine at Kecksville, Indiana ; graduated in 1874 from the 
Missouri Medical College, St. Louis, having practiced some, however, prior 
to that time. He first located at Trinity Springs. Indiana, remained until 
1876, when he went to Fayetteville, Lawrence county, wliere he was last 
known as being among the leading doctors of that section. 

Dr. Harvey Voyles, born in Indiana in 1840, was educated at the public 
schools and worked at farm labor. He attended the Salem Academv and 


also Bloomington ("olle.s^e (Indiana State University). In 1874 he com- 
menced the study of his profession in the offices of Dr. James B. Wilson, at 
Salem, later attending the medical department of the Louisville University, 
from which, he graduated in 1877, immediately beginning practice at South 
Boston, Indiana, remained two years, then located at Trinity Springs. After 
three years there he came to Fayetteville, this county, where he remained in 
practice many years. He was a Republican and cast his first vote for Presi- 
dent U. S. Grant. 


At Leesville, prior to 1880, was Dr. John C. Gavins. 

At Fayetteville an early-day doctor was Dr. Henry Voyles. 

At Silverville were Drs. S. D. Honnocher and J. S. Blackburn. 

At Mitchell were Drs. A. J. McDonald, J. B. Uarkin, G. W. Burton, E. 
S. Mclntire, J. C. Pearson. A. L. Goodwin. 

At Bono were Drs. Walter Kelso, James Montgomery, George L. Dunn, 
Hicks. Manuel, Hugh Montgomery, Henry Malott, E. P. Gibson. I. J. Hop- 

At Lawrenceport were Drs. Knight, Charles A. Pearson, Maybury, 
Price, Newkirk, William A. Sloss, I. D. Kulkley, Ebberley, George Hort- 
bin. I. N. Plummer, G. W. Durment. A. F. Berry, T. W. Bullitt and J. A. 

At Tunnelton were Drs. Hugh L. Kimberlin, William Graves, J. L. 
Linder, Davis, L. A. Crim, H. C. Dixon, Samuel B. Howard. 

At Huron were Drs. McCullough. David Chase, G. W. White, Springer. 
Rodney N. Plummer. Edward Millis. H. Gather. William Yandell. 

At Bryantsville were Drs. James Wilson. I. A. Rariden. A. L. Goodwin, 
A. W. Bare. Laban Palmer. 

At Springville were Drs. John Lyon (first), Henry Lingle (1835), P. 
G. Paugh, S. Lamb, R. G. Norvell, L. S. Spore, J. Huntington, F. W. Beard, 
Macey SheUhm, J. T. Woodward, W. B. Woodward. J. G. Gunn, Milton 
Short. James Beatty. 

Dr. Voyles moved to Bedford in 1890, since which time he has been in 
active practice, being the present health officer of the city. 

Dr. Samuel A. Rariden, who was born July i, 1814. was a prominent 
physician in Bedford from the early fifties till his death, on May 29, 1897. 
He was also a local preacher in the Methodist Episcopal church many years 
and was a great power for g<ind. leading many a man toward a higher and 
better life. 


Dr. Samuel Denson was born on August 8, 1802, and died September 
18, 1888. He attended the Indiana University, but on account of the cholera 
scare he left that institution and finished at Jefferson Medical College. Phila- 

Dr. John Wesley Newland was born in this county in 1827, died in 
October, 1909. He studied with his cousin. Dr. Benjamin Newland, of 
Bedford, graduated at the University of Louisville, came to Bedford in 1857, 
was two years at Leesville and was in active practice in Bedford till he re- 
tired in 1900. He was very successful in a business way. He was a popular 
preacher in the Christian church many years and was an elder in the First 
Christian church at Bedford over fifty years. He enjoyed a distinction which 
rarely comes to any man, having ushered one baby girl into the world, as 
attending physician ; officiated as minister when she was married ; ushered 
her eldest daughter into the world and performed the ceremony when she 
was married. His death was touching, in that immediately after he offered a 
fervent prayer in the First Christian church, he was stricken with apoplexy 
and died. 

Dr. Benjamin Xewland, born in this county in 182 1. the son of William 
Newland, was for many years one of the most prominent physicians in all 
southern Indiana, being in 1879 president of the State Medical Society. He 
died April 5. 1889. 

Dr. Joseph Stillson, a native of the East, located here in the forties and 
practiced his profession probably forty years, dying about 1878. 


In the autumn of 1913 the following, and possibly a few more, were in 
the practice of medicine in Lawrence county : 

At Bedford— Drs. H. Voyles. J. T. Freeland, R. B. Short, J. H. Hatta- 
ger, J. R. Pearson, N. E. Mattox. O. B. Norman, H. K. Corey, M. Simpson. 
C. H. Emery, E. L. Perkins. A. J. McDonald. C. E. Rariden, E. E. Mitchell, 
J. B. Duncan. 

At Williams— Dr. J. T. McFarlan. 

At Mitchell — Drs. J. C. Kelley, J. D. Byrnes. John Gibbons. George 
Gibbons, W. C. Sherwood. 

At Oolitic — Drs. R. B. Short. 01i\'er McLaughlin, Claude Dollins, Ray. 

At Leesville— Dr. S. W. Smith. 

At Lawrenceport — Dr. J. A. Andrews and T. N. Bullitt. 

At Tunnelton— Dr. H . I. Matlock. 



Here, as in nearly every county, there have been efforts to maintain 
medical societies, or associations. Some have succeeded for a time and some 
have "died a bornin'." The first attempt at these societies was in 1853, 
when a famous mal-practice suit had brought a large number of physicians 
together, and a meeting was held and a partial organization was effected, a 
code of medical ethics and a fee formulated. This was short-lived, 
though many interesting meetings were held as the result. In 1864 a meet- 
ing was held at Bedford to try and revive the society whose early days had 
been so checkered in its career. The following physicians were at this meet- 
ing, and are here given, as they will show who were among the physicians of 
that day : Drs. John C. Gavins, W. H. Smith, Ben Newland, S. A. Rariden, 
J. W. Newland, Joseph Stillson, W. Burton, J. B. Larkin, Isaac Denson, 
John A. Blackwell, G. W. Burton, W. B. Woodward, F. W. Beard, John 
Burton, James Dodd, P. G. Pugh, A. W. Bare, T. P. Conley, H. C. Malott, 
H. L. Kimberlin, J. T. Biggs, J. J. Durand, Hiram Malott. John Gunn and 
several others. 

This organization seems to have been postponed until 1866, at which 
time it was really effected, and was then conducted for several years, with 
much profit to the members and was still in existence in the eighties. In 
1875 it became a branch of the State Medical Society. In 1883 its officers 
were: Drs. E. D. Laughlin, president; E. S. Mclntire, vice-president; G. W. 
Burton, secretary ; S. A. Rariden, treasurer ; W. H. Smith. A. L. Berry and 
Hamilton Stillson, censors. The records further cannot be given, as they 
were unfortunately lost. The society is now in a flourishing condition and 
meets each month at some convenient place in the county. It has about thirty 
members at present, September, 1913. Its officers are; President, Dr. Rich- 
ard B. Short; vice-president. Dr. John A. Gibbons; secretary and treasurer, 
Dr. F. S. Hunter; censors. Dr. Claude Dollins. Dr. J. D. Byrnes and Dr. 
Morrill Simpson ; delegate to state society meeting. Dr. J. T. McFarlin ; alter- 
nate. Dr. E. E. Mitchel. 



That the pioneer band who first settled the wilds of Lawrence county 
were of a religious turn of mind and believed in rearing their sons and 
daughters in the way of religious teachings, is made clear to the reader of 
this chapter, for it will here be seen that no sooner had the pioneer set his 
stakes and provided a shelter for his little flock, than he set about supplying 
his neighborhood with rude churches and invited the itinerant preachers who 
chanced along this way to preach the Word to them. 

Guthrie township, as now understood, has the honor of being the first 
to entertain a preacher in Lawrence county. Something more positive than 
mere tradition says that early in 1816 Armenius Milligan, a Methodist 
preacher, located near present Tunnelton, and there held a meeting and con- 
tinued to do so at his and neighboring cabins. These were no doubt the 
earliest religious services held within Lawrence county. 

Among those who worshiped with him were the Chitties, Bakers, Becks, 
Guthries, Flinns, Conleys. Brittons and Barnhills. Ambrose Carlton landed 
December 24th on Guthrie creek from North Carolina. But he had a merry 
Christmas with his neighbors the next day, and talked religion from the 
start. His little log house used to stand on the hill by Carlton's graveyard, 
and here he constituted a Baptist church in the first year of his sojourn. 
Soon he built a large brick residence, in which was a very large room, with 
unusual high ceilings, and the young people of modern times would say, 
"What a glorious place to dance." But this place was known as the Carlton 
home, and this room was designed for religious services, once each month, at 


Among the first, if indeed not the first, Methodist societies formed 
in this county was that in Indian Creek township, before the first Shiloh 
church was erected. Several families by the name of Garten had immigrated 
from Kentucky, all of whom were of this religious faith. Richard Browning 
was a Methodist "circuit rider" in old Kentucky and became a local preacher 


at Shiloh. In 1821 a small log church was built on Mr. Pitman's place and 
it was named Shiloh church. It was three miles to the east of Fayetteville. 
Rev. Browning served as pastor eight years, when he was drowned. At one 
time Bishop Roberts preached on this charge. In 1840 a large frame church 
was built and was still in use. The Presbyterians also used this building for 
services some years. 

The Springville Methodist Episcopal church was formed about 1822 or 
1823. It was at the old pioneer Athons school house, where meetings were 
held ; Josiah Athons gathered a small company and held services there. The 
first preacher was John May. In 1838 a new church was provided through 
the efforts of the minister, James Williams, and his good wife. The building 
stood in town at Springville, and it was a neat, solid brick building, placed 
on land donated by Mr. Athons. It was destroyed by fire in 1868. but in 1874 
another was erected and in 1884 the society numbered seventy. 

The Bedford Methodist Episcopal church dates back to 1826, when a band 
of Methodist people organized themselves into a class. Among the first 
members were such honored names as George McKnight, and wife, Mrs. 
Joseph Rawlins, Mrs. Joseph Glover, Ellen Peters, Mrs. Campbell and daugh- 
ters, Alexander Butler and wife and Robert Dougherty and wife, with a 
score more others. The first minister, Rev. Edmond Ray, was a remarkable 
man. Also another preacher here was none less than Bishop Roberts, so 
well known in the Indiana conference. The first presiding elder (district 
superintendent now) was John Armstrong. In September, 1835. land was 
bought of John J. Barnett, on which a large building was erected. Later it 
was used bv the Roman Catholic denomination, and stood on the corner of 
High and Culbertson streets. It served the Methodists thirty-five years. Its 
bell was the first that ever sounded out to churchgoers in Bedford. About 
1870 the society purchased the Old-School Presbyterian church building, 
which was used until 1899, when the present church was erected. In 1884 the 
church had a membership of one hundred and twenty-five and was out of 
debt. In 1899 the present magnificent edifice was erected at a cost of thirty- 
five thousand dollars. In a few years the parsonage was added and an annex, 
connecting all three buildings, all constructed of Bedford stone. The entire 
property was valued in 1913 at fifty-six thousand dollars. The present 
membership of this church is one thousand thirty-six. 

The Methodist church at Lawrenceport originated from the little colony 
of settlers that accompanied Mr. Lawrence from Maryland. Among these 
were Alonzo Taylor, Stuart Moore, Joseph Moore, Dr. Samuel K. Knight, 
Charles and Tohn Reed. Manv returned to Maryland, but not until a church 



had been planted. Almost the first buildings erected were a school and 
church house in 1837. To them came Bishop Roberts. In 1885 this society 
had sixty members, but no regular church building. 

The Pleasant Hill Methodist Episcopal church was formed by the 
Craigs. Hacklers and others about 1847. ^^id that year they built a church. 
It was, of course, of logs and was situated near the later Hackley residence, 
and it had open windows for lack of glass. The first preacher in charge was 
Rev. James McCann. The church served ten years and was then burned, 
but was rebuilt in 1865 ; however, being too small, a larger house was erected 
two years later. Bishop Simpson dedicated this church. Thirty constituted 
its membership in 1885. 

From an accurate account of the ^Methodist Episcopal church at Mitchell, 
published in the Couuncrciol in 1874, the following is learned : 

In a grove near where the church later stood, the first class was formed 
in the somber days of the autumn of 1856. Thirteen united in this effort, 
and a few weeks later regular services were had. The first appointed minister 
there was Rev. F. Walker, he having been sent there by the 1858 Indiana 
conference. At the close of his third year he reported twenty-eight mem- 
bers, and a Sabbath school of thirty members. In i860 a frame building was 
erected. In 1884 this church enjoyed prosperity, with a membership of about 
two hundred. A new church was built in 1874, at a cost of eight thousand 
dollars, including the lot. One member, Jacob Finger, contributed two 
thousand dollars towards this fine church edifice. With slight changes, this 
building is still serving the congregation. In iqii a parsonage was com- 
menced, which, with other improvements, amounted to an outlay of three 
thousand dollars. The present membership of this church is three hundred 
and seventy-five. 

There is an account of where there were Methodist meetings held at 
private homes as early as 1840, a mile and one-half from Mitchell. 

Other churches of this denomination in the county are: The church at 
Heltonville, with a membership of three hundred and seventy-four, in 1912; 
the church at Mitchell, with two hundred and fourteen; the church at Oolitic 
and Springville. with a membership of five hundred and twelve, in 1912; one 
at Tunnelton. with a membership of three hundred and fifty-three, in 1912. 
and the Bedford circuit. 


This society was organized first as a Presbyterian society, whose build- 
ing stood where later stood Thomas Whitted's mill. The first and only pastor 


this society ever had was Rev. Koph, who, in 1864, organized a church, but 
he was not acceptable to his flock, and when, in 1866, Frederick Ruff, a 
Methodist minister from New Albany, preached in Bedford, he won most of 
the members to his faith. In 1871 Philip Duher preached for these people 
regularly. In 1872 a small frame school house was purchased on Eastern 
avenue, between IMitchell and Culbertson streets, which they converted into a 
church. In the early eighties the membership numbered fifty-three. 


The followers of Alexander Campbell, now styled "Christians," have 
always been a strong, denomination in Lawrence county. Thirty years ago 
they had twenty churches, but the following are all for which statistics 
can now be given: Bartlettsville, 125 members; Bedford. 400; Bryantsville, 
52; Christian Union, 60; Indian Creek, 32; Leatherwood, 300; Leesville, 13; 
Mount Pleasant, 60; Port William, 67; Popcorn, 25; Springville, 100. 

Indian Creek Christian church was at first a Baptist society. In 1818 
a small company of believers of this faith met at the house of Wesley Short 
and there an organization of a church took place. To Wesley Short and 
Jonathan Jones must be ascribed the honor of founding this church, the first 
in the township. In 1821 a building was erected ; it was small and constructed 
of poles and had open windows. There was a large double chimney in the 
center, with a double fire-place fronting each end of the room. So much 
wood was consumed there that it was no uncommon sight to see some good 
brother deacon coming to church with his Bible under one arm and a sharp 
axe under the other. This building served until 1827, when the membership 
had grown to be one hundred and twenty-seven. This was all under the care 
of Wesley Short. It was in 1827 that the Old-School. Regular Calvinistic. 
Iron-side, Hardshell Baptists, all of which names were applied to them, 
withdrew and formed the Indian Creek Christian church. The chief leaders 
were the Shorts, Mayfields and Armstrongs. A new church w^as built that 
year, on Indian creek. It was made of logs, cut near by, and this served for 
fifteen years, and some say twenty years. In 1846 John Short and wife deeded 
land near Indian Creek bridge, upon which to erect a neat frame church. It 
was thirty-five feet square and cost one thousand five hundred dollars. From 
that date on the society was prosperous many years. 

Leatherwood Christian church was first of that denominaiton ever estab- 
lished in Lawrence county. This was effected in 1830, at the house of Robert 
Woodv. five miles east of Bedford. The first members were inclusive of 


these : William and Susan Newland, Robert and Norman Woody, Peter and 
Margaret Smith, Martin Smith, Benjamin Hensley and Katy Peed. Martin 
Smith was chosen evangelist. At the first meeting Stever Yoimger donated 
one acre of ground on which to build a church. It was a log house, twenty- 
five by thirty-five feet in size, furnished with slab seats. In 1840 a better 
building was provided, which was of brick, forty by sixty feet, costing about 
two thousand five hundred dollars. Later a finer edifice was erected. In 
1850 the membership had reached four hundred. In 1884 it was the second 
largest church of the denomination in this county, and had three hundred 

Spring\'ille Christian church was established really through the breaking 
away of Wesley Short from the old Baptist church in 1830 and accepting the 
teachings of Alexander Campbell. In 1848 Campbell visited Mr. Short. In 
the eighties, a grandson of Mr. Short, Ouincy Short, was pastor of this 

The Bedford Christian church has a history reaching back as far as 
1835, although its written history only goes to 1846. In 1835 Elder J. M. 
Mathes was induced to leave an appointment and preach at the Bedford court 
house. For the next eleven years many of this faith came to this locality 
and in May, 1846, Elders O'Kane and Jameson effected a permanent organi- 
zation. For a few years they met at the school house and at the Baptist 
church, later at the Presbyterian church, after which they provided them- 
selves with a church building of their own. The corner stone of their build- 
ing was set in 1854. The basement was partly finished and occupied in the 
fall of 1855. In 1853 the membership was fifty-one; in 1856 it was seventy- 
six; in 1858 it was one hundred and eighteen ; in 1864 it was two hundred and 
fifty-two; in 1884 it had reached four hundred. Its [jresent niemliership is 
about fourteen hundred. 

The present magnificent stone edifice, near the federal building, was 
erected in iQoo at a cost of thirty-seven thousand dollars. It occupies lots 
next to the Methodist church, the two denominations holding the whole front 
of the block, and their two buildings are the finest and largest within the 
entire county. 

The New Union Christian church was the result of a division in the old 
Shiloh church. In a protracted meeting held by the Christians in 1867, Rev. 
J. M. Mathes was reminded of the terms under which the society used the 
building, that no sectarian sermons were to be preached. This hint was taken 
and the Christian people went to a school house near by and conducted the 
remainder of their services, and manv Methodists united with them. Ground 


for church and cemetery purposes were donated by WilHam Tannehill and a 
large church was buiU. It cost one thousand dollars and was situated about 
three miles to the west of Bedford. 

The First Christian church of Mitchell, Indiana, was organized on 
May 27, 1906. Previous to this formal organization much thought had been 
given to the work, and many private exchanges of opinion had been made, 
when a few would meet after the day's business had closed. On September 3, 
1905, a very important meeting was held in the Methodist church, at which 
meeting plans \vere agreed upon and never for a moment were these plans 
altered or forgotten. The following scripture texts were read at that meeting: 
"Go ye into all the world and preach the gospel to every creature" ; "Neglect 
not the assembling of yourselves together as the manner of some is"; "Ask 
and ye shall receive, seek and ye shall find, knock and it shall be opened unto 
you." Another very important meeting was held in the Baptist church, in 
February, 1906. During this meeting L. H. Stine, then of Tipton, Indiana, 
encouraged the people to a more determined effort. The Ladies Aid Society 
was organized December t8, 1905. with sixteen members. Mrs. James W. 
Batman was the first president, and Mrs. Wayne Gilly has the same position 
at present. This organization has done a wonderful work for the advance- 
ment of the church, having earned and collected several thousand dollars, 
which has been spent in the Lord's work. The church building is a cement 
brick veneer, erected by Ball Brothers, of Brownstown, Indiana. The seating 
capacity is three hundred and twenty-five. The corner stone was laid on 
Tune 8, 1907. This service was conducted by Brother Harley Jackson, of 
Seymour, Indiana. The building was dedicated to divine worship on Septem- 
ber 8, 1907, by F. M. Rains, of Cincinnati, Ohio. The total cost of building 
and equipment was seven thousand dollars, and all loans have been paid. 
They have the following evangelists and ministers to conduct special meet- 
ings : T. J. Legg and Mrs. Lola Calvert, H. H. Clark, Harley Jackson, Rufus 
Finnell and Miss F. Kimble, R. W. Abberly and WilHam Leigh. Regular 
ministers have been as follows : E. S. Lewis, I. Konkle, H. J. Bennett and 
H. A. Wingard. Others who have visited and encouraged the society are the 
following: M. C. Hughes, Dr. J. W. Newland, E. Richard Edwards, Levi 
Batman, John Williams, Ira Batman, Amzi Atwater, Quincy Short and John 
W. Marshall. The church building has been open, and the Lord's table 
spread every Lord's day since the building was dedicated to the Lord's work. 
Their purpose is to exalt the Christ, and bring men and women into His king- 
dom. The church was organized on May 27, 1906. by W. T. McGowan, of 
Indianapolis. Indiana. There were about eighty charter members, and there 


has been a steady growth, having enrolled five hundred and fifty names, with a 
president resident membership of three hundred and twenty-five. The present 
(1913) elders are J. W. Batman, W. S. Burris and John Cutsinger (non- 
resident). The deacons are J. H. Landreth, Howard Chitty. Ambrose Hos- 
tetler, A. O. Hackney, Marcus Smith, Harve Porter, Joseph Duncan. Trus- 
tees, J. W. Batman, Columbus Smith and Ambrose Hostetler. 


In the autumn of 1913 there were the following churches of this faith 
within the county, and possibly a few more smaller ones : Bedford, where 
there is a membership of 1,513 enrolled, and property valued at $50,000. A 
$37,000 church was erected in 1900 and in 1913 was all paid for and the 
society had no debts hanging over its head. 

At Mitchell the church had a membership of 325 and property valued at 

At Guthrie, 50 members, with property valued at $600. 

At Popcorn, a membership of 24 and a church valued at $300. 

At New Union the value of the church is only $100, and the member- 
ship is 55. 

At Mount Union the church property is valued at S500, and the member- 
ship is 80. 

The Bridge church, near S])ringvi]le, is valued at $500, and the member- 
ship is 12. 

The Mundell church is valued at $800, and the membership is ioi._ 

There are churches at Tunnelton, Barlettsville, the Fishing Creek church 
at Stonington, a work at Inhook, Heltonville. Mt. Pleasant and Bugs Chapel, 
near Peerless. Also a good society at Leatherwood. 

Perhaps the present property of this denomination in the county is valued 
at about $75,000. 


This is a branch of the original Christian, or earlier the Campbellite 
church, founded by Alexander Campbell. It has been styled the "Anti church" 
on account of its people not belie\'ing in the numerous modern attachments to 
church society life, such as .Sunday schools, with the different leagues and 
young people's societies, etc. Also they are opposed to the use of instru- 
mental music in the churches, and also to the numerous missionary societies 
carried on in most of the e\angelical churches of Christendom. Among the 


followers in this county of this particular church are very many excellent 
men and women, who tie their faith, as they see it, on the teachings of Christ. 

This denomination has societies at Leesville, Mitchell, Bryantsville, Fay- 
etteville, Oolitic and Bedford. Williams. Port William, Mount Olive, Fair- 
view, Pin Hook. Bartlettsville. 

The Bedford church of this denomination have a building on the corner of 
Twelfth and K streets. It is a frame structure, erected in October. 1891, on a 
lot donated the society by Thomas A. Whitted. 

The church society was organized May, 1891, with about twenty-five men 
and women of this faith. The first elders were William B. Church. William 
Day, William H. Boruff. The first deacons were John W. May. Elmer U. 
Johnson, Walter Quackenbush. Trustees were Thomas A. Whitted. William 
Day, William H. Boruff. The membership in the auutmn of 191 3 Avas about 
three hundred. 


The Baptists date back to about 18 18 in this county. The church in this 
county, known as Salt Creek Baptist church, was one of the first to be formed 
here. It was organized in October, 1821, and was a strong society. It was 
really constituted in 18 19. The first church, which stood near the old Major 
Williams farm, was of logs and stood until about 1874. It was this church 
that split on the question of sending missionaries abroad and denounced the 
doctrines of Alexander Campbell. In 1835 the church had difficulty over 
doctrines and was divided. The church finally, in 1842. went down midst the 
many wrecks of dogmas and foolish creeds. 

Spice Valley Baptist church was formed June i. 1822, with Abram Mit- 
chell as first pastor, under whose ministry the first log church was built. In 
1842 a great revival occurred and many were added to the church, seventy- 
five being immersed at one time. The first church was made from round 
poles and it had a stick-and-dirt chimney at one end. It was built in 1827 
and was very low to the ceiling. A stove was first put into it in 1832. The 
house was burned about 1835, when it was being used as a school room. In 
1837 a brick church was erected. For many years this was a strong society. 

The Leesville Baptist church had its inception about 1837 three miles 
southeast of Leesville and was called Brown's meeting house. It was only 
four logs high, but so large were these logs that when hewn four of them made 
the walls sufficient in height for a church building. When torn down, many 
years later, these logs were taken to Leesville and there used for "side- walks." 
In 1857 the membership was removed to the village of Leesville. 


Spring Creek Baptist church is one of the oldest in the county. It com- 
menced its history at Springville. but in 1850 a division arose, causing a por- 
tion of the members to remove to Avoca. Those who remained built a neat 
frame church in 1878. 

Guthrie Creek Baptist church was once with the White River Associa- 
tion, and in Jackson county at one date. It was three miles northeast of Lees- 
ville and was established in 1820 by John Kinkaid. John Woodmonson, Joseph 
Hanna and Walter Owens. It never attained any considerable strength as a 

The Bedford Baptist church was the outgrowth of a two-weeks' revival 
at Bedford in 1840 by Thomas Robertson, in the old court house. He con- 
tinued in the Presbyterian church building a long time, and with success. In 
June, that year, or possibly the next, a regular organization was perfected 
and the membership grew rapidly. In May, 1843, land was procured by Mr. 
Phelps at three hundred dollars on which to build. This was carried out and 
the old brick church was erected, at a cost of one thousand five hundred dol- 
lars. The first called pastor was Rev. T. N. Robertson. In 1850 the en- 
rollment was one hundred and ten. Today (1913) the church has a member- 
ship of alx)ut six hundred. It has a beautiful church home in an edifice built 
of stone in 1899. which, with their parsonage, is valued at twenty-two thousand 
dollars. The church is on the corner of Thirteenth and M streets. 

The Springville Baptist church, not now in the field, had a wonderful 
interesting history. It was constituted in 1825, chiefly through the influence 
of Samuel Owens, who then owned much of the present site of Springville 
village. He was one of the first ministers and members of the society whose 
historv would be interesting, if it could be collected. Many of the members 
finally went elsewhere. 

The Baptist church of Mitchell was organized January 30, 1864, with the 
following members : Rev. Simpson Burton, Carrie Burton. Allen C. Burton, 
Adeline Burton, John Edwards, Lucy Edwards, Rachel Pless, Mary J. Pless, 
Thomas Giles, Adeline Giles, Margaret Giles, Kate Owens, Mary Montanya, 
Ann Giles, Matilda Dodson, Sarah Blachwell, Hugh McNabb and Sarah Mc- 
Nabb. A brick building, costing some three thousand dollars, was erected in 
connection with the Mitchell Educational Society. In this building was con- 
ducted a school for several years, known as the Mitchell Seminary. The 
church grew in influence and numbers. On the 15th day of December, 1901, 
the building burned and on the 8th of February, 1903, a ten-thousand-dollar 
building was dedicated. The church Avas organized with a membership of 
nineteen, and the present membership is three hundred forty-six. The first pas- 


tor was Wright Sanders, followed by Revs. Albert Ogle, 1868; A. J. Essex, 
1872; Noah Harper, 1876: W. L. Greene, 1879; G. C. Shirt, 1881 ; B. J. 
Davis, 1883; A. C. Watkins, 1887; C. M. Carter, 1888; D. M. Christy, 1891 ; 
I. A. Hailey. 1892: J- B. Thomas, 1894: I. M. Kimbrough, 1898; E. R. 
Clevenger, 1901 ; G. O. \A'ebseer, 1905; C. L. Maryman, 1906; C. A. Sigmon, 
1908; W. E. Denham, 191 1 ; Charles Bebbs. 1912. The salaries have ranged 
from five hundred to one thousand dollars, and after the first pastorate the 
church has maintained all-time service. 

Pleasant Grove Baptist churcli was formed in the sixties, when Michael 
Waggoner donated land upon which to build a small frame meeting house. 
J. Greggory was an early preacher and a faithful one, too. In 1874 the 
building had to be enlarged. At many of the revivals there fifty and seventy- 
five were brought into the church. 

In the fifties there was a Missionary Baptist church formed at Helton- 
ville. A frame church was erected and good work continued for some time, 
but nothing of recent years. 

The churches of this denomination in this county today are those at 
Bedford, Gullet Creek, Avoca, Oolitic, Mitchell. Heltonville, Fayetteville, Sil- 
verville, Springville, White River church. Huron, Tunnelton. These are all 
the Missionary Baptist churches. 


The history of this denomination dates back, in this county, to 1819. 
Two societies commenced work in Lawrence county during that year. The 
one at Bedford commenced with the history of Palestine, the original county 
seat town. In 18 19 Isaac Reed, who was a missionary from some one of the 
Eastern states, entered Indiana to establish Presbyterian churches. He was a 
genuine Yankee and traveled in a wagon, encountering many hardships and 
exposures, which experience he pre.served in a book of his own writing. He 
preached in the temporary court house at old Palestine and there organized a 
small church society, of which Samuel Henderson and Philip Ikerd were eld- 
ers. The first members were S. Henderson and family. P. Ikerd and family, 
William Crawford and family and William Barnhill. Rev. Reed continued 
to preach there until 1825, when the county seat was removed to Bedford. 
W. W. Martin, father of C. B. H. Martin, D. D., also preached and was the 
pastor for a time. The church at Palestine, however, did not remove its 
headquarters until 183 1. On May 7th of that year, Isaac Reed called the 
church members together, and it appears of record that the first membership 


to organize at Bedford were William Crawford, Samuel Henderson and 
Philip Ikerd, elders, and Lawrence [kerd. Christian Ikerd, Philip and Susana 
Ikerd, Jonathan Henderson, Jane Henderson, Samuel and Rhoda Henderson, 
William and Jane Crawford, Sarah McClelland, Sally Ikerd, James and Sarah 
Wilson, Robert and Margaret Robinson, Alexander and Rebecca McKinney, 
and Henry Lowrey. The majority of these persons resided to the east of 
Bedford. Meetings were at first held at the court house and at the homes 
of the membership. About 1840 a peculiar shaped brick house was erected 
where later the Presbyterians erected their permanent church. It was built 
by Jonathan Jones, and it was used until 1868, when a small brick church was 
built. The last named was erected by Thomas Stephens, at a cost of seven 
thousand dollars, and was considered a fine building at that date. It stood 
on the corner of Lincoln and Sycamore streets. In 1848 the church was 
divided into the Old and New-School factions. The Old School, being in 
the minority, withdrew, leaving the New School in possession of the church 
property. For their use the Old School, in 1850, built a large brick church 
where later the Methodist church stood, on the corner of Church and Locust 
streets. It \yas arranged for both school and church purposes, with a double 
flight of stairs on the east end, outside. The lower story was divided into 
several rooms for school purposes. When the Old and New Schools united 
in 1859, the first building was the one occupied by the church thus formed. 
The Old School building became the property of the Independent church, but 
in 1866 it was purchased by the Methodists and by them remodeled for their 
church home, and was in use in the eighties. The Presbyterian church had a 
membership in 1884 of about eighty. 

Today it has a membership of three hundred. The church edifice was 
rebuilt in 1901, the old church being used in the rebuilding. This society is 
said to be the strongest in this presbytery. 

Beno Presbyterian church was formed in 1819 by Isaac Reed, the same 
minister who formed the church at Palestine. The first elders were David 
and William Green. Robert Kelso, Jonathan Huston and John Milroy. When 
the school house was erected at Beno in 1823, it was also used for church 
purposes, but early in the thirties a church house was built near the farm of 
David Green. Here this society met until 1845, when, moving their mem- 
bership to Lawrenceport, they met in a school house and church building com- 
bined in one. In 1850 the Lawrenceport Presbyterian church was erected, and 
there two presbyteries were held, 1850 and 1852. By 1880 the membership 
was scattered and the Methodists held services in the old building. 

Bethlehem Presbyterian church was reall)- a branch from the Bedford 


church, and it was located in the Crawford settlement about 1840. Three 
years later land was donated by William Crawford for church and grave- 
yard purposes. The society went down before the Civil war period. 

The Mitchell Presbyterian church, as seen by a descriptive article from 
the pen of Thomas A. Steele, began with the organization of the Presbyter- 
ian church at Woodville, two miles north of Mitchell, January 24, 1855. First 
services were held in the school house at Woodville and continued there up 
to i860. At this date the society was moved to Mitchell, where a small 
frame church was erected and used for ten years. In 1870 it was moved to 
another part of town, and a large brick edifice erected, largely the work and 
influence of Silas Moore and wife, Mary E. Moore. It was a two-story build- 
ing and in 1875 a high steeple was added, in which a town clock was placed. 
The first minister was Rev. John A. Tiffany, from 1855 to 1858. The same 
old two-story building of 1870 is still in use, with alterations and improve- 
ments. January 16, 1886, the auditorium of the church having been furnished, 
it was formally dedicated free of all debt and has served as a place of worship 
ever since. 

The following have served as pastors, beginning with 1883: Revs. S. J. 
McKee, November, 1883, to November, 1884: J. H. Reed, May. 1885, to 
April. 1887: ^\^ B. Harris, October, 1887, to April, 1891: H. J. Van Dyne, 
October, 1891. to October, 1896: W. C. Hall, December, 1896, to May, 1898; 
George \\'. Applegate. May, 1898, to May, 1900; H. C. Johnson, July. 1900, 
to August, 1004: E. O. Sutherland. July, 1905. to July, 1907; S. M. Morton, 
D. D., October. 1907, to October, 1912: A. E. Davis, July i, 1913, and is the 
present pastor. 

The various organizations of the church are now in a flourishing condi- 
tion. The Sunday school is not the largest in town, but fully as vigorous as 
any in Mitchell. In 1906 this school established a rest station in Korea, for 
missionaries in the field. Woman's Home and Eoreign Missionary societies 
are well cared for by the ladies of the local church. The present officers of 
this church are : Elders. W. M. James. W. E. Stipp, W. F. Logle. W. G. Old- 
ham; superintendent of Sunday school. W. G. Oldham. The faithful deacons 
of the church are A. C. Ramage. Calvin Faris. W. H. Weitknech, Albert 
McBride. George James. 


The second church in Indian Creek township was known as White River 
Union, in later vears as the "Old Union Church." It was situated a mile 


south of the village of Fayetteville. The leader in this community was 
Abraham Kern, an earnest, aggressive, original, ideal church worker. To the 
first settlers he was truly an "Abraham of old," teaching what he believed to 
be only God's word and will, and really he walked with God ! He taught the 
Dunkard faith. In September. 1821, they organized a regular Dunkard 
church, with charter members as follows : Abraham Kern and wife, William 
Kern and wife, David Sears and wife, David Ribelin, Jane Anderson and 
Daniel Oaks. Generally, they held meetings in the grove near their homes. 
In 1823 a small log church was built, which stood near where later they built 
a commodious church house. In 1843 they built a brick church, well lighted 
and ventilated, at a cost of two thousand five hundred dollars. 


At Bedford the work of the Salvation Army was commenced in October, 
1909. The work was opened by Captain O. A. Schnarr and Ensign Ira 
Muncelle. In September, 191 3, the company had a membership of forty-four 
soldiers and the original captain was in charge of the work. A temporary 
barracks was leased on East Sixteenth street, but plans are being matured by 
which a building will be erected for headquarters. 


This religious society has been in existence in Bedford since about 1893, 
and has had a church building since 1896, at No. 941 North I street. Their 
membership now consists of about thirty faithful men and women. They aim 
to follow Christ's teachings and are "antisecret society" in their belief and 
creed. At one time they held meetings in tents hereabouts. For eighteen 
years they have held street meetings near the public square, each evening, 
when the elements would permit. 


Although there were some Catholics in Lawrence county as early as 
1835, regular mass was not held until the year 1850. Through the efforts of 
Dr. Benjamin Newland, the court house was first used to hold the celebration 
of mass, which was conducted by Rev. Patrick Murphy, of St. Mary's, Martin 
county, in June, 185 1. He visited them after that date until 1859, when Rev. 
Louis Nevron also visited the town. From i860 until 1864 Rev. Joseph 


O'Reilly took charge, and during that time mass was either said in private 
homes or in J. Francis's hall. The congregation then numbered about twenty- 
five families. 

With the arri\al of Rev. Philip Doyle, the next visiting pastor, came 
also the idea of building a new church. Every preparation was made, and 
work started, the corner stone being laid in 1866. A Methodist church next 
door was the cause of a cessation of building, but in the midst of the predica- 
ment Father Doyle departed, and Rev. Charles Mougin, of Crawfordsville, 
^Montgomery county, began to attend. Under him the trouble was settled by 
the Catholics buying the old Methodist church, and converting it into a Catho- 
lic church. Rev. Mougin left in 1867. 

Re\'. Julius Clement, of Greencastle, now made one visit. From 1868, 
when Rev. Henry PI. Kessing became pastor at Bloomington, he regularly 
attended I'.edford until July, 1877. \isiting the place once each month. His 
successor at Bloomington, Rev. Leopold M. Burkhardt, from July, 1877, 
until March. 1879, attended twice each month. After March, 1879, R^^'- 
John B. Unverzagt had charge, and visited St. Vincent's church on alternate 
Sundays, during which time many improvements were made on the church 
property. In 1879 Rt. Rev. Francis S. Chatard, D. D., visited Bedford and 
administered confirmation. Rev. Unverzagt was succeeded by Rev. T. X. 

On June 15, 1885, Rev. W. Fl. Bogemann, of Bloomington, began to at- 
tend Bedford on alternate Sundays, and he continued until the advent of Rev. 
Theodore J. Mattingly, the first resident pastor, on October 30, 1902. During 
his time of attendance. Father Bogemann constructed the present Catholic 
church, a magnificent structure of Bedford limestone, and costing $21,191.60. 
The church was built in the year 1893. and was dedicated on July 29, 1894, 
alti' it had been used for services since March iith of that year. 

During his residence in Bedford, Father Mattingly succeeded in paying 
off all the debts incurred by the church, and also made improvements on the 
old rectory. He stayed here until the month of November. 1904. From this 
date until July, 1905, Father Bogemann visited again, holding services each 
Sunday in both Bedford and Bloomington. 

Rev. G. J. Lannert took charge of Bedford on July 14, 1905, and since 
then has made many improvements. 

Rev. Michael T. Shea arrived in Bedford in August, 1913. for the pur- 
pose of caring for the Italians in the limestone quarry districts. The work 
in these localities is pioneer effort, the benefits having to be built from the 
verv beginning. 


At Mitchell, this county, a Roman Catholic church was erected in 1871, 
due to the efforts of a few zealous Catholics who had previously held mass at 
the homes of the faithful, and in Johnson's hall, Main street. Being solicitous 
for the welfare of their children, the small congregation, fewer than a dozen 
families, set to work to raise funds for a church building. The trustees were 
John C. Donnell, William Boland, M. C. Keane and \\'illiam Gorman. It 
seemed a great task for so few members, but by soliciting funds between 
Washington and Seymour, Indiana, also by contributions from people of all 
denominations at home, they were able to erect the present structure at a cost 
of three thousand five hundred dollars. The lot was donated by Col. John 
Sheeks, a Protestant. Since that time the church has been enlarged and other- 
wise improved, and a substantial rectory has been erected at a cost of four 
thousand dollars. The present priest in charge is Father J. L. Bolin. The 
church property is now worth about ten thousand dollars ; the congregation 
has a membership of two hundred souls, and the society is in a flourishing 


Members of the Episcopal church have never been very numerous in 
Lawrence county until in recent years, since which time a number have settled 
in and near Bedford, being drawn hither largely by the stone industry, where 
many English and Welsh people have found employment. St. John's mission, 
at Bedford, now in charge of Rev. William Crossman Otte, has come to be a 
flourishing parish. In many ways a remarkable growth has attended the 
faithful ministrations of this most excellent rector, whose life is wrapped 
up in his church work and extension policies. In the late sixties Bishop 
Talbot visited Bedford, then a small town of little importance. During one of 
the good Bishop's visits here he baptized two children and confirmed one 
adult. In 1 87 1 Rev. John L. Gay visited the place with a view of renewing 
the work and hoped to establish a parish. Services were occasionally held in 
halls and in the Presbyterian church, but lack of encouragement and support 
caused the work to fall again. In 1894 the Rev. Lawrence F. Cole, in the 
course of his missionary wake, paid, as an archdeacon, frequent visits to 
Bedford, holding services at private houses, and in February baptized two 
children. There were not to exceed six communicants in the town at that 
date. Later, the Rev. William F. Cook, archdeacon, resumed services in 
private houses and in May, 1900. presented the Bishop with a class of two for 
confirmation. This gentleman unfortunately had to leave the field, and noth- 
ing more was done until the Rev. Gilbert M. Foxwell. rector of the Bloom- 


ington, Indiana, church, took up the work, devoting a part of his time here and 
a part at Bloomington. After he was sent elsewhere the work lagged 
again. The next move was when Archdeacon Walton took the field in charge 
in about 1902, when he found only eight communicants, but, full of true zeal, 
he steadily pressed his claims to organization. A lot was donated by two 
ladies and, aided by a few worthy men, a building was projected, and the 
corner stone of the present handsome chapel, St. James's church, was laid 
November 12, 1905, by Bishop Francis. The building was completed in 
June, 1906. In May, of that year, at the annual meeting of the diocesan 
council, the Bedford mission was received and recognized as St. John's church. 

In August, 1905, Rev. William Grossman Otte was wisely selected to 
take charge of this mission. LJnder his excellent management and rare leader- 
ship, appointed services have been maintained ever since. A Sunday school 
was organized, and St. John's Guild is another active organization of 
faithful women. There are also other church societies, all of which have had 
their useful place in building up the church. 

The church edifice, which is only one-third builded, but complete so far 
as it has gone, will be cruciform in shape and one hundred and six feet long 
when completed. Its width is forty-three feet in the transept. It is purely 
Gothic in style of architecture, and built of the famous Bedford stone. The 
membership in September, 1913, was one hundred and fifty communicants. 

In addition to the handsome beginning toward a fine edifice, the society 
has the supreme enjoyment of possessing one of the finest Bedford stone 
rectory buildings in this section of the country. It was erected as a memorial 
to Miss Jane Grossman Otte, deceased daughter of the pastor. Rev. William 
Grossman Otte, who passed to the better world on August 18, 1908, dearly 
beloved by all who knew of her womanly virtues and rare goodness in every 
act of her life — charitable and faithful to all classes. With the coming and 
going of the future decades, this handsome two-story residence, just to the 
north of the church, facing M street, will stand as a lasting monument to one 
whose pure life and noble deeds have indeed made the world better by her 
having lived and labored for the uplift of her race. This building was built 
by both church members of all denominations and the outsiders, all taking 
pride in aiding toward its construction. It was dedicated on St. Peter's day, 



In almost every locality in the civilized world may Ije found one or more 
subordinate lodges of the three greatest civic fraternities — Free and Accepted 
Masons, Independent Order of Odd Fellows and Knights of Pythias. In 
many communities all three are well represented, as is the case in Lawrence 
county, Indiana. It will not be the object here to go into a detailed history 
of such lodges in this connection, but to give a general description of where 
and by whom these societies were established. 

The first secret organization formed in Lawrence county was the Ma- 
sonic lodge at Bedford, in June, 185 1, upon petition of R. R. Bryant, J. B. 
Buskirk, M. \\'. Houston. John Daggy. W. ^l. Leach. A. X. Wilder, Benjamin 
Newland, John P. Fisher, James W. Pro, James M. Warren, S. A. Raridon 
and William Malott. The grand lodge of the state granted them a charter, to 
work as a Free and Accepted Masonic lodge, known as Bedford Lodge No. 
14, the first worshipful master being J. B. Buskirk. 

Bedford Lodge No. 14 has a present membership of three hundred and 
fifty. The officers are as follows: Louis Roberts, worshipful master; Wal- 
ter A. Pitman, senior warden; John MacMillan, junior warden; Herman E. 
McCormick, treasurer ; McHenry Owen, secretary ; Paul S. Higman, senior 
deacon ; John Maddox, junior deacon ; Claude J. Black, stew^ard ; Robert G. 
McWhirter, steward; John \^^ Findley. chaplain; William B. Reeve, tyler; 
Allen Conner. L. Berry Emery and Sherman L. Reach, trustees. The lodge 
meets on the second and fourth Saturdays at their hall at No. loii Fifteenth 

Hacker Chapter Xo. 34. Royal .\rch Masons, has a membership of two 
hundred. The officers are: Charles H. Strupe. high priest; Walter J. Bailey, 
king; Raymond H. Williams, scribe: Joseph R. Voris, treasurer; McHenry 
Owen, secretary; Jasper H. Wyman, captain of the host; Frederick F. Storer, 
principal sojourner; Fred X. Strout, Royal .\rch captain: Julian Calonge, 
grand master of the third veil : John ^MacMillan. grand master of the second 
veil ; Herman E. McCormick. grand master of the iirst veil : James B. Wilder, 

Bedford Council Xo. 62, Roval and Select Masters, was organized under 

(10) ' f\ 


dispensation of date of July 16, 1891, and chartered October 21, 1891. Prior 
thereto a council of the same name, but No. 49, was granted a dispensation 
April 12, 1876. and chartered October 18, 1879, but the charter was arrested 
in October, 1888. The present council has about one hundred and forty- 
members, and the officers are: L. Berry Emery, thrice illustrious master; 
James W. Malott, deputy master ; Charles H. Strupe, principal conductor of 
the work; Joseph R. Voris, treasurer; McHenry Owen, recorder; John E. 
McCormick, captain of the guard ; Jasper H. Wyman, conductor of the coun- 
cil ; Julian Calonge, steward ; James B. Wilder, sentinel. 

Bedford Commandery No. 42, Knights Templar, was granted dispensa- 
tion January 25, 1899, and was chartered as Bedford Commandery No. 42, on 
April 20, 1899. The old Commander}^ No. 7, surrendered its charter in 
1864. The officers at present are: Walter J. Bailey, eminent commander; 
Fred N. Strout, generalissimo ; James W. Malott, captain general ; James A. 
Zaring, senior warden; Ward H. McCormick, junior warden; Charles H. 
Strupe, prelate ; Joseph R. Voris, treasurer; McHenry Owen, recorder; Wal- 
ter H. Sherrill, standard bearer; Morris P. Keith, sword bearer; Walter A. 
Pitman, warder; James B. Wilder, sentinel; William R. Grafton, Andrew 
Duncan. John E. McCormick, guards ; Morton F. Brooks, Sherman L. Keach, 
L. Berry Emery, trustees. The commandery at present has a membership of 
one hundred and seventy-five. 

In Bedford there are twenty-eight resident members of the Indianapolis 
Consistory. Ancient Accepted .Scottish Rite, thirty-second degree, and there 
are fifty-six resident members of Murat Temple, Ancient Arabic Order of 
Nobles of the Mystic Shrine. 

Another Masonic lodge at Bedford is Emmet Lodge No. 345, organized 
under dispensation and received a charter May 29, 1867, it being a branch of 
the old Bedford lodge. In 1884 it had a membership of sixty-eight. In 1888 
this was consolidated with the parent lodge. 

Mitchell Lodge No. 228, Free and Accepted Masons, was chartered May 
25. 1858. For many years before that John P. Burton was the only Free 
Mason residing within Marion township, and later this lodge at Mitchell was 
organized and has been sustained all these years. The first officers were: 
William V. T. Murphy, worshipful master; William Muir, senior warden; 
Edward Antonieski, junior Warden; J. T. Biggs, secretary. The present mem- 
bership of this lodge is eighty-nine, and its elective officers are : J. D. Byrns, 
worshipful master; Cealy Braman, senior warden; John L. Holmes, junior 
warden: John A. Rodarmel. treasurer ; ^^^ M. James, secretary; Hugo Siefker, 


senior deacon; Howard Chitty, junior deacon; W. G. Oldham, senior steward; 
John A. Gibbons, junior steward ; B. H. Sherwood, tyler. 

Mitchell Chapter No. 23, Royal Arch Masons, was organized and 
chartered October 20, 1870. 

Mitchell Council No. 48. Royal and Select Masters, was chartered Octo- 
ber, 1876. 

Lawrenceport Lodge No. 543, Free and Accepted Masons, was 
granted a charter August 31, 1876, with the following officers and charter 
members: A. F. Berry, worshipful master; John Mitchell, senior warden; 
and Harrison Field, junior warden. The other members were W. G. Todd, 
G. W. Hamer, H. T. Hamer and John I^^swell. The lodge worked under dis- 
pensation until May 22, 1877, when a charter was obtained. From its organi- 
zation the lodge for many years was among the most prosperous in the county. 
It owned a good building in 1883 and had money in its treasury. 

At Huron, Masonic Lodge No. 381 was organized May 27. 1868. with 
Thomas J. Cummings, worshipful master: Joseph Bosler, senior warden, and 
Benjamin F. Prosser, junior warden. It was never very prosperous in earlier 
days, and in 1884 had a membership of only seventeen. 

At Spring\'ille, Lodge No. 177 was organized in 1855, by the following 
charter members : Jewett L. Messick, W. H. Cornelius, Dean Barnes, E. M. 
Stanwood, Thomas Graves. M. B. Garton, and a few others. They were com- 
pelled to surrender their charter in 188 1. 

At Heltonville, Leatherwood Lodge No. 116 was organized in the early 
fifties. The first worshipful master was Major Bemen. The lodge went down 
many years ago. 

Cedar Lodge No. 161 was organized at Leesville. The first officers 
were : Thomas J. Reed, worshipful master ; Robert Henderson, senior war- 
den ; Jonathan C. Todd, junior warden. In 1884 there was a membership of 
about twenty. 


This order, one of the greatest on earth today, has a splendid following 
in Lawrence countv. It has lodges of strength and usefulness at Rivervale, 
Bedford. Oolitic, Heltonville. Fort Ritner. Williams. Springville and Mitchell. 

Shawswick Lodge No. 177, at Bedford, was instituted by John B. An- 
derson, grand master of Indiana, May 21, 1856. with the following charter 
membership : Francis A. Sears, John Baker, W. C. R. Kemp, C. S. Kaufifman, 
Joseph J. Dean and W. C. Hopkins. The first noble grand was F. A. Francis. 
Up to 1884 there had been two hundred and twelve members uniting with 


the lodge and only ele\en had died, the membership then being eighty-five. 
Its present membership is three hundred and eighty-five, and its present 
elective ofiicers are: Walter Chilton, noble grand; Walter Thomas, vice 
grand; Basil Miller, secretary; Fred I'itman, financial secretary; J. J. Johnson, 
treasurer. The trustees are McHenry Owens. Read Gathers and H. L. 
McKnight. The lotlge owns a hall, the ap])r()ximate \'alue of which is twenty- 
two thousand dollars. 

Bedford Encampment No. 80, of the Odd Fellows order, was instituted 
in Bedford, July 24, 1866. 

Mitchell Lodge No. 242, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, was in- 
stituted September, 1865, by G. \\'. Webb and Major David Kelley. Its pres- 
ent membership is two hundred and seventy-two. The first noble grand was 
William Wilson. The ])resent officers are : Jesse F. Ewing, noble grand ; 
R. W. Smith, vice grand; G. W. Golman, treasurer; J. Lee Horton, recording 
secretary ; Will D. Ewing, financial secretary. The order erected a hall for 
lodge room purposes in 1895, at a cost of three thousand five hundred dollars. 

Lawrenceport Lodge No. 780, at Rivervale, this county, was instituted 
November 14, 1901, and now has a membership of one hundred and two. 
They own their own hall property, which is the second story of a business 
house ; its cost was eight hundred dollars. The present officers of this lodge 
are: James B. Ewing, nolile grand; \Villiam Leatherman, vice grand; Clyde 
Ouillen, recording secretary ; John G. Kane, financial secretary ; Albion Bul- 
litt, treasurer. 

Springville Lodge No. 846 was instituted February i, 1907. The pres- 
ent elective officers are: Charles Stevenson, noble grand; Elbert Adamson, 
vice grand ; F. A. Brinegar. secretary. The hall was erected in July and 
August, 1910, at a cost of one thousand two hundred dollars. The lodge has 
a good-standing membership of twenty-four. 


Palestine Lodge No. 137, Knights of Pythias, was organized in the city 
of Bedford many years since. The officers serving during 1913 are as fol- 
lows: H. G. Wilson, chancellor commander; J. G. ^NIcKinney, keeper of rec- 
ords and seal ; F. W. Kennedy, master of finance ; J. V. Strout, master of ex- 
chequer ; T. G. Hassett, prelate; B. E. Hassett, master of the work; Leonard 
Woody, master at arms; Owen Rout, D. K. Tlollowenn, \\'illiam Barr, Mit- 
chell Guthrie and J. G. Hogan, trustees. 

Oolitic Lodge No. ^2t,, at Oolitic, this county, was organized several 


years ago. Tt owned a good hall, which was Inirned July 8. 1913, at a loss 
of four thousand dollars. The i)resent trustees are Ora George. Albert 
Bryant and Jackson Temple. Its officers are : Elza George, chancellor com- 
mander ; O. L. Brown, vice chancellor: \Mlliam Bruce, master at arms: Will- 
iam Hesler. prelate : Claude Phillips, inner guard : Howard Blazew. outer 
guard: Charles Nichols, keeper of records and seal: William Alitchell. keeper 
of exchequer : Charles Gilbert, collector. 

The Knights of Pythias Lodge at ^Mitchell is Xo. 130. It was organized 
in 1887. and has a present membership of one hundred and fifty. Its offlcers 
are : ^^^alter Pierce, chancellor commander : Victor Prosser. vice commander ; 
Warren Wright, keeper of records and seal : Lee Horton. master of finance ; 
Walter Shanks, master of exche(|uer: A. O. True, prelate: James Coppey, 
master at arms. This lodge owns its own castle, erected in 1905, at a cost of 
seven thousand dollars. 

There are lodges of this order at Leesville and Tunnelton, the facts about 
which were not obtainable by the writer. The Tunnelton lodge has a member- 
ship of sixty. 



Tlie New Albany & Salem railroad was the first steam highway to cross 
Law rence county. The county did not furnish any aid in way of appropria- 
tions, hut the road was materially helped by various individuals. It is said 
that in each and every instance the right-of-way was given free of cost to the 
company. Besides this, different citizens contributed in way of the stock 
they subscribed for and the labor they did, in all amounting to more than one 
hundred thousand dollars. Thus the pioneer railroad was constructed through 
this county in 1851-3. 

The next road projected was the Ohio & Mississippi railroad, that crossed 
the southern portion of the county from 1855 to 1857. It was aided by in- 
dividuals, same as the road above mentioned, and to about the same extent in 
the total amount of aid. 

In 1870 Marion township voted two hundred and sixty-four for and one 
hundred and sixty-nine against a two per cent, tax to aid the Rockport & 
.Northern Central railroad. This tax was levied, but never collected, as the 
project was abandoned by the promoters. In 1872 the question again came 
up, the township voting three hundred and fifty-nine for and two hundred 
and thirty-nine against a two per cent, tax, which was levied, but, as in the 
former case, the road was not built. Other tax aids were asked at different 
dates, two of which were the matter of assisting the Indianapolis & Evansville 
Mineral railroad and the Bedford. Brownstown & Madison railroad. 

The Bedford & Bloomfield narrow gauge railroad was built under the 
name of the Bedford. Springville. Owensburg & Bloomfield railroad. The 
capital was fixed at one million dollars, divided into twenty thousand shares of 
fifty dollars each. The line covered a distance of thirty-six miles. In Novem- 
ber, 1874, Clark. Buel. Donahey & Company contracted to build this road and 
secure the bonds for the individual stock subscriptions. This was to include 
the right-of-way and they were to have a two per cent, tax from the territory 
through which the line was to run. The matter of voting the tax in Shaws- 
wick township was seen to in February. 1875. resulting in 402 in favor and 
160 against the tax. Indian Creek voted 157 for and 75 against. The tax in 
Shawswick township amounted to $42,000; in Perry it was $10,900; in Indian 


Creek, $13,000. In June, 1875, one per cent, of this tax was ordered levied. 
In 1875 Conley, Mason & Company, residents of Greene county, bought the 
raih'oad in its then unfinished condition, but soon thereafter went into bank- 
ruptcy, and the IndianapoHs Rolling Mill Company, as assignees, took the road 
in July, 1876, and completed it by October that year, but did not obtain com- 
plete control of it until December, 1882. This company, in turn, in February, 
1883, sold all the stocks, bonds and franchise to the Bedford & Bloomington 
Railway Company, a local organization, which still owned the property in 
1885. In February, 1884, the company bought the short line from Bloomfield 
to Swartz City. Among the principal stockholders were A. C. Voris, W. P. 
Malott, Frank Landers, W. W. Mason, Acquilla James and J. W. Kennedy. 


Of the railroads in this county operating in 1913, it may be said that the 
old New Albany & Salem line is now known as the "Monon," the legal title of 
which is the Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville Railway Company. 

The Bedford, Springville & Bloomfield railroad was first built in 1876, 
having been completed on the 4th of July, that year. A great amount of 
trouble was experienced in the construction of the line, and consequent finan- 
cial difficulty compelled the abandoning of work. However, the citizens of 
Bedford and the surrounding country came to the relief, and by subsidies and 
subscriptions money was secured to complete the road. V. V. Williams acted 
as receiver, and managed the collection of the funds. The line is now owned 
by the Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville road, or the Monon. 

The Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern, running through Mitchell, was 
completed through the county in 1S55-56. and has also a branch from Bedford 
to Rivervale, where it forms junction with the main line. 

The Terre Haute & Southeastern line is also an important line in Law- 
rence county today, and was the result of many railroad schemes, but is now 
permanent and successful. 


The following was written concerning this railroad in 1895, and will 
ever remain as good history in Lawrence county railroading : 

The most valuable property owned by the Bedford Quarries Company is 
the Belt railroad. The railroad, which is twelve miles in length, with the 
necessary accessories in way of yards, switching tracks, etc.. was finished in 
the earlv nineties (about 1893), and while it affords the necessary shipping 


facilities from the several quarries of the company, it is of still further im- 
portance in the fact that it has become an indispensable feature of the entire 
stone industry in and around Bedford. Before its completion each quarry 
was dependent for the transportation of its product upon the one railroad 
which ran near its property or that could be induced to lay a switch thereto 
The consequence was, the quarry owners were practically at the mercy, so 
far as shipping their product was concerned, upon some one railroad cor- 
poration. We do not know that this was ever taken advantage of by the 
railroad companies, but that it could have been done if desired is very evident. 

When the subject was brought up of building a railroad owned and con- 
trolled bv capital most interested in the stone industry, which road should 
connect each quarry with e\er\- railroad system entering Bedford, and there- 
fore afford to all an e(|ual opportunity of placing their product on the market, 
it was the source of much encouragement to the quarrymen. Not only its con- 
nection with all railroads was an accommodation, but the fact that the new 
compan\- pro]iosed to make such arrangements as would give them a sufificient 
number of cars at all times to supply all demands for transportation facilities, 
was a source for congratulation, for it had been a source of great annoyance 
and delay that the railroad companies were not prompt in furnishing cars and 
manv a claim for damages because of delay in receiving stone was made by 
contractors against c|uarr}' owners, who were unable to send forward stone be- 
cause the railroads did not send cars when needed. This, the Belt line people 
promised to remedy, and did. 

But the construction of the road was beset by many difficulties owing to 
the jieculiar "lay of the land" around and among the quarries. Hilly to a 
degree a little short of mountainous, the problems of engineering presented 
w ere numerous and varied. Trestles, bridges, rock cuts and grades, and very 
many of them in most inaccessible places, were but a part of the difficulties to 
be overcome, but brains, backed by capital, overcame the obstacles and the 
road was completed in due time, but at a cost of over twenty-five thousand dol- 
lars per mile, because of the unusual character of the country through which 
it passed. .\ ride over this road convinces one that there is more picturesque 
scenerv crowded into that twelve miles than be found in an equal distance of 
anv other road. But it is for utility that this road was constructed and the 
many train loads of stone constantly passing back and forth over the line 
testifies that it is meeting the end for which it was built. 

The Bedford Belt railway is fully equipped for doing the business de- 
manded of it. The company owns three large Mogul engines for the heavy 
hauling over the line and one of lighter build wdiich is used for shipping in 


the yards and for a passenger service that is operated between the stations at 
Bedford and Limestone and from quarry to quarry. Altogether, the Bedford 
Quarries Company has in the Bedford Belt railway a valuable piece of prop- 
erty, valuable to themselves and valuable also to every person identified with 
the quarrying interests in and around Bedford. 



In the days of the early settlement of Lawrence county there existed a 
military organization of similar character to that of the county of Monroe. 
This somewhat crude, but effective, system. was based on the militia. The 
organization of the county militia was impelled by government orders, and 
each county in the state was required to consolidate bodies of men into com- 
panies, and drill them in the art of military tactics at certain stated periods. 
The Indian tribes were by no means pacified at this time, and they resented 
every inroad the white men made into their hunting grounds. This charac- 
teristic sullen discontent was apt to break into a bloody onslaught on the 
whites at any time, and consequently the militia was kept in formation to 
combat these attacks should they occur. The hostile tribes in the Hoosier 
state were not troublesome very long, however, and the need of a militia to 
cope with them ceased. Nevertheless, the people of Lawrence county took a 
great pride in maintaining these organizations, but the interest was not suffi- 
cient to justify the expenditure of much money on equipment. Each man 
who desired to be a soldier furnished his own arms, and if they did not have a 
gun, they brought broom handles, corn stalks, hoes, sticks, or anything with 
which they could employ in going through the manual of arms. The Law- 
rence county citizens dubbed the companies the "cornstalk militia," which 
appellation was the beginning of the end. As occurred in Monroe county, the 
militia soon degenerated into an absurd farrago, and instead of orderly drills 
and serious training, the meeting days became festivities, featured by all sorts 
of sports, such as horse racing, gambling, pugilistic encounters, and contests 
of markmanship. There were many early settlers prior to 1815 who joined 
companies of rangers, raised in neighboring portions of the county; these 
rangers were mounted and formed a very efficient body. These veterans of 
the war of 1812 were occasionally called out for the pursuit of troublesome 
Indians, but otherwise saw no active service. 

The year 1846 marked the next step of any consequence in the military 
affairs of the county. Under act of Congress, approved May 13, 1846, the 
President of the United States, James Knox Polk, called for volunteers to go 
to Mexico, and the quota for Indiana was fixed at three regiments. Imme- 


diately following this call several prominent citizens of county, including Henry 
Davis, G. G. Dunn, L. 0. Hoggatt, Cyrus Dunham, George Carr, John C. 
Gavins, E. W. Rice and James Carothers, began an effort to raise a company 
at Leesville, war meetings being held in that town and at Bedford, Spring- 
ville and in other localities. The work progressed rapidly and within a week 
a full company was raised and their service offered to the governor of the 
state. The personnel and organization of the company were very satisfactory, 
and they were accepted and ordered to report at New Albany and be assigned 
to the Second Regiment. Henry Davis was chosen captain of the company, 
L. O. Hoggatt. first lieutenant, Josiah S. Foster, second lieutenant, and Ed- 
mund W. Rice, third lieutenant. The old court house was used for a time as a 
barracks, while the formation of the organization was completed. 

On June 19, 1846, the company was drawn up on the public square to say 
farewell to those left at home, and preparatory to their departure for New 
Albany to join their regiment. The time was in the early morning, to avoid, 
as history records, one of the hottest days of the summer. George G. Dunn 
spoke the farewell for the townspeople, and at the conclusion of his address 
each man in the company was presented with a Testament. The sorrow of the 
leave-takings was somewhat softened by the cheers and strains of martial music 
which were accorded the boys. Upon their arrival at New Albany the men 
were assigned to the Second Regiment as Company F, and later became 
known as the 'T.awrence Grays," and bore a reputation for bravery and forti- 
tude unsurpassed in the American army. 

In July. 1846. the Second Regiment was taken to the city of New 
Orleans, and thence across the gulf of Mexico to the mouth of the Rio Grande 
river. In this position the regiment remained until February, 1847, '" the 
meantime losing several men by death, and growing more impatient every 
day for a movement against the "greasers." On the above date, they were 
assigned to a division of five thousand men under the command of Gen. 
Zachary Taylor, and placed in the Buena Vista pass to await the advance of 
the Mexican army of twenty thousand men under Santa Anna. Buena Vista 
means "beautiful view." and indeed the spot justified the description. The 
pass was narrow and ridged by numerous ravines across the sides, and run- 
ning across it was a broad plateau about two hundred feet above the level. 
General Taylor threw his line of battle across this plateau, and the Second 
Regiment was designated to the extreme left of the line, near the side of the 
mountain. The Mexicans soon appeared at the head of the pass in solid 
column, and an imposing sight it was. Their flags and pennants waved, their 
carbines and accoutrements glittered in the bright sun, and their gaudy uni- 


forms made bright splotclies of color against the horizon. They endeavored to 
carry the pass by soHd formation at first, but the Washington Battery, on an 
elevation to the right, threw canister and shrapnel into the thickly crowded 
ranks so rapidly that they were compelled to fall back in confusion, strewing 
the ground with their dead. Their next move was to flank the American forces 
on the left, and in this maneuver they were successful. The Indiana and Ken- 
tucky regiments received the weight of hundreds of mounted and foot soldiers, 
and the Mexican lancers, on ponies, stormed the rear, capturing several pieces 
of ordnance of Bragg's battery. The Second Regiment fired twenty-one rounds. 
and then the bugle sounded the retreat. Unfortunately, the correct tactics of 
retreat hafl lieen omitted from their training, and when they made the effort 
their flight Ijccame a rout, and they were literally crowded down off the 
plateau. In the fi)rk made l)y tlie convergence of two ravines, the Americans 
halted, and, once at bay, poured a terrific storm of lead into the oncoming 
Mexicans, and stopped them completely. This encouraged the Indiana and 
Kentuck\- men, and they reformed their battle line. Until night the Ameri- 
cans resisted every charge oi the Mexican infantry and cavalry, and stub- 
bornly contested every minute of the time. When night came the Mexicans 
drew off. and thus the .\mericans won a glorious victory from defeat. This 
was practicalh- all of tlie fighting for the Second Regiment, and, after serving 
in various way. part of the time in doing guard duty, they were ordered home, 
their year of enlistment having expired. 

The people of Lawrence county were greatly excited when the news 
came of the battle of Buena Vista, but were frightened by the first report that 
the Lawrence county boys had been among those who fled before the Mexi- 
cans. All refused to blame the fact to cowardice, and waited anxiously for 
further details of the battle. These were brought by W. A. Gorman, of 
Bloomington, Monroe county, who had been a member of the regiment, but 
who came home in advance of the others. He tarried at Bedford and delivered 
a public speech, wherein he detailed the events of Buena Vista; how the boys, 
having used their ammuniition, were ordered three times by their command- 
ers to retreat. The people rested easier when they learned that their men 
were not cowards. 

On the 30th of June, 1847, the Bedford troops returned home. The 
citizens, with the Bedford band, met them at White river, and escorted them 
into town. On account of the brilliant \^ictory a large barbecue was held on 
July 6th in Foote's woods, north of town, and it was estimated that fully six 
thousand people were present. The procession formed in town and marched 
to the grounds, where a large ox was roasted in a pit. Dr. Benedict delivered 


the principal address of welcome, and Captain Davis and Lieutenants Hog- 
gatt and Lewis made the responses. The soldiers from Leesville were also 
given a barbecue similar to that of Bedford. 

The brave fellows who fought for the States during the war w ith Mexico 
are ofttimes forgotten in the blaze of glory which surrounds the later heroes 
in the war for the L'nion. This should not be true. Their patriotism was 
just as high, their courage as great, and their willingness to sacrifice life and 
home was just as sincere. The graves of the Civil war men far outnumber 
those of the Mexican, but the honors to be accorded the honored dead should 
be distributed equally among the silent mounds, whether of '46 or '61. 

The muster roll of Company F included the officers already mentioned, 
and the following: Isaac Carothers, Calvin R. Fox, \\'illiam F. Dodds, and 
Virgil Vestal, sergeants ; John Bishop, Ambrose B. Carlton. Eli H. Alexander 
and Nathaniel B. Stearns, corporals ; Levi Bailey, Dillard Bell, Alexander 
Caldwell, John R. Carmon, Mathias Clampitt, William Clampitt, John C. 
Crawford, Lewis Crawford, Jabez Cox, Housan Clifton, William Day, J. F. 
Deckert, William Dougherty, L. C Fell, John Foote, James Franklin, Caleb 
Fry, Callahan Fisher, Thomas (ioens, Joseph Gough, Alexander Hawkins, 
William Hawkins, Davis Hart, John Helton, David P. Houston, Stephen 
Humphreys. Philip Huff, Daniel Jackson, James Kilgore, Benjamin McFar- 
land, George Miner, E. W. Moberly. James Owen, Daniel A. Peck. Chalfant 
Purcell, W. H. Pender, John W. Pool, Finley Reynolds, Charles Ross, Abra- 
ham K. Smith, Austin G. Shear, John Thomas, John Tressler, Reuben Pitcher, 
L N. Templeton, Oscar Foote. William Purcell, John McCoy, George Tyler, 
Robert Brown, William McPike, Elijah C. Litton, Davis Harrison, Josephus 
Talbot, John ^^'oody, James H. Boyd, Charles Myers, Joseph Dayton, Henry 
N. Brown, and the two musicians. James J. Brown and James Duncan. 

Two boys of the Winegar family were called by death by disease, and 
Harrison Wilson, X. W. Trwin and Harvey Mathis were killed at Buena 
Vista, on Februarv 22, 1847. The following men were discharged during 
their period of service on account of disability : Oscar Foote, John McCoy, 
William Purcell, George Tyler, H. N. Brown, John \\'oody, Joseph Dayton, 
Davis Harrison. J. H. Boyd. Robert Brown. William ^IcPike. Josephus Tal- 
bot. E. C. Lytton. Charles Myers and Oscar Templeton. 

Robert Mitchell was a quartermaster of the Second Regiment, and he 
died at Matamoras, Mexico. The Fourth Indiana Regiment had in its com- 
plement William H. Bivens and Benjamin F. Brinegar, and they were a part 
of the company under command of Jesse Alexander. Fbenezer S. Thompson, 
Oscar Foote. James C. Carlton. \\'illiam Purcell. Thomas Purcell and James 


Purcell were members of Company F, Fifth Regiment, under Capt. John S. 
McDougall ; Jerry E. Dean, afterwards captain in Company F, Fifteenth In- 
diana, Absalom Veach, James Hughes, Ralph G. Norvell, Samuel Reynolds, 
John Wallace. Phelps Reed, Charles Burkley, Seymour Cobb and James Rupert- 
were members of Company I, Sixteenth United States Regulars, under Capt. 
Thomas F. Bethel. McHenry Dozier. former deputy clerk under Robert Mit- 
chell, joined the company of Captain Rousseau at Bloomfield, and was killed at 
the battle of Buena Vista. His death is described as brutal murder by 
Mexican lancers, while he was lying, wounded, in an ambulance. Samuel 
Mitchell and Rice M. Brown were both in the service, the latter in the 
capacity of officers' cook, being unfit for active service on account of a crippled 


After the Mexican war the next military activity was in 1858. when 
Brigham Young and his Mormons were creating disturbance in the state of 
Utah. Albert Sydney Johnston, a regular armv officer, had received orders 
from tlie President to start for the scene and subdue the bigamists. On 
March 30. 1858. the young men of Bedford met at the court house, to make 
preparations for the raising of a company of volunteers for the so-called 
"Utah war." Their military aspirations were short-lived, however, for no 
sooner had they organized a company and elected officers than the following 
notice appeared in the Laivrena' Democrat: /'Attention Company! The 
company of officers latel\- organized in this place for the Utah war are hereby 
notified, that they need not meet again until President Buchanan is heard 
from ; there is some doul)t yet whether he needs them. They are still ex- 
pected, however, to keep on in their drilling exercises on stove boxes and 
grindstones." This bit of sarcasm ended the affair in Lawrence county. 

THE civil. WAR. 

In the early sixties the question of politics was largely based upon the 
paramount topic of states' rights. The secession of South Carolina from the 
Union had brought matters to a near issue, and the controversy in Lawrence 
county was as hot as any place in the Hoosier state. The truth of the matter 
was that many of the thinking class of people were in doubt as to which side 
of the question they really did favor. Many adopted the view that the 
confederation of states was at the beginning a voluntary act on the part of 
each individual state, and that anv or all of them had the right to withdraw 


from this union if thereby she saw the opportunity to better herself. Not- 
withstanding, these same people hated to see the prosperous Union broken, 
and they questioned the constitutional legality of the course. Those opposed 
to coercive measures by the North, saw in that course the destruction of the 
institution which had made the South the rich country it was at the time, 
namely, slavery. Without that class of people, they argued, the rich sugar, 
rice, cotton and tobacco plantations would be lost to the country. Then, on the 
other hand, the people in favor of coercion declared that the existence of the 
Union was of greater advantage to the country than a few plantations. As in 
Monroe county, these two factions were ever at sword's points, and the dis- 
cussion was not always confined to words. The Southern families were well 
represented in Lawrence county, as in the adjacent counties, and consequently 
they hesitated on the question of combative measures. President Buchanan's 
dilatory tactics were not popular with the majority of Lawrence people, and 
his refusal to quell the secession by force on the grounds of violating the 
Constitution was not favored very strongly by the Union adherents. When 
Abraham Lincoln took the presidential chair, there was an added effort to 
settle the state difficulty by peaceful methods, and there was a subsequent 
feeling of despair in the hearts of those who wanted war. The outlook was 
indeed forbidding and doubtful, when instantly the solution arrived. Sumter 
was bombarded and had surrendered to the Confederate forces. The call to 
arms followed immediately from Washington. 

Bedford received the news of the fall of Fort Sumter on Monday morn- 
ing, April 15, 1861. and great excitement and anxiety were caused in the 
town. The people of the county gathered in the streets of Bedford and 
awaited breathlessly for further details. The ordinary business of the day 
was forgotten in the general turmoil, and the preparations begun for the rais- 
ing of troops to fill the quota of the county. George J. Brown, Robert Mc- 
Afee and Samuel W. Short took the initiative in the soliciting of names pre- 
paratory to enlistment, and in a verv few hours a full company was on hand. 
The town of Mitchell was also verv successful in these first enlistments. 

The first call for men from Lincoln, after the fall of Sumter, was for 
seventy-five thousand men. Nearly two hundred left Lawrence county shortly 
afterward, on April 22d, most of them going to the city of Indianapolis, in 
hopes of getting in the three-months service. In this, however, they were 
disappointed, as the first enlistments had been so heavy that the quota was 
more than filled. They remained in the capital city, thinking to get into the 
one-year service, and in this they would have been successful had it not been 
for the calls in July and .August for three-year men, the total asked for being 


close to five hundred thousand. These men, now reaching a total of about 
three hundred, accordingly joined this longer service. The Fifteenth Regi- 
ment received almost a full company from this number. About twenty-five 
men from Lawrence county were in the regiment, and they were assigned 
the letter F, with the following officers : Frank White, Greencastle, captain, 
and afterward succeeded by Jeremiah E. Dean. Dean was, at the beginning, 
first lieutenant, but was succeeded by Alfred F. Berry, once second lieutenant. 
Lycurgus Irwin became second lieutenant. The Fifteenth Regiment assembled 
at Lafayette for the one-year state service, but was reorganized and mustered 
into the three-year service on the 14th of June, t86i, with George D. Wagner 
as the colonel. 

Perhaps no regiment in the Civil war saw harder service or suffered 
more loss than the gallant Fifteenth. From beginning to end they were in the 
maelstrom of warfare, and the men who fell before the rebel bullets were many 
and constituted the flower of the regiment. On July i, 1861, the regiment 
entrained at Indianapolis, and were transported to western Virginia. On the 
Tith, while the battle of Rich Mountain was in progress, the regiment reached 
the spot, but were too late to participate, except in the pursuit and capture of 
prisoners. LTntil November 19th the regiment occupied Elk Water valley, 
and engaged in the meantime in the battle of Greenbrier, which resulted in the 
repulse of Lee. In the latter part of November tlie regiment joined the divi- 
sion commanded by Buell at Louisville, Kentucky. As Buell's campaign was a 
strenuous one, including the sanguinary struggle at Shiloh, the siege of 
Corinth and the battle at Perrysville, the boys underwent a rigorous life dur- 
ing those days; the regiment was also among the troops which pursued the 
army under Bragg to Cumberland Gap. In the month of November. 1862, 
it was at Nashville, where Gustavus A. Wood became colonel. It engaged at 
Stone River on December 31, 1861, and January i and 2, 1863. and out of the 
four hundred and forty men engaged, the loss by death and disability by 
wounds was one hundred and ninety-seven. Until June 24th the regiment 
quartered around Murfreesboro, participating in several small expeditions. 
The next step of any importance was in the movement on Tullahoma, then en- 
campment at Pelham, Tennessee, and on the 17th of August began the ad- 
vance toward Chattanooga. The routine here was monotonous, and the boys 
failed to get a taste of battle until the bloody combat at Mission Ridge, when 
the regiment suffered frightfully, losing by death and wounds two hundred 
and two men out of the three hundred and thirty-four engaged. The next 
day the regiment marched to the relief of General Burnside at Knoxville, and 
thev made the remarkable record of covering the one hundred miles in six 


days, on short rations and lack of other necessities. They stayed in Knox- 
ville until February, 1864, then went to Chattanooga, where part of the men 
veteranized. On June i6th they departed for IndianapoHs to be mustered out. 
The veterans and a company of recruits remained, and were assigned to the 
Seventeenth Regiment, serving until being mustered out on August 8, 1865. 

Company B, of the Eighteenth Regiment, was made up mostly of men 
from Lawrence county, and was commanded by Capts. Samuel W. Short, 
William S. Cook, D. R. Bowden and Francis M. Dugger ; First Lieuts. Will- 
iam S. Cook, D. R. Bowden, Napoleon H. Daniels and Robert Hardwick; 
Second Lieuts. Parker Pearson, N. H. Daniels. Coleman Duncan and William 
Mitchell. The regiment was mustered in on August i6th, along with several 
other companies, under Col. Thomas Pattison. N. H. Daniels was made a 
major and Doil R. Bowden a colonel. The Eighteenth was also once in com- 
mand of Henry P. Washburn. The regiment left for St. Louis immediately 
after being mustered in. During the war which followed the gallant Eigh- 
teenth ever distinguished itself, participating in the engagements at Elkhorn 
Tavern, Cotton Plant, Port Gibson, Champion's Hill. Black River Bridge, 
Vicksburg, Fort Esperanza, Pea Ridge, Opequon, Fisher's Hill and Cedar 
Creek. In the latter engagement the regiment lost heavily. Tn the other 
battles the regiment was not fortunate by any means. Their quota of dead 
and wounded always mounted high, a stern testimony to their courage and 
undaunted devotion. In the spring of 1863 the regiment was joined with 
Grant's army, and in the next year was with Butler's division, and then that 
of Phil Sheridan. On August 28, 1865, the regiment was mustered from the 
service at Indianapolis. 

In the month of July about twenty-fix e men from Bedford and the west- 
ern portion of the county entered Company F, of the Twenty-first Regiment, 
four or five men joining the regimental band. Henry F. McMillan, of Bed- 
ford, became adjutant in August of 1862, and continued as such under the 
reorganization of the Heavy Artillery. James W. McMillan, also of Bedford, 
was commissioned colonel of the regiment in July, 1861, and was promoted 
to the rank of brigadier-general in November, 1862, and breveted major- 
general on March 5, 1865. Benjamin Newland was appointed to the office 
of surgeon of the Twenty-second on August 12, 1861. but resigned on Novem- 
ber 4, 1862. 

The Twenty-first was mustered in on July 24. 1861, and was immediately 
ordered east. After a period of service there, the regiment was taken to the 
vicinity of New Orleans, and there underwent the hardest campaigning ex- 
perienced bv them during the war. In the battles of Baton Rouge, Port Hud- 



son and Sabine Pass the men won renown for their colors and always were in 
the thick of the fight wherever it waged. During the New Orleans campaign 
with Butler, part of the men were transferred to gunboats and accompanied 
Weitzel's advance up the Bayou Teche, fighting at Cornet's Bridge, and also 
destroying the "Gotten." At Baton Rouge the regiment sustained a loss of a 
hundred and twenty-six men, including Adjutant Latham and Lieutenants 
Seeley, Grimstead and Bryant. Most of Gompany F, in which Bedford was 
represented, were captured during the fighting around Brashear Gity. In 
1863 and 1864 large numbers of the men re-enlisted, and were re-mustered 
at New Orleans. 

Gompany A, Twenty-fourth Regiment, was the third raised for the war, 
and the period of enlistment covered June and July, 1861. Hugh Erwin, 
George Sheeks and Gharles H. Dunihue were captains during the period of 
service; George Sheeks and G. H. Dunihue, first lieutenants; Hiram F. Brax- 
ton, Jesse L. Gain and Richard F. Gleeland, second lieutenants. By regimental 
reorganization, John L. Stewart, of Mitchell, became second lieutenant of 
Gompany I; John S. Bailey, of Bedford, second lieutenant of Gompany G; 
David Kelley, of Mitchell, major, and Francis A. Sears, of Bedford, lieuten- 
ant-colonel. Alvin P. Hovey, afterward brigadier-general, and Governor of 
Indiana, and William T. Spicely were colonels of the Twenty-fourth Regi- 
ment. The regiment was mustered in at Vincennes on July 31, 1861, and im- 
mediately marched to St. Louis, joining Fremont's army, which was in Mis- 
souri at the time. The regiment engaged in the battle of Shiloh, and lost 
many men. among them Major Gerber. The companies of the Twenty- 
fourth also participated, in the siege of Gorinth. In the campaign against the 
city of Vicksburg, the regiment was a part of Grant's army. With this 
division they also engaged at Ghampion's Hill and Port Gibson. Their ulti- 
mate destination was Louisiana and New Orleans. On December 10, 1864, 
the Sixty-seventh Regiment consolidated with the Twenty-fourth, the new 
organization retaining the latter name. In July, 1865, the regiment was re- 
organized as a battalion of five companies, and was mustered out on July 19, 
1865. The regiment had also been in the movement against Mobile in April 
of that year. 

William Guthrie, of Tunnelton. second lieutenant in Gompany G, Twenty- 
fifth, was commissioned on April 10. 1862. and died on April 28, 1862, in the 
hospital at Mound Gity. Illinois. 

In the month of August. 1861. there was a fourth company organized in 
Lawrence county and sent into the field. At Indianapolis the company was 
joined to the Twenty-seventh Regiment, which organization was mustered 


into the three-year service on September 12th, under Col. Silas Colgrove. The 
company was given the letter D, and during the progress of the war had the 
following officers: Captains, John A. Cassady. Theodore E. Buehler and 
Thomas J. Box; first lieutenants, James M. Kern, Thomas Peters, T. J. Box 
and George H. Stephenson ; second lieutenants, Meredith W. Leach, Daniel R. 
Conrad, T. J. Box and Joseph Balsley. In 1863 Balsley became captain of 
Company H. and was mustered out as such on November 4, 1864. 

The Twenty-seventh Regiment joined Banks' Army of the Shenandoah, 
after a short time spent at Washington City. The winter was passed at Camp 
Halleck, near Frederick City, Maryland, and in the month of March, 1862, 
the troops crossed the Potomac river into the Shenandoah valley. They 
marched into the city of Winchester on the 9th of March, and after the en- 
gagement of Winchester Heights, joined in the pursuit of Stonewall Jack- 
son's army. May 23d the regiment fought at Front Royal, and was in the 
historic retreat the next day along the Strasburg road. That night they 
reached Winchester, and at the break of dawn the next day engaged hotly 
with the Confederates. The brigade of which the Twenty-seventh was a 
part stood off twenty-eight rebel regiments for a period of three and one- 
half hours, repulsing every onslaught made upon them. The Southerners 
finally massed and attempted to flank the brigade and in this maneuver were 
successful. The brigade gallantly held together, and for a time held the rebel 
host on even terms, but sheer force of numbers prevailed and they fell back in 
order to Winchester, where the fighting continued unabated in the streets. 
On May 26th the regiment crossed the Potomac. 

Afterward the Twenty-seventh was transported into Virginia, and fought 
at Cedar Mountain : then moved north of the Rappahannock, and took promi- 
nent part in the Maryland campaign. The ranks were depleted by the clash 
at Antietam on the 17th of September, and its regiment was placed on picket 
duty along the banks of the Potomac until the vacancies had been supplied 
with new men. The winter months were spent near Stafford Court House. 
In May, 1863, the regiment was at the front at Chancellorsville and suffered 
great losses. Close on the heels of Robert E. Lee the regiment proceeded 
northward, and during the first three days of July, 1863, engaged on the 
blood-red field at Gettysburg, and was one of the regiments which helped re- 
pulse the famous Pickett charge of July 3d. Heavy losses occurred on this 
field, but the gallant Twenty-seventh won her spurs and bore the reputation 
afterward of the utmost courage in the time of danger. After following the 
Army of Northern Virginia to the Potomac, the regiment rested until Sep- 
tember, and then was transferred to the West, along with the Twelfth Corps. 


During the fall and winter following, the regiment remained at Tullahoma, 
and early in 1864 a portion veteranized and returned home on a furlough. 
On May 15, 1864, the regiment won conspicuous renown by engaging with 
two Alabama regiments on the field of Resaca, Georgia, and defeating them, 
killing and wounding a large number and capturing some one hundred prison- 
ers, besides the enemy's battle flag. The Twenty-seventh lost sixty-eight 
killed and wounded. They moved to the city of Atlanta and fought in all of 
the battles of the Atlanta compaign. Here the non-veterans were mustered 
from the service and the veterans and recruits were transferred to the Seven- 
tieth Regiment, which organization served well in the Carolina campaign, later 
becoming a part of the Thirty-third Regiment. On July 21, 1865, the regi- 
ment was mustered out at Louisville, Kentucky. 

Spring-\'ille. this county, placed a company in the field in September, 1861. 
The organization bore the name of Company F, and was assigned to the Forty- 
third Regiment. They were mustered into the three-year service on Septem- 
ber 27th, under the command of Col. George K. Steele. The company from 
Springville had as officers during the war the following: Alexander H. 
Gainey, Joseph Lane, and James B. Dyer, captains ; Joseph Lane, John P. Pot- 
ter, John Bugher, James B. Dyer, John East and Miles F. Richeson, first lieu- 
tenants; Ira H. Rainwater. John Bugher, John R. Hall. James B. Dyer, 
Charles W. Holland, second lieutenants. They assembled at Terre Haute, and 
shortly after being mustered in moved to Spottsville, Kentucky, and from 
there to Calhoun. In February, 1862, the regiment went to Missouri, where it 
participated in the seige of Island No. 10 and New Madrid. The Forty-third 
was a unit in the division which moved on P'ort Pillow, the scene of one of 
the crudest and barbaric massacres of the war, and was one of the leaders 
when Memphis was entered, remaining in the latter city for about two months. 

In July, 1862, the Forty-third traveled up White river, to Helena, and 
on Independence day, 1863, won a hotly contested battle against a force 
triple their number, in support of a battery, holding off three successive attacks 
and capturing the entire rebel regiment. The regiment moved against Little 
Rock and, as a part of Steele's expedition, engaged at Elkin's Fork, Jenkin's 
Ferris Camden and Marks Mills. On April 30th, at Marks Mills, while on 
guard over four hundred supply wagons, the regiment was attacked by a large 
force under General Marmaduke, and in the fight which resulted lost nearly 
two hundred men killed, wounded and missing. Veterans numbering one 
hundred and four were captured (the regiment had veteranized in January, 
1964). Soon after this disaster the Forty-third returned home on a furlough, 
but en route went to Frankfort to aid in repelling Morgan's cavalry, also to 


engage briefly with Jesse's guerillas near Eminence. The next period of serv- 
ice for the regiment was at Indianapolis, on guard duty over Confederate 
prisoners. The final muster out occurred on June 14, 1865. A dozen or so of 
the Forty-third's men met their death in the miasmic filthv horror of Southern 

Two aijd one half companies were raised for the Fiftieth Regiment in 
October, i86i,' which regiment was organized at Seymour, under the command 
of Cyrus L. Dunham. Company G was made up entirely of men from Law- 
rence county, and was officered during the war by the following: Isaac 
Carothers, captain ; Hiram Malott, Austin G. Spear and William C. Newkirk, 
first lieutenants : Caswell R. Burton, A. G. Shear, W. C. Newkirk and John 
F. Flinn, second lieutenants. Compan}- I was also made up mostly of Law- 
rence county boys, and their officers were : Abraham H. Miller, captain ; Jacob 
McHenr}' and Daniel A. Baker, first lieutenants; Daniel J. Dean, Thomas J. 
Falkenburg and Aha \\'^est, second lieutenants. Company D, of the Residu- 
ary Battalion, was also largely from this count)-. William C. Newkirk was 
captain ; S. A. Flarrah, J. F. Leonard, James H. Watts, W. C. Newkirk and 
John T. Flinn were first lieutenants; Albert Adams, John Judy, John F. 
Leonard, John T. Flinn and James Gray, second lieutenants. Henry C. 
Huston, of Bedford, was a first lieutenant in Company A. 

In January, 1862, twenty-five men entered Company E, of the Fifty- 
second Regiment, and about ten in Company K, of the same regiment. John 
^^^ ^NlcCowlck was the captain of Company E. A great deal of Company D, 
after the reorganization, was from the county of Lawrence, and their officers 
were : John T. Flinn, captain ; John T. Flinn and James Gray, first lieutenants ; 
Tames Grav and .Vlexander jMarley, second lieutenants. All of the men from 
Lawrence countv were m.ustered into the service on February i, 1862. The 
regiment participated in the Civil war to a large extent, and performed meri- 
torious service during all the years of its service. In these movements the 
Fiftv-second was engaged at the siege of Fort Donelson. siege of Corinth, 
skirmish at Durhamville, Tennessee, other skirmishes with guerillas, raid on 
Meriden, battles of Jackson. Fort DeRussey, Pleasant Hill. Moore's Planta- 
tion. Yellow Bayou, Lake Chicot. Tupelo, Hurricane Creek. Franklin. jNIis- 
souri, Nashville, Tennessee, pursuit of Hood, Spanish Fort, Blakely. and in 
addition many other less important expeditions. The regiment was mustered 
out of the service on September 10, 1865. In the month of August. 1862, 
fifteen men entered Company F, of the Sixty-fifth Regiment, and an added ten 
recruits joined in 1863. James Marley, of Lawrence county, was a second 
lieutenant, and later a first lieutenant. 


Company A, of the Sixty-seventh Regiment, had a great many Law- 
rence county men in its ranks. They were mustered into the service on Aug- 
ust 19, 1862, and during the subsequent term of enlistment had the following 
officers : Francis A. Sears, George W. Rahm and Jacob Smith, captains ; G. 
W. Rahm, Leander P. Leonard, David T. Mitchell, Jacob Smith, Thomas 
Hendricks and John S. Bailey, first lieutenants; L. P. Leonard, David T. 
Mitchell and Jacob Smith, second lieutenants. Company H also was from 
Lawrence county, and its officers were: David Kelly, captain; Allen C. Bur- 
ton, Benjamin N. Hostetler and John T. Stewart, first lieutenants; Wiley G. 
Burton and Benjamin Hostetler, second lieutenants. 

The Sixty-seventh was mustered in at Madison, under Col. Frank Emer- 
son, and then moved to Louisville, thence to Munfordville, and in this latter 
place, on the 14th of September, was engaged with Bragg's army, and after 
a losing fight and a loss of forty-three men killed and wounded, was sur- 
rendered to the enemy. The regiment was paroled, and forced to remain at 
home until the month of December, when it was exchanged. Immediately 
the men were re-equipped and dispatched to Memphis. Their first engage- 
ment after exchange occurred in the assault on Arkansas Post, where they 
suffered severely in killed and wounded. The regiment later moved to Young's 
Point, and then joined the Vicksburg campaign. The men of the Sixty- 
seventh fought valiantl}' at Port Gibson, Champion's Hill, Black River Bridge, 
and at the siege and capture of Vicksburg. In succession the troops were ad- 
vanced against Jackson's companies, then to New Orleans, and then fought at 
Grand Coteau, Louisiana, where two hundred of the men were captured. In 
January, 1864, the regiment went to Texas, and joined the Red River expe- 
dition, fighting at Sabine- Cross Roads, Cane River and Alexandria, and losing 
heavily. After this southern campaign the men were mo\'ed against Forts 
Gaines and Morgan, and were thus engaged for twenty days. Then, and until 
December, 1864, the regiment was located at Morganza, Louisiana, in the 
meantime taking part in several small expeditions. The Sixty-seventh was 
next consolidated with the Twenty-fourth Regiment, under the latter name, 
and moved in the campaign against Mobile, and then was taken to Galveston, 
Texas. In this place the men were mustered out of the service on July 19, 
1865, the recruits continuing, however, in active service. The record of this 
regiment is remarkable in several ways. Not only did they suffer great losses 
in battles, Imt in the number of battles engaged, eighteen in all, they had the 
uniform misfortune to receive more than their share of rebel Inillets. They 
were under fire a total of one hundred and forty seven days, and traveled a 
distance of seventeen thousand miles. 


Company G, Fourth Cavalry (Seventy-se\'enth Regiment), was organ- 
ized in July, 1862, and mustered in on August 7, 1862. The roH of officers 
during the war was as follows : Jesse Keithley and Isaac Newkirk, captains ; 
Isaac Xewkirk. Elihu C. Newland and Thomas C. Williams, first lieutenants; 
E. C. Newland, T. C. Williams and James Kern, second lieutenants. Under 
Col. Isaac P. Gray the regiment was organized at Indianapolis, and when the 
time came to enter the field the regiment was divided and distributed among 
various places in Kentucky. One of the battalions, under command of Major 
Platter, participated in light skirmishes at Madisonville on August 26th, and 
at Mount Washington on October ist, sufifering slight casualties. On the 5th 
of October this division again fought at Madisonville. and lost several men. 
The other battalion, under Colonel Gray, was first taken to Louisville, thence 
to Madison, then to Vevay, then to several Kentucky counties, to Frankfort 
on October 24, from there to Gallatin, then up the Green river in pursuit of 
John Morgan. On Christmas day they engaged the rebel Morgan near Mun- 
fordville, and defeated him with severe loss. In the early part of 1863 the 
regiment moved to Murfreesboro, and on the loth of March were in battle 
at Rutherford Creek. Under command of Shuler. they skirmished near 
Murfreesboro, on March 28th. 

It was not long before the two battalions of the Fourth Cavalry were 
united, and the regiment as a whole joined the army under Rosecrans. In 
this army they participated in the battle of Chickamauga, on September 19 
and 20, 1863, and on the 23d. The battle of Chickamauga, not excepting 
Gettysburg, was the largest in the Civil war. and the gallant Fourth received 
their baptism of fire along with hundreds of other troops, and were forced to 
withdraw from the fated field. Had the Confederates followed up their ad- 
vantage on this historic field, the Civil war would have been historically differ- 
ent. But, as it was, the Army of the Cumberland recuperated, and lived to 
see the destruction of the rebel host. On the first of November the regiment 
fought at Fayetteville. During the winter of 1863-1864 the men harbored 
in eastern Tennessee, during which time they fought at Mossy Creek, Talbot's 
and Dandridge, and performed valiantly the duties assigned to them. Their 
work on January 27, 1864, when both battalions engaged at Fair Garden, dis- 
persing the enemy and capturing many, besides a battery and battle flag, de- 
serves special mention in the military record of Lawrence county. Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Leslie was killed by a bullet while he was cheering his men on to 
victory. In the month of May the regiment started on the Atlanta campaign, 
and fought at Varnell's Station, Georgia, and at Burnt Church, on June 2nd. 
In the McCook raid and fight at Newman on July 31st the Fourth was very 


active. Atlanta once captured, the regiment moved to the state of Tennessee, 
and fought at Columbia in October. The regiment was afterward placed at 
several different points, including Nashville, Waterloo, and were under fire 
at Plantersville and Selma. The men were mustered out of the service on 
June 29, 1865, at Edgefield, Tennessee. 

There were numerous other companies sent to the front from Lawrence 
county. Evei-y new enlistment from Indiana was sure to have a strong repre- 
sentation from this county. In the months of July and August, 1862, a com- 
plete company was sent to the Sixteenth Regiment, three-year service, and was 
known as Company D. At different periods of the war, Columbus Moore 
and David B. Moore, of Mitchell, acted as captains ; William Mannington, 
Milton N. Moore, D. B. Moore and Cyrus Crawford were first lieutenants; 
Milton N. Moore was second lieutenant. The Sixteenth Regiment was under 
the command of Col., Thomas J. Lucas, of Lawrenceburg. In August, 1862, 
nearly sixty men from the county entered. Company F, Ninety-third Regiment, 
the remainder being from Monroe county. Samuel J. Bartlett, Lafayette 
Bodenhamer. George W. Reeves were captains : Alexander Hawkins, L. 
Bodenhamer, G. W. Reeves and James S. Harvey, first lieutenants ; L. Boden- 
hamer, G. W. Reeves and William S. Sowder, second lieutenants. DeWitt 
C. Thomas was the colonel of the regiment. Six or eight Lawrence county 
men also entered Company E, of the Ninety-seventh Regiment, which organ- 
ization went from Springville. William T. Butcher was commissioned a first 
lieutenant in 1865. Other men left the county from time to time to join 
regiments made up in other places, and it is certain that Lawrence county did 
not get full credit for her services. Henry Davis, Leesville, remembered 
as a captain in the Lawrence county company which went to the Mexican war 
in 1846, was made a lieutenant-colonel of the Eighty-second Regiment on 
August 27, 1862, but resigned on October i, 1863. 

Lawrence county, as her neighboring county, Monroe, managed to escape 
the draft of October 6, 1862, being one of the fifteen counties in the state of 
Indiana to escape the draft. Many of the counties and townships in the 
state had been slow in filling their quotas, consequently the state military au- 
thorities decided to hold a draft in September. In order to give the backward 
districts an opportunity to make up their deficiency the draft w^as postponed 
until October 6th, at which date it was executed. Charles G. Berry was ap- 
pointed draft commissioner in Lawrence county: James R. Glover, provost 
marshal, and John W. Newland, surgeon. However, these men had nothing 
to do on the day of the draft, for the condition of the county was perfect. 
The report of the state enrollment commissioners on September iq, 1862. in 


regard to the military status of the county, gave the locality the following 
credits; Total militia, 1,732; total volunteers, 1,500; total exempt, 358; 
conscientiously opposed to bearing arms, none ; total volunteers in the service, 
1,500; total subject to draft, 1,374- This ver}^ excellent record was unsur- 
passed in the state. Taking into consideration the fact that many men, pos- 
sibly three hundred, enlisted several times, and were counted each time, the 
record shows that from April, 1861, to September, 1862, the county sent ap- 
proximately twelve hundred men into the service of the country, a record of 
which to be proud. 

morgan's RAID. 

In July, 1863, the news that Morgan and his cavalry were in the state 
threw the people of Lawrence county into a furore. The proximity of trouble 
created excitement unequaled at any other time during the war. Only a few 
days passed when six full companies were sent into Mitchell from the county, 
and they were joined by four companies from Orange, Washington and Mon- 
roe counties. The organization was called the One Hundred and Twelfth 
Minute Men, under command of Col. Hiram F. Braxtan, of Bedford; Samuel 
P. Dade, also of Bedford, was adjutant ; Ferdinand W. Beard, of Springville, 
surgeon, and Addison W. Bare, of Br\'antsville, assistant surgeon. The com- 
panies and their officers from Lawrence county were : Company B, Capt. 
David T. Mitchell. First Lieut. Henry Paugh. Second Lieut. Bolivar Duncan ; 
Company D, Capt. William Muir, First Lieut. George W. Douglass, Second 
Lieut. Oily Owens ; Company F, Capt. Willoughby Blevins, First Lieut. 
Milton McKee, Second Lieut. William Withers; Company G, Capt. John H. 
Bartlett, First Lieut. Alexander Hawkins, Second Lieut. Elisha Lee; Com- 
pany H, Capt. Zachariah B. Wilson, First Lieut. Benjamin R. Smith, Second 
Lieut. Theodore Stackhouse; Company K, Capt. John Beaty, First Lieut. 
Josiah C. Foster, Second Lieut. John P. Potter. The period of service of this 
regiment of minute men was from July lOth to the 17th, 1863. From Mitchell 
they went to Seymour, and from there to North Vernon to meet General 
Morgan and his raiders, thence to Sunman's Station, and then home again. 
At this same period of fright, three other companies, E, H and I, entered the 
One Hundred and Thirteenth Regiment, minute men. Company E was under 
Capt. A. F. Tannehill, First Lieut. Henry Cox and Second Lieut. H. F. Pit- 
man. Company H was under Capt. Francis M. Davis, First Lieut. Samuel 
Lynn and Second Lieut. John Dean. Company I was under Capt. Luther 
Briggs, First Lieut. George W. Burton and Second Lieut. Anderson Beasley. 
Thev were in service six days, ending July 16. 1863. They went from 


Mitchell directly to North Vernon, then to Snnman's Station, then Indian- 
apolis, and home. 

On June 15, 1863, there was a call for six months' men, and in com- 
pliance with this order Lawrence county responded with a full company, which 
became Company D, of the One Hundred and Seventeenth Regiment, and 
officered by Hiram F. Braxtan, captain, Robert R. Stewart, first lieutenant, 
and James H. Crawford, second lieutenant. Very little active fighting fell 
to the lot of these men, but they performed well their services as provost 
guards, and experienced hardships on field and march equally as disastrous 
as the rebel bullets. 

As late as 1864 there were many enlistments from Lawrence county. 
In the spring of that year twenty-five men went to Company H, and fifty-six 
men to Company I, One Hundred and Twentieth Regiment, three-year service. 
Of Company H, John H. Bartlett, second lieutenant, and in Company I, 
William J. Cook and John V. Smith, captains, J. V. Smith and William Day, 
first lieutenants, Henry H. Reath and W. Day, second lieutenants, were from 
this county. They were mustered in during the months of February and 
March, 1864, under command of Col. Richard F. Prather, and took the field 
at Louisville, then Nashville, and Charleston, Tennessee, and then joined the 
Atlanta campaign, fighting at Resaca, where the boys won renown by charg- 
ing and routing the enemy. Other notable engagements which this regiment 
experienced were Lost and Kenesaw Mountains, Atlanta on July 22nd, and 
Jonesboro, Franklin, Nashville, Wise's Fork on March 8, 1865. The men 
joined in the pursuit of Hood after Atlanta. In the sanguinary conflict at 
Franklin, the regiment lost its major and forty-eight men were killed and 
wounded ; their losses in other battles were also large, as they were ever in the 
thickest of the fight. At Franklin they formed a part of the solid blue line 
which the enemy, by thirteen successive charges, failed to break. At Wise's 
Fork, after their removal to North Carolina, of the One Hundred and Twen- 
tieth seven were killed and forty-eight wounded. The regiment was mus- 
tered from the service in the early part of 1866. 

In the fore part of 1864 twenty-five men joined Company H, of the One 
Hundred and Thirty-first Regiment, were mustered in on April 5th, and the 
company had as officers the following men from Lawrence county : John W. 
Mannington and William M. Munson, first lieutenants and W. M. Munson 
and Samuel Cook, second lieutenants. The regiment was properly named 
the Thirteenth Cavalry. Among the engagements in which it participated 
were Overall's Creek. Wilkinson's Pike, Nashville (dismounted), the invest- 
ment of Mobile, and in manv other small raids and skirmishes. Their losses 


totaled sixty-five men killed and wounded, and the command was mustered out 
at Vicksburg on November i8. 186^. 

The call for one-hundred-day men was answered in May, 18(14, ]>y the 
county. A full company was sent to the One Hundred and Thirty-sixth 
Regiment. The company was assigned the letter E, and was officered by 
David Mitchell, captain; Francis L. Parkison, first lieutenant, and William 
Patterson, second lieutenant. This company was mustered into service on 
May 21st, and were assigned to provost duty in Kentucky and Tennessee. 
In September, 1864, Company A was raised in Lawrence county for the One 
Hundred and Fortieth Regiment. Charles P. Pendergast and Robert R. R. 
Stewart were captains; R. R. R. Stewart and James T. Andrews were first 
lieutenants ; J. T. Andrews, Eli M. Dale and John R. Smith, second lieutenants. 
Pendergast was commissioned a major, E. M. Dale, adjutant, and David T. 
Mitchell, a lieutenant-colonel. The men were mustered in for one year's 
service, under command of Col. Thomas J. Brady. On the 15th of November 
they were taken to Nashville, and then to Murfreesboro, where there were 
quite a number of skirmishes and small engagements. In December the regi- 
ment moved to Columbia, and in January, 1865, to Washington, D. C. Shortly 
afterward, they were transported to North Carolina, in time to aid in the 
attack on Fort Fisher. Also the regiment was in the movement on Fort 
Anderson, was under the fire of the Federal gunboats, and captured the flag 
of the garrison. The men were in the struggle at Town Creek Bridge, where 
the enemy were completely defeated and captured. Subsequent movements 
included Kingston, Goldsboro, Raleigh, and Greensboro, and at the latter 
place the men were mustered from the service on July 11, 1865. 

The last volunteering in Lawrence county occurred in the early months 
of 1865, when the L^nion forces were being concentrated around the Army of 
Northern Virginia. Men who had hitherto failed to enlist saw the approach- 
ing crisis and were anxious to join the victorious forces. In January, 1865, 
Company B, of the One Hundred and Forty-fifth, was nearly all raised in 
Lawrence county, and seventeen men for Company C and fifty for Company 
D of the same regiment. Vinson V. Williams and Michael A. Gelwick of 
this county were captains in Company B; Gelwick, Samuel Hostetler, James 
McClelland were first lieutenants and Hostetler, McClelland and William J. 
Owens were second lieutenants. In Company C Archibald Anderson was a 
first lieutenant and later a captain. In Company D George W. Burton was a 
captain, David A. Goodin, a first lieutenant, and John Stotts and Adolphus 
W. Trueblood, second lieutenants. The regiment was under the command of 
Col. W. A. Adams, loshua Budd. of Mitchell, adjutant, and Vinson V. 


Williams, major, and later lieutenant-colonel. The men were mustered in in 
January and February, 1865, and on the i8th of February left Indianapolis 
for Nashville, Tennessee, arriving there on the 21st, and on the 23d reported 
to General Steadman at Chattanooga. Their period of service consisted 
mostly in provost duty near Dalton. and in Marietta where they remained 
until August 1865. They were removed to Cuthbert, Georgia, in January, 
1866, and were mustered from the service at Macon, Georgia. 

The Lawrence County Legion was an organization consisting of twelve 
companies. The following is a list of these companies, the date of their 
organization, and the officers of each. Reserved Guards of Bedford, June, 
i86i — John M. Harron, captain; W. N. Bivins, first lieutenant; G. W. Rahm, 
second lieutenant. Union Guards of Bedford, June, 1861 — Charles G. Back, 
captain; W. P. Malott. first lieutenant; A. P. Lemon, second Heutenant. 
Perry Guards, June, 1861 — John P. Potter, captain; B. F. Dean, first lieu- 
tenant; F. W. Beard, second lieutenant. Independent Grays of Fayetteville, 
July, 1861 — John Foot and A. F. Tannehill, captains; Eldridge Williams, J. 
H. Reynolds and Henry Cox, first lieutenants; H. F. Pitman, second lieu- 
tenant. Mitchell Light Infantry, July, 1861 — William Muir, captain; G. W. 
Douglas, first lieutenant: William Hammersley, second lieutenant. Big 
Spring Guards, July, 1861 — Samuel Hostetler. captain; John L- Stewart, first 
lieutenant; R. R. Stewart, second lieutenant. Lawrence Guards of Bedford, 
July, 1863 — Henry C. Hardy, captain; William Cook, first lieutenant; J. W. 
Glover, second lieutenant. Marshal Guards, July, 1:863. — A. Anderson, cap- 
tain; B. F. Kingrey, first lieutenant; T. J. Boruff, second lieutenant. Helton- 
ville Guards, August, 1862 — J. J. Durand, captain; Hiram Malott, first lieu- 
tenant ; William Gray, second lieutenant. Leatherwood Sharpshooters. Aug- 
ust. 1863— Silas N. Whitted, captain; Eli Younger, first lieutenant ; John Mal- 
ott, second lieutenant. Bartlettsville Guards, August, 1863 — J. H. Bartlett 
and S. J. Bartlett, captains ; Alexander Hawkins, first lieutenant ; J. H. Clen- 
denin, second lieutenant. Jefferson Grays, August. 1863— G. W. Burton, 
captain; Obed Mercer, first lieutenant; Michael Voorhis, second lieutenant. 
Henry Davis was a colonel. 

Many other regiments which participated in the war of the Rebellion 
had varying numbers of men from Lawrence county in their personnel. 
Twenty-seven men enrolled in Company F of the Ninety-third Regiment late 
in 1862 and early in 1863. In June, 1863. about ten men were recruited for 
Company F, of the Sixty-fifth. Later in the same year and in the beginning 
of 1864 twenty-six men joined Company G of the Fourth Cavalry. Several 
entered the Twentv- fourth and a few the Eighteenth. Late in 1864 and early 



in 1865 thirty-five men enlisted in Company D of the Sixteenth. About the 
same time eighty-five recruits left Lawrence county for Company F of the 

The second draft for enlisted men occurred in Indiana in October, 1864. 
Lawrence county came within the bounds of the third district, and the ofificers 
wtre: John R. B. Glasscock, commissioner; Albert G. Collier, surgeon; 
Simeon Stansifer, provost marshal, to March. 1865, and then James B. Mulky. 
These district ofificers were appointed in May, 1863. The county was not 
fortunate, as she had been in the draft of October, 1862. and several men were 
forced to enlist. The reports show that eighty men were drafted in Law- 
rence county. The third draft for Indiana occurred in Februaiy, 1865. The 
demand on the county was very light, as the records show only two men 
credited. It is questionable whether or not the draft ever took place in the 
county, but if it did, it was extremely light. Doubtless, had the county been 
accredited with all the men who enlisted in other counties, she would have 
never been burdened with the draft. 

In summarizing the number of men furnished by the county of Lawrence 
for the Federal army, it is well to give a few of thed figures compiled by reliable 
authorities, relating to the subject. Before December 19, 1862. the county 
was credited with a contribution of 1,500 men prior to that date. Under the 
call of June i, 1863, for six months' men the county supplied a complete com- 
pany of one hundred men. In October, 1863, she furnished 149 men. By a 
table prepared on the last day of the year, 1864, the calls of 1864 are tabulated 
by counties, and the total, that is, the report for Lawrence county as a whole, 
is as follows: First enrollment, 1,874; quota under call of Februaiy i, 1864, 
299; quota under call of March 14, 1864, ^20; quota under call of July 18, 
1864, 310; total of quotas and deficiencies, 729; credits by voluntary enlist- 
ments, new recruits, 586, veterans, lOi ; credits by draft, 80; total credits by 
enlistments and draft, 767; one year, 150; three years, 617; surplus, 38. On 
April 14, 1865, the following figures were prepared by authority, at which 
time all efforts were abandoned in raising men: Second enrollment, 1,191; 
quota under call of December 19, 1864, 147; total of quotas and deficiencies, 
147; new recruits, 148; credits by draft, 2; total credits by enlistments and 
draft, 150; deficiency, 43; and surplus, 46. Taking all enlistments together 
it is shown that 2,669 men enlisted from Lawrence county during the progress 
of the war, but as some men enlisted as high as three or four times, and were 
counted each time, the number is much too large. It has been estinlated that 
fifteen hundred men left Lawrence county for the Federal army, which record 
is an excellent one in the scale of Indiana counties. 


One of the chief reasons for the success of the great Northern armies 
is the fact that in the homes and towns where the brave fellows hailed from 
there were preparations constantly being made for relief and aid. Mothers 
and sisters and sweethearts sewed and collected sundry articles to be sent to 
the field, entertainments of all kinds were given and the proceeds invested in 
supplies, and many a helping hand was extended to the soldiers' families who 
were destitute, their support at the front risking his life for the countiy. 
Pleasures were sacrificed, luxuries forgotten, and just the necessities were 
spent by the Northern people, in order that the hardships of the men in the 
field might be lessened and a measure of comfort given the battlefield and 
camp. In the adjutant general's report on the amount of bounty and relief 
furnished by Lawrence county during the war, the following figures will be 
interesting: The county, bounty, $61,700, relief, $2,815; Flinn township: 
bounty, $4,600, relief, $500; Pleasant Run township: bounty, $1,000, relief, 
$300; Perry township: bounty, $1,650, relief, $500; Indian Creek township: 
bounty, $8,400, relief, $1,500; Spice Valley township: bounty, $1,426, relief, 
$650; Marion township: $5,000, relief, $1,000; Bono township: bounty, 
$3,200, relief, $1,000; Shawswick township: bounty, $3,125, relief, $4,000; 
and Marshall township: bounty, $2,600, relief, $300. Making a total of 
bounty, $92,701 and relief, $12,565. 

In a county history of the scope and importance of this volume, there are 
a thousand and one little incidents of war-time public meetings, celebrations, 
.societies, supplies furnished, mass meetings, eulogies, speeches, and personal 
notes which can be gained through but one source, the newspaper files. Past 
historians have discovered that such a file is absent in the county of Lawrence, 
due to a theft or accidental destruction. These interesting parts of the chapter 
on the military history are consequently lost for all time. 


When the Spanish-American war broke out in 1898, there was a great 
amount of excitement in the city of Bedford and the surrounding country. 
The young bloods prepared to enlist immediately, and, as there was no regu- 
larly organized company in Bedford, the most of the recruits went to Indi- 
anapolis and Louisville, where they joined the National Guard being rendez- 
voused at those points. With a few exceptions, these men saw' little service, 
for their regiments were transported to Camp Thomas at Chickamauga, Camp 
Alger, and other places, and there kept during the summer without receiving 


opportunity to get to the tiring line in Cuba. Certain men enlisted in the 
regular army, and thus were able to participate in the fighting. 

After the peace between the two countries, many other men enlisted in 
the regular United States army, and were sent to the Philippines, to quell the 
insurrection there. The Thirty-fifth United States Regiment, the Fortieth, 
and the Second United States Artillery received most of these men. All 
together, during the war period, approximately three hundred men joined the 
American forces from Lawrence county. 



Bedford exists because the location was selected by the county seat 
locating commissioners in 1825 as the seat of justice for Lawrence county, 
after it had been located at old Palestine (now defunct) for about seven years, 
mention of which is made in the chapter on "County Government." The 
original plat contained two hundred acres ; in length this tract was two hun- 
dred rods and in width' one hundred and sixty rods. The survey was to begin, 
as per order of the county board, on March 30. 1825. It took several days, 
but when finished the platting was a fac simile of the original town of Pales- 
tine. Many lots were lawfully exchanged in Palestine for ones in Bedford, 
but other lots were sold at public auction commencing June 2, 1826. The 
proceeds of the lot sales was $1,849.25. The geographical situation of the 
city is (or the first platting was) in sections 14 and 23, township 5 north and 
range i west. 

The land was located in consideration that the county seat should be 
located here. The donation was made by Samuel F. Irwin, Joseph Glover, 
John Owens, Reuben Kilgore, Moses Woodrufif and Isaac Stewart. It is a 
beautiful town site now, 'but when first occupied was not of the most charming, 
although the eminence of its higher lands and general landscape view was even 
by nature always sightly and fine to behold. 

Among the first to reside in Bedford were John Lowrey, clerk and re- 
corder of the county; Henry Lowrey, merchant, of the firm of Lowrey & 
Simpson, the latter being a non-resident, however ; Samuel F. Irwin, merchant ; 
Joseph Athon, hotel proprietor; Rollin C. Dewey, a lawyer; L. N. Livingston, 
lawyer; John Vestal, merchant; Samuel D. Bishop, carpenter; John Brown 
postmaster; Jacob Mosier, a Methodist minister; Samuel Wilson, laborer; 
Richard Evans, miller ; Gotleib Byrer, a hatter ; David Borland, tanner ; Joseph 
Cowan, stone mason; Turner Sullivan, wagoner; William Sullivan, black- 
smith; Joseph Cuthbertson, cabinetmaker; Henry Parsell, laborer; William 
Benefield, hotel keeper; William Kelsey, deputy sherifif; Henry Hendricks, 
saddler; John Ouackenbosh, carpenter; Henry Quackenbosh, laborer; Jacob 
Hufif. wagoner; Winthrop Foote, physician; A. H. Dunihue, merchant for 
Isaac Stewart; Andrew Hattabaugh, liquor dealer. These men, with their 


families, and possibly a half dozen more, constituted the first to locate at Bed- 
ford, all having settled here by the spring of 1826. The next five years saw- 
many additions to the population, and they were too numerous to here enumer- 
ate. But suffice it to state that many of the'ir offspring still reside in and near 
the city. 


The start in merchandising here was effected by the firm of Irwin & Stew- 
art (Samuel F. Irwin and Isaac Stewart), who occupied the first frame build- 
ing in the town. They carried a four-thousand-dollar stock of general mer- 
chandise. A. H. Dunihue, who came to the town in 1826, entered this store 
as a clerk, continuing as such for a number of years. In 1830 the store was 
sold to Joseph Rawlins, and he followed mercantile business for thirty years, 
accumulating a fortune. 

The second store was opened by Lowrey & Simpson, who commenced 
soon after the first store started. They thrived many years. 

The first "groceiy" was started by Andrew Hattabaugh in 1826. It was 
really a saloon, but then known as a "wet grocery" ; it was kept in a log build- 
ing on the east side of the public square. In 1827 came a man of much 
prominence named Moses Fell and he opened a general store which he success- 
fully conducted until his death, in 1840. William McLane, who had been 
dubbed colonel, and who had conducted a store as early as 181 5 at Orleans, 
Orange county, located at Bedford, where for many years he was engaged 
in merchandising. For a time he was president of the Bedford Branch of 
the old Indiana State Bank, and was the owner of a large drygoods business 
at Louisville, Kentucky. He amassed a fortune of one hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars and in 1854 removed to Texas, where he died in 1873, aged 

In 1828. John Vestal, who had been engaged in trade at Springville, 
opened a general store in Bedford on the: southeast corner of the public square, 
continuing until about the date of his death in 1873. 

William Benefield opened the first tavern in Bedford in 1825. David 
Kelley opened a liquor store in 1829. Foote & Fell ojiened another liquor 
store at about that date and the following is a true copy of their "recommend" : 

"Bedford. January 4, 1830. 

"We, the undersigned subscribers, do certify that \\'inthrop Foote and 
Moses Fell are men of good moral character." Signed l:)y John Brown and 
eleven more. 



FROM 1830 TO 1840. 

This was a very prosperous decade for Bedford. In 1834 the first news- 
paper was founded and a little later the branch of the old Indiana State Bank 
was estabhshed here. This bank brought the town much ready money and 
advertised it far and near, so that many speculators found their way here. 
It was this class who started to buy and transport much pork, grain, etc., down 
the rivers to the Southland. Vaughn & Moberly dealt extensively in liquors. 
There were no less than seven firms engaged in this business at one time here 
in that decade. Some became very wealthy from the profits of the whisky 
trade. In fact nearly all of the pioneer merchants got their start in this busi- 
ness. The only exception among these merchants was perhaps A. H. Dunihue, 
who refused even to attach his name to certificates of "good moral character" 
for those who sought a license to deal in liquors. But it must be admitted 
that the sale of liquor those days was not fraught with the debauchery seen 
in later times. Good, moral, religious men countenanced the sale, and even 
conducted "groceries," as saloons were then styled, of their own. Other 
merchants during the thirties were E. C. Moberly, D. R. Dunihue, Lankford 
Trueblood, John Brown, Mason & Harvey, Jacob Clark,, Medicine, Vestal & 
Crooke, M. A. & W. H. Malott, F. W. Dixon, and others whose names are 
lost from view with the passage of years. 


The decade from 1840 to 1850 saw manv changes in the role of business 
men in Bedford. Henry J. Acoam at first sold liquor, but later opened a large 
merchandise store. In 1845 permission was granted the citizens by the 
county board to erect a market house, which was carried out. It was during 
this eventful ten-year period that the effort to banish the sale of liquors from 
"groceries" in the town was almost successful, at least the number was greatly 
reduced, but a few old establishments, like Phillip Renter's, continued to thrive 
in spite of opposition. Strong efforts were made to prevent the issuance of 
licenses for Renter, and se\eral petitions with that object in view, after con- 
sideration by the county board, were duly granted, but the sale did not stop. 
One of these petitions which was granted was as follows, being given here as 
an example of the times and for the old-time names attached thereto : 

"Bedford, Indiana, December 24, 1844. 
"To The Honorable Board of Commissioners of the County of Lawrence, 
if in session; if not in session, to the Auditor and Treasurer of said county: 


The undersigned citizens of the Town of Bedford, beheving that retaihng 
spirituous liquors within the town hmits is pernicious in its effects, therefore 
respectfully remonstrate against the granting of license to any person or per- 
sons to retail spirituous liquors within the limits of said town for the term 
of five years. 

"D. R. Dunihue, Isaac Denson, William Newkirk, W. V. Daniel. M. W. 
Houston, William Smith, Daniel Dunihue, Sr., C. P. Reed, A. G. Young, 
Horatio Jeter, John Vestal, Joseph Rawlings, T. N. Robertson, James R. 
Glover, James G. Duncan, Robert Biggs, Eli Dale. Henry Quackenbosh. John 
Webb, Edmond B. Kennedy, William McLane. William S. Watson, Solomon 
Eldridge, John Gyger, S. F. Irwin, H. B. Richardson. William Perkins, A. S. 
Ferguson, John Owen, A. H. Donihue. Elizabeth Barner, Isaac Rector, Alex- 
ander Wall, William Ross. F. T. Raymond, Oily Owens. J. G. McDonald, 
Nancy Wilder, Edith H. Hendricks. Levi H. Dale. David Borland, William 
Porter, Dr. Laforce, Luke Barker. W. W. Williamson. Ezekiel Blackwell, N. 
D. Glazenbrook, R. M. Parks, James C. Lynn." 

Mr. Renter was denied a license, but, through his attorney, James Hughes, 
demanded a re-hearing, but this was refused, and) an exception was filed. The 
matter was settled in the circuit court in such a manner that Renter was per- 
mitted to go on with the sale of liquor. During this time a full list of the 
resident families of the town was made up, but it is too lengthy to here ap- 
pend. These families represented a population of five hundred people. 


The business interests of Bedford from 1850 to 1870 were largely in the 
hands of the following men and firms : In the fifties, Dunihue & Kelley, 
M. A. Malott, Joseph Rawlins, John Vestal, J. C. Gavins, drugs; W. M. 
Northcraft, clothing; John Sues, Portman & Francis, E. & E. M. Braxtan, 
hardware ; Houston & Buskirk, furniture ; Krenking & Schmidt, grist mill ; 
Godfrey Schlosser, marble dealers; J. G. fnkel. jeweler; W. W. Owens, post- 
master; Malott & Sons, general store; J. S. Wigmore. watches and clocks; 
James Calvert, furniture; R. H. Carlton & Company, drugs; Malott & Reed, 
general store; Newland & Hostetler, drugs; B. Lepman. diy goods and cloth- 

In the sixties the business was carried on by some of the above, with 
others as follows : Park & Williams, general dealers ; Henry Ewald, grocer ; 
Adam Ruth, furniture; J. P. Francis, general store; Charles Kramer, bakery; 
Kahn & Brother, clothing; George Roberts, drugs; Glover & Driscoll. dentists; 


A. G. Gainey & Company, general store ; Howell & Johnson, drugs ; J. V. & 
Z. C. Mathes, hardware; D. Barnes & Son, furniture; J. J. Hardy,, livery; Mrs. 
S. A. W. Brown, millinery ; Abderson & Hamilton, books, etc. ; J. W. Acoam, 
harness and saddles. The merchant tailors were Palmer & Messick. 


One of the hrst manufacturing plants of Bedford, odd as it may now 
sound, was a distillery operated by steam, fitted up by Samuel F. Irwin in a 
log cabin. At the same time he started a horse mill to supply his distillery 
with ground grain. These two enterprises were popular and well patronized 
by the surrounding farming community. Then, there was scarcely any other 
market for corn than at the distilleries of the country. The present uses for 
corn, such as glucose, etc., were then unknown. Corn was fed to hogs, which 
were packed and shipped in large numbers to the South, on flat-boats. Some- 
times the com sold for cash, but usually it was made up into liquor on the 
shares. The large amounts of whisky and brandy made at the Irwin still 
house were sent mostly to Louisville, Kentucky. An average of about three 
barrels per day were turned out at this one distillery. This represented the 
consumption of thirty-five bushels of corn, or an annual capacity of about 
ten thousand bushels, equal to eight hundred barrels of liquor. Rye was also 
used for the same purpose. Whisky sold at a shilling a gallon. After ten 
years distilling by Irwin his l)usiness was abandoned. 

In about 1836, a cotton factory was erected by William McLane, Samuel 
F. Irwin, Moses Fell, John Vestal and a few more. The machinery came by 
two-horse wagons from Lexington. Kentucky. H. B. Richardson and six 
workmen operated this factory, he being the superintendent. The cotton was 
purchased in Kentucky and hauled out to Bedford by wagons. Yarns were 
made here, but no cloth was woven. In 1840 the factory was sold and shipped 
to Salem. 

In 183.4, Barker & Phelps started an ashery, which they conducted three 
years. They paid three cents a bushel for 'ashes and sometimes had to pay as 
high as seven cents per luisliel. From these they manufactured a fair quality 
of black salts, which found sale in Louisville markets. Connected with this 
plant was also a shingle factory owned and operated by the same men and 
propelled by the same steam. The rough shingles, made from native woods, 
found ready sale at home. As early as 1826, Richard Evans built a tread- 
power saw mill near Bedford, which he conducted until about 1830; at first 
it was well patronized. 


A large tanner}^ was l>uilt in 1826, some say earlier, by David Borland. 
He conducted this twenty years. It had forty vats, and he did an extensive 
business, the leather here made going" mostly to Louisville. About a year later 
another tannery was started by Samuel and Thomas Biggs, consisting of 
twenty vats. Later this was sold to Biggs & Young and operated for about 
fifteen years longer, or probably up to 1855. These tanneries, in a good season. 
made work for about a dozen workmen. 

In 1826 Thomas and Robert Carlton bought the machinery of the old 
woolen factory of the Lockharts. at Palestine, removed it to Bedford and 
installed a factory here. Carding in all of its various forms was carried on 
here on a large scale. A large custom business was done and from May to 
September six hands were kept busy. Wool raised over a wide scope of 
country was brought here to be carded and then returned to the families, 
where it was woven into cloth. The Carltons also bought and shipped to 
Louisville large amounts of wool. This industry lasted several years. In 
1834, John Lynn started a carding factory and continued to operate it a 
dozen or more years. His plant was really of more importance than that of 
the Carltons, and gave work to as many men, also advanced beyond carding 
to fulling and coloring without dressing. His work was known by its rough- 
ness, its warmth and wearing qualities. 

At an early day there -were three important cabinet shops in Bedford. 
These were owned by Matthew Borland. William Templeton and Joseph 
Culbertson. Each made tables, stands, bureaus, cupboards, chairs, bedsteads, 
coffins, etc. About three workmen were constantly employed in each shop. 
Two of these shops ran for many years. 


The packing and shipment of pork was a lively industry in Bedford in 
the early history of the town. Chief among the operators were William Mc- 
Lane, Samuel F. Irwin, Joseph Rawlins and David Borland. Michael A. 
Malott also packed and shipped considerable pork. McLane & Irwin com- 
menced this branch of business in 1827, when they erected a log building on 
Leatherwood creek, below town. It was thirty by one hundred and twenty 
feet in size, and it was occupied jointly by these two men, who, however, 
worked separately. Hogs were bought over a large section of the country, 
on credit, for which payment was made after the pork was marketed in the 
South. The great cotton and sugar plantations demanded a vast amount of 
this product, especially Mississippi and Louisiana, both sections liking the 


flavor of the Indiana corn-fed hogs. The packing season extended from 
November to February, and from twelve to tv^^enty workmen were employed 
in each packing house, where there were slaughtered and packed from five to 
nine thousand hogs, sufficient to load about six large flat-boats. Joseph 
Rawlins and David Borland each had a packing house on Salt creek, where 
they carried on about as extensive operations as the two last-named gentlemen. 
For many years from five to twelve thousand hogs were slaughtered and 
packed by these four men. It required about eight flat-boats to transport 
twelve thousand hogs. These boats were built as needed, from native lum- 
ber, at the packing houses, and sold in southern markets after having been 
unloaded. During those palmy days of flat-boating it is related that about 
seventy-five of these rude crafts were sent down the river from Lawrence 
county annually. During the busy months fifty men were employed by the 
Bedford packers. Nothing has ever been so large in the industrial line in 
Bedford until the opening of the Bedford stone industry a few decades since. 

Another early industry was that of making hats. Gotleib Byrer, John 
Hovious and William Cook each owned a battery, each g"i\ing employment to 
three to five men. Each made hats from fur and wool. Byrer began as 
early as 1826. continuing ten years. Hats were made from mink, otter, 
beaver, coon and other furs, and from lamb's wool. As many as fifteen hun- 
dred hats were manufactured in Bedford in a single year. They sold at 
prices ranging from fifty cents to six dollars. 

The Bedford Woolen MiUs were built about 1859, by Charles Mason & 
Son, of Michigan. They had an excellent business. J. H. Mason & Company 
owned the mills at the close of the Civil war. and at the time sixty-cent cassi- 
n.eres, sixty-cent jeans, sixty-five-cent satinets, forty-five to ninety-cent flan- 
nels, and four dollar and fifty cent blankets were the chief articles made. Also 
this firm did an extensive carding business, at ten cents a pound. Carding and 
spinning was twenty-seven cents per pound. Soon after this, however, the 
business declined and war prices no longer obtained, and the property was 
transferred to Dr. J. C. Ca\ins, who owned it until 1871, when if passed to 
Jesse A. Mitchell, who, with W. C. Windstandley. owned it in the middle of 
the eighties. At one time goods made here went freely into nine states and 
amounted in the aggregate to thirty thousand dollars annually. Weaving was 
discontinued in 1882 and within a few years the business, with hundreds of 
others in that line, took on a different mode of operation and got into the hands 
of trusts, etc., and at last closed down permanently. 

A good flouring mill was built here about 1870 by Charles Cramer, who 
did an immense business for many years, until the flour industiy also shaped 


itself into milling trusts, such as the great mills at Minneapolis, after which 
the mills only ground for local demand. 

Then there was the furniture factory of James McPheeters, with 
which was connected a large sav mill. All the patented and latest machin- 
ery for making chairs, tables, etc., was used and prosperity was with this 
branch of home industry, but in later years it went down with the inevitable 
change wrought out by the larger concerns of the country centralizing. 


In the fall of 1913 the following included about all the industrial con- 
cerns of Bedford : 

The railroads were the "Monon," the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern, 
the Terre Haute & Southeastern, and Belt Line. 

There were four saw mills for timber sawing. 

Within three miles radius there were stone quarries and stone dressing 
mills having a capital of not less than six million dollars. 

The Bedford Boiler Works were located at No. 1306 Seventh street. 

There was one bottling works ; two brick-making plants ; the car shops- 
of the Chicago, Terre Haute & Southeastern railroad; the United States 
Cement Company's plant in the eastern limits of city; the Lemon Flouring 
Mills, No. 1 128' Seventeenth street; Bedford Foundry and Machine Shops,, 
at Fifth and K streets; John Hartman's planing mills, at Sixth and J streets,, 
and a few lesser plants. 


While the present city library is really a coimty institution from the 
fact that the people of the county are taxed a small amount annually for its 
support, yet it is styled a city library. Its history runs back many years as a 
city or town library. 

Long before the great iron master, Andrew Carnegie, won fame at the 
steel works in Pittsburg and amassed his fortune, Bedford had a public 
library. In the organization of the various counties in this state, very 
wisely the lawmakers set apart ten per cent, of the sales of the county seat 
town lots for the establishment of a county libran.^ As the proceeds in this 
county were considerable, the library was placed on a finn footing at a very 
early day in the history of the town and county. The books kept in this 
library were read and reread many times by several generations who had 
grown up in Lawrence county. The first books were purchased in 1819, and 


were kept in the ci>urt house by John Lowrey, county clerk, and consisted 
of about one Imndred vokunes of standard books of that period. By Febru- 
ary, 1823, the Hbrary fund had amounted to about seven hundred and fifty 
dollars, a greater portion of which was placed out on interest. In 1821 a 
neat book case was made and placed in the northeast room of the old court 
house at Palestine, the old seat of justice of this county. Nearly every old 
pioneer had been a member of the board of trustees for this library. In 
1840 there were five hundred volumes of books. In 1824 the fund was 
nine hundred dollars, and reached at one time about twelve hundred dollars. 
About half this sum was used and the remainder was loaned out. At one 
time the liljrary owned a lot in town, which was finally sold. In 1895 the 
permanent fund amounted to two thousand dollars and the books were being 
kept in the county recorder's office at Bedford. 

In 1856 the state furnished the county with eight township libraries, 
distributed in proportion to the population. Each library composed three 
hundred volumes of general matter. But few of these survived more than 
twenty-five years. 

Late in the fifties the McClure libraries were received, two or three in 
the county, but after six years the design of the benevolent testator was 
carelessly thwarted by the distribution of the books, to individual members, 
or in cases actually sold at auction. 

But to return to the public library at Bedford, properly speaking, it 
should be said that the books were finally removed from the court house and 
taken to the old Baptist church building, near the present federal building 
on b'ourteenth street, and there the library was kept until its removal, about 
1902, to the present public Hbrary, the building of which was the gift of 
Andrew Carnegie, and the lot dt^nated by the city. This fine stone structure 
cost twenty thousand dollars and now has about eleven thousand volumes on 
its shelves. A board of trustees, holding life-time terms, has charge of the 
libraiT, which faces the new United States building, the postoffice on K 
street. The librarian is Georgia Friedley. who has been in charge since the 
removal to the new building. 


The postoffice at Bedford was established in 1825, having first been at 
the old county seat town of Palestine, where it was established in 1819, with 
John Brown as first postmaster. The following is a list of postmasters in 



Bedford, with date of appointment, as furnished by the department at \\''ash- 
ington : 

June I. 1825 — John Brown. 

October 17. 1829— Robert M. Carl- 

May 7. 1836— Robert Mitchell. 

May 31. 1841 — Gustavus Clark. 

August TO, 1845— Samuel Mitchell. 

October 30. 1848 — Benjamin New- 

November 21. 1849 — Wihie W. 

March t8. 1851— AMUiam M. North- 

May 7. 1852— \\'illie \\'. Owens. 

June 7, 1853 — Robert M. Parks. 

March 5, 1855^. Wesley Newland. 

March 13. 1857 — James C. Carlton. 

March 19. 1861 — Isaac Rector. 

March 30. 1863— William S. Riley. 

June 30. 1864 — Paris T. Vestal. 

September 21, 1864 — James M. 

August 17, 1866 — James C. Carlton. 

March 17, 1869 — J. M. Mathes. 

March 14. 1877 — Henry Davis. 

May 6, 1885— James C. Carlton. 

December 21. 1889 — William Erwin. 

Januan*^ 9, 1894 — John Johnson, Jr. 

January to, 1898 — Vinson V. Will- 

January 29. 1906— Sherman L. 

Bedford is now a second class office and has six rural free delivery- routes 
extending out into the surrounding country, with routes averaging about 
twenty-four miles each. It was made a free city delivery office in November, 
1900, and now has five carriers. There are now thirteen mail trains a day 
in Bedford. The federal postoffice building, on K street, near Fourteenth 
Street, was erected at a cost of seventy-one thousand dollars. It was com- 
pleted in October. 1909. The site is included in the above cost of the build- 
ing. The present are the employes and officers of the Bedford postoffice: 
Sherman L. Reach, postmaster: Doyle W. Graham, assistant postmaster: 
Albert H. Dunihue. postal savings department: Walter A. Pitman, Lew W. 
Cosner. ^^'illiam E. Cannedy, general utility clerks: Arthur J. Boy and 
Albert H. Fletcher, mailing clerks: Joseph L. Glover, Leroy R. Trueblood. 
Oliver L. Rayburn. Harrison M. Ramsey and Edward C. Consalus, city 
carriers: Frank M. Carlton, Lawrence Stutz. Isaac H. Crim, James W. An- 
derson, Opal Armstrong and Harley S. Abderson. rural carriers. Basil 
Miller is special delivery messenger: Dell Hazel, char-woman. Postal sav- 
ings amount to $15,811. 



Bedford is one of the oldest banking towns in the state. When the 
Bedford branch of the State Bank of Indiana was organized in 1834, twelve 
banks were to be established in as many districts. The eighth district was 
composed of the counties of Orange, Lawrence, Monroe, Morgan, Martin 
and Greene. After great rivalry the branch was located at Bedford, largely 
for the reason of its central location. The bank was chartered for twenty- 
five years, and the capital was furnished, one-half by the state and one-half 
by individual stockholders. The state directors of the Bedford Branch were 
Moses Fell, William McLane and Pleasant Parks, and its first ofificers were, 
William McLane, president; D. R. Dunihue, cashier, and John Brown, clerk. 
The second president was John Vestal, and in 1848, Mr. Dunihue was suc- 
ceeded as cashier by Isaac Rector. At one time there were over one hun- 
dred stockholders in this bank, several residing outside the county of Law- 
rence. Among the leading stcokholders at first were William McLane, 
Moses Fell, John Vestal, Joseph Rawlins, David and Matthew Borland, M. 
A. Malott and John Inman, John Bowland, William Fish, G. G. Dunn, A. H. 
Dunihue. At one date in 1838 there were upwards of three hundred bor- 
rowers at this bank. The liabilities of the directors as drawers were $38,200; 
number of stockholders holding under $500, twenty-five; number holding 
from $500 to $5,000, twenty: number holding over $5,000, one. On Decem- 
ber 14, 1839, there was in this bank specie to the amount of $63,677.88, and 
August 24th of the same year there was $100,590.96. This banking concern 
did a great deal for Lawrence county and Bedford in those early days. Its 
loans were extremely large in the fall and winter to pork and grain dealers. 
Its circulation exceeded $100,000 considerably, and the individual deposits 
at times were even much greater than this amount. Its affairs were wound 
up in 1854 and from its effects came the organization of the old Bank of the 
State of Indiana, founded at Bedford with a capital of $150,000. D. Rick- 
etts was president and G. A. Thornton, cashier. It did a flourishing business, 
with many stockholders, and its issues were always received par value. In 
1865, M. A. Malott became president and W. C. Winstandley, cashier. Un- 
der 'this management the bank was conducted until the spring of 1871, when 
its long career was honorably brought to a close and the issues all retired. 
In October, that year, the Bedford National Bank was organized with a capi- 
tal of $100,000, and M. A. Malott was president and W. C. Winstandley, 
cashier. This organization began with large deposits and continued to grow. 
At the death bi Mr. M. A. Malott in the autumn of 1875, W. C. Winstandley 


became president, and T. H. Malott, cashier. Succeeding this bank came 
the private bank called the Bedford Bank, whose stockholders were W. C. 
Winstandley, Mrs. Elizabeth Malott, Mrs. Elizabeth Gardner, Mrs. Mary H. 
Duncan, T. H. Malott, N. E. Malott and John E. Malott. In 1884 this was 
the only bank in the city of Bedford and was doing an extensive business for 
those days. 

A private bank was conducted between 1857 ^"d 1865, by Isaac Rector. 
It finally failed, and it is said that many in the community lost considerable 
by his failure. 

. The Indiana National Bank was organized by Thomas Marshall and 
others, about 1880, but was absorbed by the Bedford Bank shortly after its 
organization and liquidated. 

The present (1913) banking concerns of Bedford are as follows: 


This banking house was organized in May, 1899, and its location is on 
the corner of Sixteenth and I streets, Bedford. It was organized by John 
R. Walsh, J. J. Brooks, Vinson V. Williams, Thomas O. Daggy and George 
W. McDaniel. Its first president was John R. Walsh; Dr. W. H. Smith, 
vice-president ; Thomas O. Daggy, cashier ; William Erwin, assistant cashier, 
and has a present surplus of $20,000. Its recent deposits amount to $380,000. 
The bank's first capital was $50,000, but it has been increased to $100,000, 
It owns its own bank building, worth $25,000. Its charter from the United 
States is dated in 1899. The present officers are as follows: Thomas J. 
Brooks, president ; George W. Hay, vice-president ; W. A. Brown, cashier. 

This institution has always 'been looked upon as one of the solid banks 
of southern Indiana, and its officers and stockholders have from the first 
been among the best class of citizens in the county and commonwealth. Its 
methods of transacting business are correct and the people have all confidence 
in the men at the various desks. To be a depositor in this bank is to be safe 
and secure. 


The Citizens National Bank, of Bedford, was organized in 1891, as a 
state bank, by A. C. Voris, S. B. Voris, W. H. Martin, E. D. Norton and 
John Haase. In 1898 it was converted into a national bank. Its first capital 
was $50,000, but it is now working under a capital of $100,000. Its surplus 
in the autumn ' of 1913 was S^20,ooo: undivided profits. $20,000; deposits, 


The present (1913) officers of this solid banking institution are as fol- 
lows : J. R. Voris, president ; H. G. Alderhagen, cashier. The original 
officers of the bank were, .\. C. Voris, president, and J. R. Voris, cashier. 
In the twenty-two years that this concern has been doing business in the 
county it has opened thousands of accounts and received and paid out mil- 
lions of dollars over its counters. It has come through the financial storms 
of the country, when others failed, but this bank has always met its obliga- 
tions to the people who have from time to time deposited their money there. 
The gentlemen who have been at the head of it h^ve all been men of good 
business judgment and have looked well to the interests of their patrons. 


This l)anking institution was organized in March, 1900, with a capital 
of $25,000, and has been increased to $35,000. It now has a surplus of 
$15,000, with deposits amounting to $300,000. It was organized by A. C. 
Voris, William M. Mathews. Michael N. Messick, I. N. Glover, Harry M. 
Voris. Edward K. Dye and John W. Cossner. The first officers were : A. 
C. Voris, president; M. N. Messick, vice-president; I. N. Glover, cashier. 
The officers today are : William H. Martin, president : Charles H. Emery, 
vice-president ; E. E. Farmer, secretary and treasurer. 

The statement of this concern in August, 1913. showed resources 
amounting to $373,643, with liabilities the same amount. Of the resources 
exhil)ite(I in this statement, there were the items of $285,034 as loans and 
discounts; bonds and stocks, $21,440; bonds to secure postal savings de- 
posits, $7,000. In the list of liabilities there appears the items of undivided 
profits. $1,954; surplus, $15,000; interest, discount and other earnings, 


The Stone City Bank, of Bedford, was organized in 1890 with a capital 
of $25,000, which has been increased to $75,000, with a surplus of $13,227, 
with deposits of $350,000. The first officers and organizers were; J. M. 
Andrews, president; I. N. Glover, cashier; T. V. Thornton, vice-president; 
H. E. Wells, John W. Cosner, W. A. Webb, E. D. Pearson, J. Y. Bates, M. 
N. Messick, George W. McDaniel, V. V. Williams. 

The bank erected a building of its own in 1893, in which they still 
operate their extensive banking business. 

The present ("1913) officers are; W. E. McCormick, president; Will- 


iam Turley. vice-president: Henry D. Alartin, cashier: H. E. A/IcCormick, 
assistant cashier. The board of directors are W. E. McCormick, WilHam 
Turley. Dr. J. T. Freeland, H. D. Martin. S. L. Keach. Frank W. Holland 
and C. H. Cobb. 

Their recent statement shows items in the table of resources as follows: 
Loans and discounts, $265,437; overdrafts, $3,135; cash on hand, $26,333, 
while in the list of liabilities are these items: Capital stock. $75,000; surplus, 
$10,766; undivided profits, $2,461; demand deposits. $328,831, making a 
total of $419,501 for the resources, with the same in the column of liabili- 
ties, all showing an excellent banking business, handled by men of sound 
business principles, having the confidence of the community in which they 
operate a first class, modern bank. 


Before Bedford was ruled under a ''city" government, which was not 
until 1889, it was a town incorporation for many years. On June 10, 1864, 
the Lawrence county commissioners were petitioned to order an election to 
settle the question whether the place should be incorporated or not. The 
proposed "town of Bedford" was to comprise one thousand four hundred 
and forty acres. The day of election was fixed as June 29, 1864, and on 
that day there were one hundred and twenty-two \'Otes cast in favor of in- 
corporation and only fourteen against the measure, whereupon on Septem- 
ber 8, 1864, the county board duly declared Bedford to be an incorporated 
town. The first officers were M. N. Messick, D. W. Parker and J. D. Thomp- 
son, trustees; John M. Stalker, clerk; Levi H. Dale, marshal; A. H. Duni- 
hue, treasurer. J. D. Thompson, trustee, immediately resigned and was suc- 
ceeded by A. C. Glover, and J. M. Stalker, clerk, having resigned, was suc- 
ceeded by H. F. Braxton. The first acts of the new board of trustees was to 
formulate a set of ordinances, which consumed several weeks' time. E. D. 
Pearson was appointed town attorney. The question of granting a liquor 
seller's license was up before the trustees, who submitted to Judge Bicknell, 
of the circuit court, that they had not that right. The records show that 
the receipts and e.xpenditures in the new town of Bedford from Octol^er 28. 
1864. to April 22. 1865. were as follows: Receipts — Liquor license. S150.00; 
peddler's license. $17.00: gymnastic performers. S4.00 : total. $171.00. The 
expenditures were — Printing. $31.95: copying ordinances, $34-00; liquor 
license refunded, $50.00; cash to balance. $55.05. making the account to 
foot and balance. $171.00. 


The municipal go\ernnient was in abeyance from 1866 to September, 
1869, and was then revived by the election of the following ofiBcers : Alex- 
ander H. Dunihue, James C. Carlton and E. D. Pearson, trustee; M. N. 
Messick, clerk and treasurer ; Erastus Ikerd, marshal. A new and complete 
code of ordinances were then made, Newton Crook having been chosen 
town attorney. One of the early acts of this board was to issue ten thou- 
sand dollars in school bonds to tide over the school fund, which was then 
insufficient to complete the building under course of erection. Four lamps 
were erected to illuminate the public square. Numerous streets and side- 
walks were immediately ordered built. Seven dollars and fifty cents were 
paid for a corporation seal. 

Steps were taken in May, 1870. to macadamize the streets surrounding 
the public squire. Hall and Harrison's bids of thirty-seven and a half cents 
per cubic yard for the grading part were accepted; then the matter of mac- 
adamizing fifty feet wide, at three dollars and twenty cents per lineal foot; 
guttering, at thirty cents per lineal foot: depth of work, six inches. 

engineer's report. 

R. H. Carlton, the engineer in charge, made this report in January, 1871 : 
Grading 1.722 yards, at thirty-seven and a half cents. $645.75; guttering 
2,017 ^^^^- ^t thirty cents, $605.10: macadamizing 1,516 feet, at $3.20 
$4,851.10: high street culvert, $93.15: curbing Sycamore street, $10.00; 
change in grade, $1.00; total, $6,206.20. 

Of the above amount, the town paid $800.23 and Lawrence county. 
$2,453.76: the New Albany railroad paid $754 and the remainder was paid 
by owners of realtv. The largest single individual payment was by Dr. 
W. A. Foote, $126.56. 

In March. 1873. Winstandley & Malott were allowed to put in a set of 
Fairbanks scales on the public square. 

The same season, a metaled pavement was ordered built on the side 
of the square, fronting lots i. 2. 3 and 4. the pavement to be ten feet wide. 
D. C. Campbell contracted to fence the cemetery for $70.50, Samuel Bristow 
furnishing the posts at $185.38. The Messick pond was ordered surveyed 
and drained in the general cleaning up made in fear of the appearance of 
cholera. The contract for building a sewer or drain, with twelve-inch hard 
clay pipe, was awarded to Jennings Larter for twenty-nine cents a cubic 

November 5, 1877, a serie*; of resolutions was passed by the town 


board, deploring the death of Hon. Oliver P. Morton, in which his public 
career was greatly extolled. 

In 1878 the liquor license was fixed at $600. 

In December, 1879, the Bedford Light Guards assumed the responsibil- 
ity of a hook and ladder company, and steps were taken to provide them 
with the necessary fire-fighting apparatus. They vvere organized and ac- 
cepted by the town board as the Fire Company of Bedford, in April, 188 1. 

In 1882 the board appropriated sixty dollars to erect a monument to 
the memory of George Carney, who was murdered while serving as marshal. 

In 1884, upon petition from more than one-third of the voters, the 
question of making the "town" the "city of Bedford" was submitted to the 
people. John W. Marshall was the census taker on this occasion, and found 
that the place had a population of 2,451, hence an election was called for on 
May 12, 1884. That same year four large cisterns were ordered constructed 
for the streets, each to contain a capacity of five hundred barrels. These 
were to be located on the four corners of the public square and serve as 
fire protection to the town. 


Not until 1889 was Bedford made a city, under the general laws of 
Indiana. The exact date of incorporation was July 26. 1889. when it was 
divided into three wards. 

The mayors who have served Bedford under its city government are : 
John B. Thomasson. V. V. Williams. William Day. H. P. Pearson, David Y. 
Johnson. J. Hickson Smith. Peter Pillion, who died in office and his place 
was filled by J. B. Stipp. Albert J. Fields, the last named elected in 1908. 

The present city officers (1913) are: Arthur J. Fields, mayor; Noah 
Mullen, treasurer: Joseph E. Pierce, marshal: John D. McMurphy. street 
commissioner: James F. Stephenson, clerk: W. E. Clark, city attorney. 

The 19 1 2 state reports give Bedford a total \aluation of property (less 
exemptions). $3,715,443. Expenditures of the city in 1910, were $70,389: 
on hand, January i, 1910, $19,956: taxes that year, $35,963: total receipts 
for the year, $96,434. 

The reports of the state for 1910-11 gives Bedford as having one 
hundred and twelve fire pings or street hydrants. They owned their own 
water plant and were using the meter system. There were then five police- 
men, and the police department spent that year (1911), $4,228. The firemen 
from the volunteer company were then receiving two dollars for each fire 


they were called out to attend to. The fire department's building and equip- 
ment was then valued at $4,000. 

At present (September. 1913) the fire protection consists of the fire 
company, a three-horse combination wagon, and four paid firemen. The 
coming year the city will install another fire station in the north end of the 
city, where the present appliances will be kept, while the present fire house 
will be furnished with a motor engine truck and a complete new outfit. 

The city is furnished with water from the White river, whose waters 
are filtered in a basin south of the city, and is supplied with power by the 
Southern Indiana Power and Light Company. The street lights of Bedford 
are now supplied l)y the Indiana State Light, Heat and Power Company, 
who also furnish steam heat and gas lights. This corporation purchased the 
old Bedford Heat, Light and Power Company's plant in 1912. Bedford now 
has fifty-two city blocks paved, equal to four and one-half miles of brick 
paving, of an excellent quality. 



\\ ithout doubt the greatest industry of Lawrence county is the stone 
industry, and from its magnitude tlie city of Bedford has long since been 
styled the "Stone City." But few localities in the entire United States 
domain afifords better facilities for quarrying the best of workable building 
stone. This stone goes by various names. "St. Louis Limestone" "Bedford 
Stone," and "Bedford Oolitic Stone" are among the commercial and geo- 
logical terms used in describing these immense deposits of building stone. 
Owen, Lawrence and Monroe counties are all underlaid with about the same 
grade of stone, with some variations as to hardness and fineness. While 
the real development of these valuable quarries does not date back more than 
thirty years, the stone from these quarries was worked and known far and 
near many years prior to that time. 

Among the earliest settlers in this county was that prince of gentlemen. 
Dr. Winthrop Foote, of Connecticut, a man well versed in both law and 
medicine who invaded the wilds of this county and settled at the old county 
seat, Palestine, in 1818, but moved to Bedford when this city became the 
seat of justice. He was a firm believer in the future of Lawrence county 
and in the possibilities of the stone found here, so lavishly bestowed by the 
hand of the Creator. He it was who acquired, by purchase and the "taking 
up" of government land, nearly all the sites upon which the most productive 
quarries are now located, at least all that were worked a quarter of a cen- 
tury ago. He early remarked to a friend that some day they would be 
sending that stone to New York city, and was met with the assertion that it 
could not be so, on account of there being no way to transport such heavy 
commodities so great a distance, but Dr. Foote remarked that there would 
be found a way by the time the stone was demanded there. 

In 1832 Dr. Foote went to Louisville, Kentucky, and there interested a 
stone cutter named Toburn, who returned with him and located at Bedford. 
He was probably the first regular stone cutter who ever entered this county. 
Among the evidences of his having lived and labored here are numerous 
pieces of his handiwork in way of monuments and buildings from stone. 
Important and interesting among these is the vault cut from a large boulder 



which hes in the position it was left by some mighty upheaval, on the eastern 
slope of the hill overlooking what is now known as "Blue Hole" quarry, 
al)out a mile from the center of Bedford. This vault is known as the Foote 
vault. The Doctor had a brother, Ziba Foote, who, while acting as a gov- 
ernment surveyor, in 1806, had been drowned, in what is now known as 
Foote's Grove pond, and he was buried on its banks. As soon as the vault 
was completed the body was exhumed and placed therein, and here also, in 
1856, Dr. Winthrop Foote himself was buried. This spot was selected by 
the Doctor on account of its being in a quiet spot, away from the rush and 
noise of the city life. But things have changed with the march of time and 
the wonderful development of the great stone industry, and today number- 
less trains of cars rush madly by, upon two lines of railroad. The sound 
of the steam channeling machines, steam derricks and stone saw-mill ma- 
chinery is ever heard in that locality, but the dead sleep on and heed it not. 


What may be termed the opening wedge to this industry was when 
the building of the first railroad, the old New Albany & Salem line, brought 
to this county Davis Harrison, a civil engineering expert. He became firm 
in the belief that the marketing of this stone was practicable, and when his 
railroad work had ended he moved his family here from Kentucky, taking 
up his residence in Bedford. Here he made a systematic study of the stone 
measures hereabouts, and labored long to interest capital to aid in developing 
the quarries. It was not until 1877. when the Dark Hollow Quarry Com- 
pany was organized, that his efforts met with any degree of success, al- 
though he was interested in several enterprises before that date. His knowl- 
edge and careful research made the present success possible. 

Nathan Hall was another pioneer in this industry. He. at the sugges- 
tion of A'Tr. Harrison, was induced to begin operations directly adjoining 
the quarry of what is now styled "Blue Hole." This was long before the 
discovery of the modern channeling machines, in fact it was before the Civil 
war period, when all the stone had to be blasted out with powder. To Mr. 
Hall the credit belongs for first making this stone known and valued by the 
outside world, or to give any commercial value to it. He shipped the first 
stone out of Bedford on the railroad, hauling it by ox team from the quarry, 
about one mile distant from a railroad track. He invented and had made 
the wagon for hauling these huge stone upon, now so common. Later he 
employed steam power at his quarries and was in direct communication with 


the railroad. In 1881 Mr. Hall sgld his interest to the Hinsdale-Doyle Gran- 
ite Company, but the face of his old quarry was left about as he last worked it. 
One of the earliest quarries operated was that of John Glover, a mile 
and a half south of Bedford. But little stone had been taken out of this quarry 
before the Civil war, at which time operations were completely suspended, 
and that ended his work. Some of the stone from his quarry, however, are 
still to be seen in the earlier l)uildings of Bedford. He used a very primitive 
saw for cutting stone with. It reminded one of a large sized wood-saw 
operated by two men. 


With the whirling trains of Bedford stone that go whizzing by day 
after day now to Chicago, it may be of interest to know that the first ship- 
ment was made by the owners of "Dark Hollow Quarry," and was sent to 
John Rawle, who had just been appointed agent at Chicago for this build- 
ing stone. It was billed to him at about eighty-five cents per cubic foot. 
Mr. Rawle had worked on the oolitic limestone in the Portland quarries of 
England and knew the good value of this Bedford stone. He at once en- 
tered with zeal upon his duty of trying to interest Chicago builders in this 
commodity. He fashioned a huge vase cut from this stone which attracted 
great attention. He also employed a stone cutter one entire winter cutting 
paper weights from Bedford stone which he distributed among architects 
and builders the country over. He also contracted to erect the first Bedford 
stone building ever gracing the streets of Chicago, the Mandel building on 
Dearborn street. The first year this stone was shipped to Chicago there 
were only three car loads used there. Contrast that date with the present 
era. Then three car loads lasted a whole season, whereas now thousands 
upon added thousands of cars go to that city alone annually. 

Again, the state and government geologists have done all in their 
power to bring the right understanding of this material before the American 
builders. From them we are able to draw many clear conceptions of just 
what this wonderful stone is and its high value to the world at large. 

A carefid examination of oolitic limestone shows that, while it varies 
in the nature and arrangement of its particles, its more striking character- 
istics are general and permanent. Shells more or less minute — scarcely dis- 
cernible to the naked eye — and fragments of shells, cemented by carbonate 
of lime, make up the mass. Indeed is the cementing so meager that it is 


scarcely observable even with the aid of an ordinary pocket-glass. This 
structure gives this stone the oolitic appearance — hence the name. 

It is when we reach the sub-carboniferous area of the state that we 
discover the true wealth of Indiana limestone. The formation known as 
the St. Louis division or group covers a large area of the state, but it is the 
surface rock of a much smaller space, and while outlined in several counties 
it is only in Lawrence and Monroe counties that it exists as the surface 
rock throughout the entire county. Along the line of St. Louis outcrop 
from Putnamville southward to near the Ohio river is found the famous 
oolitic limestone. It lies in a narrow strip of country running somewhat 
diagonally, from northeast to southwest, a distance of about one hundred 
miles, and varies in width from three to fifteen miles. Every indication 
seems to be that the oolitic limestone has been deposited in deep sea waters, 
filling a basin whose shores are now marked by these lines where the rock is 
lightly, une\enly and irregularly bedded and formed of coarser and more 
loosely cemented materials than those of the main body of the stone. In 
Lawrence county as we pass eastward from her outcrops of most excellent 
stone, the struggling edge of the deposit is soon reached, and it takes on a 
coarser and looser structure. 

If. then, the geologist has hit upon the true scientific theory and oolitic 
limestone owes its fine and even grain to a deep sea, still teeming with 
minute shell-bearing animal forms, whence came the carbonate of lime that 
bound together this innumerable multitude of shells? It seems reasonable 
to suppose that the shores of the then prevailing sea were surrounded by 
the deposits and rocks of a still older sea of the sub-carboniferous age, and 
from these more ancient rocks the water took up in the solution or suspension 
the carbonate of lime, which when precipitated along with the animal re- 
mains served as a cement to bind together the shells that form the body of 
this building stone. 

The strata in which oolitic stone is found are homeogenous, equally 
strong in vertical, diagonal or horizontal sections. The stone comes from 
the quarry so soft as to be readily worked by saw and chisel or planing ma- 
chines, while on exposure it hardens to a strength of from ten to twelve 
thousand pounds to the square inch, a strength sufficient to sustain the 
weight of the largest structure in the world. Its tone, when struck, is a 
clear, musical bell-note, indicative of thorough metallic sympathy throughout 
the mass. The elasticity of this stone enables it to adapt itself without 
cleavage to our changeable climate, where material will be subjected to a 
change of from twenty to sixty degrees in a few hours' time. 



It has been the aim of the writer of this chapter to give as clear and 
full an account of this Bedford stone industry as the data that is obtainable 
by a writer of local history can secure. It is not given to build up one sec- 
tion of the state or to tear down any other section dealing in the same com- 
modity, though perhaps under another, or even the same name. But be- 
fore entering into a description of the present, with a mention, too. of 
some of the older quarries of the past decades, it may be well to inform the 
reader as to the true chemical analysis of this stone with such a remarkable 


When the state house was built in Georgia the committee in charge had 
the state chemist make a test of the quality of this, with other stone, and 
the result shows the Bedford oolitic stone in the following constituent parts : 

Carbonate of lime 96.04 per cent. 

Carbonate of magnesia .72 per cent. 

Oxides of iron and alumnia 1.06 per cent. 

Insoluble silicates i.i,:; per cent 

Chlorides of soda and potash .15 per cent. 

Water expelled at 212 degrees F. .10 per cent. 

Combined water, etc. .80 per cent. 

Total elements 100.00 per cent. 

It is possible that with the passing of years the names of some of the 
stone operators have been overlooked, though not intentionally, but it is 
certain that the following constitutes a large majority of the captains in 
this noted industry. Indeed to be connected with sn laudable a work as the 
furnishing of building material for great structures is an lionor not to be 
overlooked. "Limestone," one writer has said, "has been the material out 
of which many of the greatest and most magnificent structures of the world 
have been constructed, both in ancient and modern times. The old Egyp- 
tian builders used it in the construction of the pyramids, and they have 
stood for centuries as monuments to the enduring qualities of limestone. 
The English House of Parliament, in which the British lawmakers have 
met for more than two hundred years, is constructed of oolitic limestone 
from the Portland quarries, whose product, though perhaps the best to be 


found in England, does not compare with that taken from the Indiana 
quarries in point of strength and durabihty." 

Among tlie important companies operating in this county in 1895, — 
eighteen years ago, — as we learn from a publication known as Stone, pub- 
published in Chicago, were these : 

The Dark Hollow Quarry Company, in 1877, was composed of Col. A. 
C. Voris, S. B. Voris, Davis Harrison and R. Rogers. All but one of these 
men were new at the stone business and little dreamed of its possibilities. 
Their first large contract was to furnish the stone for the Indianapolis state 
house. At the end of nine years they had distributed $146,400 among the 
stockholders, and purchased much new, improved machinery for their quar- 
ries. It was first styled the Dark Hollow Stone Company, and in 1890 it 
was sold and went under the name above given. 

Hollo well Stone Company. — This was organized in 1878, in the vicin- 
ity of Bedford, and ranked first in importance twenty years ago. It had a 
name from the ocean on the east to that on the west and from lake to gulf. 
They were among the first to employ improved and superior machinery in 
their extensive quarries. They began on a small way, with few men, but 
the virtues of their stone made them forefront and famous. Its first great 
contract was furnishing the stone for the Chicago city hall building in 1882, 
when it came into the possession of the Hinsdale-Doyle Granite Company. 
Four steam channeling machines and four steam derricks were employed in 
1895. Another great contract by this company was furnishing stone for 
the immense Mutual Life Insurance Building, the Farmers Trust Company, 
Bank of America and Merchants Bank, all of New York City; also the Cot- 
ton Exchange of New Orleans, and still later the Vanderbilt mansion of 
North Carolina. In the eighties they put in planing and sawing machinery, 
then little known to this intlustry. This mill was located a half mile north 
of Bedford, and was driven by a hundred-horse-po\ver engine. 

Chicago and Bedford Stone Company, known as the "Blue Hole," was 
the old Nathan Hall quarry of remote date, just east of the city of Bedford. 
It is the pioneer of all the quarries hereabouts. This is the original blue- 
stone quarry of Indiana, and today its stone is unsurpassed. W. K. Van- 
derbilt's Fifth avenue mansion in 'New York city was from this quarry. 
The main building of the Missouri University was from this quarry, also. 

The Bedford Steam Stone Works, one of the busiest, most prosperous 
plants in the region of Bedford, began business in 1886. Here the finest of 
oolitic stone is found in immense ledges. Seven cuts of fine material are 
found here. The upper eighteen feet is the finest grade anywhere discov- 


ered. The stone for the old custom house at Louisville was shipped from 
this quarry. Also the large blue capitals for the Illinois state house. 

The C. S. Norton Blue Stone Company was originally organized in 1888, 
and commenced operations a mile southwest of Bedford, where they owned 
a large tract of land underlaid with excellent blue oolitic limestone. The 
trade-mark adopted by the re-organized company, in 1895, was "Royal 
Blue Oolitic." This stone takes a polish equal to marble. It has long been 
used for ornamental work and monuments. In 1895 the capacity was only< 
three car loads per day, but it was soon increased materially. A portion of 
the great St. Louis union railway station was from this quarry. Also the 
front of the Ne%v York Commercial office. 

Perry, Matthews & Buskirk Company took the highest rank in many 
particulars, in 1895, of any quarry in this wonderful stone belt. It was 
organized in 1889, when two hundred and forty acres were bought in the 
bluff ridge region, five miles to the north of Bedford. The company was 
not incorporated until 1893. W. N. Matthews was chosen president. The 
ledge is more than fifty feet in thickness; is slightly soft at first, but soon 
hardens. Ample capital always aided this concern to operate on an extensive 
plan. Eighteen years ago they were operating ten steam channel machines, 
six steam derricks, four steam drills, three steam pumps and sundry other 
machinery. Their annual capacity then was seven hundred thousand cubic 
feet. Eighty-five thousand feet were taken out in a single month. The Man- 
hattan Life Insurance Company's building of New York city, a splendid 
type of modern '"sky-scraper," was from this quarry. Hundreds of other 
buildings scattered all over the Union attest the value of the i)roduct from 
this company's quarry. 

The Peerless Stone Company was organized in April, 1890, with a 
capital of $100,000. The quarries are four miles north of Bedford, in about 
the center of the oolitic district. Here one sees forty feet of light blufif 
stone overlaying twelve feet of blue stone. This stone is within a few feet 
of the surface, making it easy of access. The residence of the late John 
Sherman, in Washington, D. C, was made from stone from this quarry. 
Scores, if not hundreds, of large structures in as many states and territories 
have been constructed from the stone here quarried by this company. The 
Peerless Stone Company was fitted up with the 1)est of modern stone-work- 
ing machinery, propelled by a fifty-horse-power engine. This is another of 
the quarries that have made Bedford and Lawrence county famous the 
country over for its excellent grade of building stone. 

The West Bedford Stone Company commenced its operations in the 


early spring of 1892. It is located three- fourths of a mile west of the city 
of Bedford. Most of the output here is a dark gray Hmestone, suitable for 
the construction of massive structures. The residence of Mayor Roach, of 
Chicago, was erected from this stone here obtained. It has stood the test of 
many years. 

The Standard Stone Company was organized in January, 1893, with a 
capital stock of $50,000. with A. B. Tressler as its president.' The company 
purchased three hundred and twenty-five acres of land, about a half mile 
north of the city limits of Bedford. Modern appliances and machinery was 
employed from the beginning of their operations. The Bedford Belt rail- 
road passes through their lands and thus the product is the more easily and 
cheaply removed to main lines for the far distant markets where their stone 
is ever in excellent demand. Here both the buff and blue oolitic stone are 
found in immense quantities. Stone from these quarries were a part of the 
once famous Rawlins Mill and the abutments of the rather ancient bridge 
that crosses the river at that point. For nearly seventy-five years these stone 
have held the clear tool marks and are in an excellent state of presentation 
even at this late day. 

The Oolitic Stone Company of Indiana have great quarries fifteen 
miles north of Bedford, on the Monon railroad line, where the company in 
1895 owned a quarter section of superior stone land. This is a part of the 
old David Reed estate and every stone operator knows what marked success 
attended this gentleman's efforts in years long since passed. Nearly a score 
of years ago the capital stock of this company was $100,000, and the equip- 
ments of the plants tliere operated were of the most improved type. Ten 
car loads of stone per day were easily taken out there as long ago as 1895. 
Stone from here went into the great Auditorium in Chicago, now so famous 
in national history. Other immense structures recalled now in which this 
stone figured largely were the Criminal Court building and the celebrated 
Chicago Public Library; the Coffee Exchange. New York, and the Temple 
Beth Synagogue, New York, with a number of buildings in Pliiladelphia, 
Boston and other eastern cities. 

The Bedford Quarry Compan\-, of which ^^^ J. Tubman, of Chicago, 
was formerly president, was incorporated with a capital of $75,000. and at 
first they owned forty-eight acres a few miles to the north of Bedford. 
Dark blue stone was the specialty at these quarries. None but the best 
equipment was allowed place in the plant they installed. Five hundred thou- 
sand cubic feet of stone was their annual capacity, twenty years ago. It will 
be understood that this quarry is within the famous Dark Hollow district 


where the stone crops out with bold perpendicular faces, which record plainly 
the stand points of streams through the long ages during which they have 
been engaged in hewing out of a solid rock their deep valleys. From ten to 
twenty-five feet thick, this stone ledge is of a workable grade of superior 
building stone. Among the buildings erected from this stone may be named 
those erected in the nineties and early in this century, the Catholic cathedral 
on Grand avenue, St. Louis, and the Brooks residence in Chicago. 

The Bedford Quarries Company (not the same as above) is known 
wherever Bedford stone is known, and that is every part of this Union. 
The holdings of this giant concern in 1895 comprised nearly one thousand 
acres of choice stone land, with expensive, practical and up-to-date machin- 
ery to handle immense amounts of stone. They owned the "Hoosier," the 
"New Hoosier," "Buff Ridge," "Oolitic No. i," "Oolitic No. 2," and the 
"Louisville and Bedford." So well and favorably is this company and 
their vast quarries known that it is idle to here enlarge upon their output of 
building material. They are situated in the Buff Ridge region, five miles 
northwest of Bedford, in a section about one mile wide and three in length. 
From forty to sixty feet of solid stone is here found waiting the future 
years, for after all the vast tonnage that has already come from these quar- 
ries, it seems as if it had not yet been touched by the puny hand of man. 

Nearly twenty vears ago the machinery required by this company em- 
braced twenty channeling machines, ten steam derricks, all driven by ponder- 
ous engines. Here one saw many gangs of saws cutting and shaping into 
even, artistic stones a wonderful output. Electricity was the illuminating 
agency for the entire works. The number of buildings and monuments, that 
have been erected from the product of these quarries is very large, and only 
a few can here be enumerated. They are the Emigrant Savings Bank, New 
York City; Algonquin Club, Boston; Manufacturers' Club building, Phila- 
delphia ; Louisville & Nashville railroad bridge at Henderson, Kentucky, over 
the Ohio river; Illinois Central railroad bridge at Cairo; Merchants' bridge, 
over the Mississippi at St. Louis; Kansas City & Memphis railroad bridge, 
at Memphis; court house at Columbia City, Logansport, and hundreds of 
business houses of lesser magnitude. 

One of the later additions to the machinery of this plant is the stone- 
crushing outfit for crushing stone for railroad and highway purposes. This 
was the first company to engage in this growing industry in the country, at 

The Achme-Bedford Stone Company, whose quarries are situated three 
miles west of Bedford, occupies the original site of one of the original quar- 


ries in this famous section of limestone in Indiana. Several years after 
Nathan Hall opened his quarry to the east of Bedford and John Glover began 
his operations on the south, another quarry was opened in a small way at 
this point by Moses F. and George W. Dunn. Like Hall and Glover's quarry, 
this quarry was worked in the old-fashioned and crude manner, and opera- 
tions soon ceased without the owners having discovered what an abundance 
of excellent stone there existed. Lack of the proper facilities caused these 
pioneer operators to become discouraged. Most of the men connected with 
this enterprise had no previous experience and the old quarry was after a 
time abandoned. It was not until 1890 that the Achme-Bedford company 
was organized and secured control of a very large tract of land, including 
the site of the old original quarries. This company was formed with John 
Rawle as its president and general manager, who had been interested in and 
connected with the stone industry from young manhood's days and was very 
competent and practical in all of bis methods. He had mastered his calling 
in England. He came to America in 1868, but it was not until 1871 that he 
first saw the Bedford stone region. Through his expertness he soon won 
his way into the management of a quarry here and soon after was made the 
Chicago agent, and there spent his time in developing the interests of stone 
from this Bedford district. He it was to whom the first car of Bedford 
stone was billed at Chicago. 

The. state reports for 191 1 -12 stated that there were twenty-one stone 
mills in operation in this county at that time. The products of these mills 
were then being shipped to various parts of this countiy and Canada. "This 
county is also," says the report, "the seat of great cement plants, two of 
which are located at Mitchell, and these give employment to several hundred 
workmen, in one way and another. In the summer season many car loads 
daily of this superior cement go to many parts of the country. The lime- 
stone used in the making of this cement is quarried at Mitchell, while the 
shale that goes into the cement is shipped from Jackson county, Indiana. 
Bedford has one cement mill and is doing an extensive business, so far as 
their capacity will admit of." 


Through the courtesy of one of the Stone Club's secretaries, Roy C 
Sowder, we are permitted to insert the following telling figures recently com- 
piled by him for this special purpose : 

Bedford Stone Company, one mill. 


M. F. Brooks Cut Stone Company, one mill. 

C. S. Norton Blue Stone Company, one quarry. 

Consolidated Stone Company, two quarries, one mill. 

J. P. Fait Company, one mill. 

East Bedford Stone Company, one mill, one quarry. 

Ingalls Stone Company, two mills, one quarry. 

Indiana Quarries Company, three mills, three quarries. 

Henry Struble Cut Stone Company, one mill. 

Indiana Bedford Stone Company, one mill, one quarry. 

Stone City Cut Stone Company, one mill. 

Bedford Steam Stone Works, one mill and one quarry. 

Bedford Stone Construction Company, one mill and one quariy. 

Climax Stone Company, one mill. 

Furst-Kerber Stone Company, two mills, one quarry. 

E. F. Gilberson & Company, one mill, one quarry. 

W. McMillan & Son, one mill, two quarries. 

Shea & Donnelly, one mill. 

Reed Stone Company, two mills, two quarries. 

John A. Rowe Cut Stone Company, one mill. 

Bedford is strictly a stone city. Here are located twenty-five of the 
largest cut-stone mills in the United States, shipping their product into 
almost every state in the Union, besides Canada. Cuba and the West Indies. 
At least sixteen large quarries supply these mills, besides shipping large 
quantities in the rough blocks east to New York and west to San Francisco. 
During the summer months, when the stone can be safely quarried and 
shipped, at least four thousand men are employed in all the lines of busi- 
ness and on the railroad to handle the output, at wages ranging from two to 
eight dollars per day. Ten switching crews are needed by the various rail- 
roads to handle the shipments. 


This club was organized in about 1900 by the members of various stone 
mill and quarry operators, at Bedford, and in a few years were incorporated. 
They had their club room at the corner of H and Sixteenth streets until 
recently, when the property was sold and now is the home of the Moose 
society. The members of the Stone Club expect to build a substantial home 
of their own in the city, in the near future. There are more than fifteen 
companies represented in this club, and it has proved of great service, both in 
a social and business way. 



Under this caption will appear numerous events of interest, not treated 
in the special and general chapters : 


The several United States census enumerations give the following on 

the population of Lawrence county: In 1820, 4,116; 1830, 9,334; 1840, 

11,782; 1850, 12,097: i860. 13,692: 1870. 14,628; 1880, 18,543; 1890, 
19,792; 1900, 25,729; 1910, 30,625. 

In the enumeration of 1900 and 1910 the figures, by townships and cor- 
porations, was as follows : 

1900 1910 

Bono township 1.060 1,095 

Flinn township 880 823 

Guthrie township 1.295 1.056 

Indian Creek township 2,356 2,379 

Marion township and Mitchell 3.869 6,482 

Marshall township 1,854 2,125 

Perry township 810 717 

Pleasant Run township 2,004 1,769 

Shawswick township and City 9-436 12,480 

Bedford City 6,115 8,716 

Oolitic (town of) 1,079 

Spice Valley township and Huron 2,165 1.699 

Huron township I97 

Total 25,729 30,625 

The last federal census gives these figures: Total population in Law- 
rence countv, 1910. 30,625; number of males, 15,681; females, 14,598; col- 
ored males, 197; colored females, 148; foreign born white, 813: number 
dwellings, 6,916; number families, 7,050. 



Avoca was platted in the south half of the northwest quarter of section 
32, township 6, range i west, July, 1819, by Hayden Bridwell. 

Bedford was originally platted on a two-hundred-acre tract in sections 
14 and 23, township 5 north, range i west, by the county seat locating com- 
missioners, March 30, 1825. 

Bono, platted April 4, 1816. 

Bryantsville (first called Paris), platted May 28. 1835, by Dr. F. Crooke. 

Bartlettsville, platted by Samuel J. Bartlett on the southwest quarter of 
the northwest quarter of section 8, township 6, range i east, January 19, 

Dixonville, platted in the center of section 10, township 4, range 2 east, 
by Lucy and Sarah Dixon, April 8, 1853. 

Erie, platted by Dr. Joseph Gardner, April 29, 1901, on the southwest 
quarter of the northeast quarter of section 11, township 5, range i west. 

East Oolitic, platted by James D. Farmer, in the west half of section 3, 
township 5. range i west, September i, 1900. 

Fort Ritner, platted by Michael Ritner, May 29, 1857. 

Fayetteville, platted by Ezra Kern, February 6, 1838. 

Georgia, platted February 14, 1853, by John and Alexander Case, on 
section 12, township 3, range 2 west. 

Guthrie, platted January 3, 1866, on the northeast quarter of the north- 
west quarter of section 3, township 6, range i west, by Winthrop Rinser. 

Heltonville, platted on the west half of the northeast quarter of sec- 
tion 26, township 6, range i east, by Andrew Helton and wife, September 
18, 1845. 

Hancock, platted by Mrs. Martha E. Hancock, on the southeast quarter 
of section 11. township 5, range i west, April 18, 1893. 

Huron, platted March 15, 1859, on the northeast quarter of section 6. 
township 3, range 2 west, by John Tewell and others. 

Leesville was platted February 27. 1840, by William Flinn, Sr., and 
William Flinn, Jr. 

Liberty was platted May 25, 1829, by John Lackey and Silas Beezley. 

Lawrenceport was platted May 17, 1837. 

Limestone was platted December 11, 1888, by Isaac H. Crim, on section 
4, township 5, range i west. 

Mitchell was platted September 29, 1853, on section 36, township 4, 


range i west, and on the north half of section i, township 3, range i west, by 
John Sheeks and George W. Cochran. 

Moore's Hill was platted November 10, 1904, on section 10, township 5, 
range i west, by William N. Matthews. 

Oolitic was platted by the Bedford Onarries Company, March 23, 1896, 
on section 4, township 5, range i west. 

Pattonville, platted March 10, 1891, by Enoch Patton, on the northeast 
quarter of the southwest quarter of the northeast quarter of section 5, town- 
ship 5, range i west. 

Peerless was platted November 13, 1891, by John Williams, on section 
27, township 6, range i west. 

Redding was platted by Robert Porter and wife and John R. Nugent 
and wife, August 25, 1842, on the southeast of section 15, township 4, range 
I west. 

Rawlins was platted April 20, 1893, by the Standard Stone Company, 
on sections 10 and 11, township 5, range i west. 

Springville was platted on section 22. township 6. range 2 west, by 
Samuel Owens. July 11, 1832. 

Silverville was platted July 26, 1855, on sections 19 and 20. township 
5, range 2 west, by Robert C. McAfee. 

Sunset was platted June 27, 1905, on section 15. township 5, range i 
west, by Euphennia R. Dunn. 

Tunnelton was platted by Isaac Newkirk, on section 19, township 4, 
range 2 east, August 28, 1859. 

Woodville was platted on section 26. township 4, range i west, by Edwin 
Wood and wife, December 10, 1849. 

Williams was platted May 20, 1889, by Henry Cox, on sections 4 and 9, 
township 4, range 2 west. 

Zelma, platted May 23. 1890, by Stephen and James Fountain, on the 
southeast quarter of section 21. township 6, range 2 east. 


The following is the substance of an article published several years ago, 
in the Indianapolis News, written by Hon. James H. Willard, and may be 
relied upon as authentic: 

The story of Palestine, the first county seat of Lawrence county, is 
romantic and mournful. Since the days when Oliver Goldsmith wrote "The 
Deserted Village," a tinge of melancholy reminiscence has surrounded those 


abodes where men had experienced the hope, the disappointments and vicissi- 
tudes of life, had made their homes for years and then relinquished them 
to silence and deca}^ The story of Palestine is indeed a strange one, for it 
is of a town that at one time promised to be a metropolitan city, but was 
abandoned by man and reclaimed by nature. Green meadows and forest 
trees now occupy its former site and not even a foundation stone tells of a 
vanished town. 

Palestine was situated on a high l)lufif on the north side of White river, 
near in the center of Lawrence county. The conical hill which it surmounted 
is so high that the view over many miles of the broken country is magnificent. 

The land on which the town was situated, two hundred acres in extent, 
was conve>'ed to the newly created county of Lawrence in the early part of 
the year 1818 by Benjamin and Ezekiel Blackwell. Henry Speed and Henry 
H. Massie, in consideration of the location of the seat of justice on the site. 
The site was accepted by the county and the land was laid off by a countv 
agent into two hundred and seventy-six lots, surrounding a public square, on 
which the court house and jail were to be built. A sale of lots was ordered, 
the proceeds of which were to be devoted to the expenses of the new county. 

The first sale of these lots was advertised to take place on Mav 25. 1818, 
the following newspapers being the mediums employed in giving notice to the 
public: The Louisi'ille Correspondent, the Indiana Gazette, the Western 
Sun, the Salem Tocsin and a newspaper printed at Madison. Indiana, the 
name of which has been lost. Not one of these newspapers, except the 
Western Sun. is in existence at the present time. 


About the year 1818 there was great excitement regarding the reloca- 
tion of the capital of Indiana, it being evident that Corydon, the first capital 
of the new state, was much too far south. The beautiful situation of Pales- 
tine on the high bluff, with its proximity to White river, so that it was ac- 
cessible to the commerce of those days, impressed land speculators that in 
all probability this town would be chosen as the capital of Indiana and as a 
result they flocked to the sale of the lots from all quarters and the bidding 
of non-resident speculators was spirited and heavy. From all the sale of 
lots in Palestine there was realized the sum of $17,826, partly in cash and 
partly in notes, and speculation was so rife that many of the first purchasers 
made great profits on their investments. 


The following account rendered to the county may give an idea of the 
fees of real estate agents at that time : 

Laying out 276 lots in Palestine $132.00 

Selling 249 lots, bond, etc i3-50 

Drawing 432 notes at six and one-fourth cents 27.00 

Superintending erection, courthouse 7.00 

Taking bonds, advertising, etc 10.00 

Taking bond advertising jail ^ 6.00 

Clearing public square 4.00 

Letting building of stray-pen 2.00 

Total $201.50 


Immediately after receiving the contract for the court house, the con- 
tractor began its erection. It was known that on a certain day in January, 
1 819. he was to begin the cutting of the timber to be used for it. In order 
that he might have the occasion properly celebrated, he went to a settlement 
near where the Valonia now stands, to secure a good supply of whisky. 
Some of the 3'oung bloods of the new and ambitious town, knowing that he 
would not return until after nightfall and by a road cut through the dense 
forests, conspired to get the liquor. One of them was quite tall, was dressed 
in a bear skin, with a pair of horns on the top of his head. He met the con- 
tractor as he came through the woods, near the river, a little after dusk and, 
with awful groans, rushed toward him. The contractor fled. The boys 
were drunk for nearly a week, while every able-bodied inhabitant of the young 
town was entertained many days by the contractor's tale of his meeting Satan 
in the forest and the last, but not the least, result was that the cutting of the 
timber for the new court house was celebrated by those who participated in 
the ceremony without the customary formalities. 

The father of Hon. Joseph A. Wright, afterward governor of Indiana, 
cut and laid the stone for the foundation for the Palestine court house. The 
governor, in early life, attended court at Palestine with his father, and it is 
said that it was here that he acquired the nickname "The Walnut-hiller." 
Bv this he was ever after known in his campaigns. 

Several stores were opened in Palestine and a carding machine, a cabinet 
shop and two tan yards started as infant manufacturing industries. The 
town grew and in the course of about four years had a population of between 
six and seven hundred, being the seat of commerce for a territory of about 


fifty miles in radius. It soon became one of the most flourishing towns in 
southern Indiana. 

The surrounding forests of poplar, oak and walnut were very dense, 
the timber being of the best quality. Lawrence county even to the present time 
being celebrated for its fine timber. This gave impetus to the flat-boat in- 
dustry and several of the boats, loaded with produce, started from Palestine 
each year on their voyage for New Orleans. 

Game was plentiful, forming the main culinary resource of the in- 
habitants of Palestine during the winter season. Of the hunters of that day, 
one reminiscence remains. One winter day a hunter brought in four deer 
on a sled to sell to the residents and informed them that all the deer had been 
killed by one bullet from his rifle. He found two deer in range and killed 
both, recovering his bullet, which was imbedded in the neck of the second 
deer. He reloaded his rifle with this bullet and was lucky enough to find 
two deer again in range and brought them both down, but lamented that his 
lucky bullet had passed through them both and was lost to him. So it ap- 
pears that the tales of what happened to a man when he is alone have not 
changed much with the years. 

Some of the court records of old Palestine are very quaint. In the 
March term, 1823, Judge Wick and Associate Justices Field and Blackwell, 
pursuing their regular circuit, opened court in Palestine and the following 
comment regarding the clerk's entries was ordered spread of record : "Some 
improvement in neatness and mechanical execution and technicality, and 
conciseness of style, might be made and is earnestly recommended." 

To show the ineffectiveness of the admonition, it may be noted that in 
the entry of this order there is one interlineation of several words and several 
erasures made by drawing the pen over the writing. A new trial was ordered 
in one criminal case because "the jury dispersed and mingled with the people 
after returning to consult." They had probably been in care of the bailiff 
under a shade tree near the court house, instead of being sent to a room. 


One citizen applied for benefits under an act to aid soldiers of the Revo- 
lution, and he says in his affidavit that he has "one cow, one yearling, a bed 
and household furniture not exceeding ten dollars in value, and a contract 
for the value of three barrels of whisky in Kentucky, which it is doubtful if 
he ever gets ; and he has eight children scattered abroad in the world." 

Dr. Winthrop Foote, who had immigrated from Connecticut and who 



was learned both in law and medicine, was probably the leading citizen of 
Palestine. He was eccentric in manner, but a man of great mental force and 
ability. He was prosecuting attorney and there is a record that says "John 
Bailey was fined thirty-seven and one-half cents for assaulting Winthrop 
Foote, prosecuting attorney." M the same term is the entry: "Ordered 
that W. Foote, prosecuting attorney, be allowed the sum of seventy-five dol- 
lars for services during the year," and on the margin is found in Dr. Foote's 
handwriting the characteristic indorsement "Rejected." 

There was just one case involving the slavery question tried in Palestine, 
the first civil case tried in the county seat. The title was "Susannah Witcher 
vs. Phillis (a woman of color), recognizance." The evidence was heard and 
as, under the law. neither Phillis nor any of her color could be permitted to 
testify against Susannah (who was white), the jury had to return a verdict 
according to the evidence: "We the jury find Phillis to be the property of 
Susannah Witcher." 


Joseph Glover was the first sheriff of the county and, being a most 
hospitable man. almost kept o])en house during the terms of court. He 
owned the first clock e\er l>rought to the county, a fine old wall-sweep in 
mahogany case, with brass works. The clock showed the changes of the 
moon and the days of the month, a perfect clock, even in these days. It was 
the only clock in Palestine for many years. 

With whiskv at ten cents a gallon, the temptations were greater in those 
days, and on one occasion Sherifif Glover, about night-fall, found one of the 
prominent citizens of the county too much under the influence of liquor to 
reach his home. The sherifif promptly took him to his own house. In the 
middle of the night the unconscious guest woke up in total darkness and 
cried out. "Where am 1. Where am I?" and then, pausing, he heard the clock 
ticking, and knowing it was the only one in the county, he said, "Oh it's all 
right ! Good J^e Glover has taken good care of me, God bless him !" Pales- 
tine has passed into the realm of reminiscence, but that same old clock still 
ticks away in a modern residence in P.edford, keeping time as perfectly as it 
did three (|uarters of a century ago. 


From the Ijeginning Palestine was very unhealthful. Deadly miasm rose 
from tlie river, and malignant fevers prevailed among the inhabitants. This 


alone, in all probability, prevented Palestine from becoming the capital of 
Indiana. Judges and lawyers who rode the circuit and attended court there 
went into the country at night rather than encounter the malaria in the town 
and thereby incurring the danger of being exposed to disease. It is doubt- 
ful whether this sickly condition of the town came from the fact that the 
river was in front and tanyard branch behind, the miasm of the dense fogs 
sweeping across the town from both ways, or whether it was because the 
town was built on the site of an old and extensive grave yard of the Indians 
or Mound Builders. The town was slightly sandy, and the spring from 
which it drew its water supply was just below the old burying ground or 
Indian cemetery. Some of these mounds have of later years been excavated 
and many curious relics found in them. 

After a struggle of seven years, the inhabitants found that their grave 
yard was growing faster than the town, and they decided to apply to the 
Legislature for relief, and an act was approved February 9, 1825, providing 
for the re-location of the county seat. 

There was a very bitter feud, traces of wliich remain still in politics, 
between the citizens of the north and south sides of the river. The north 
side was the stronger numerically,, and finally it was decided to move the 
county seat about four miles northeast, away from the stream of water 
courses, and the location was made at Bedford. 

In September, 1825. it was reported that the public well bad been com- 
pleted, the temporar}^ court house erected at Bedford, and the county officers 
removed their records'to the new county seat. At the same time, about three- 
fourths of the population had al^ancloned Palestine and moved to the new 
town, amid jeers, recriminations and abuse from those who chose to still 
remain and occupy their old hi^nes. It was several years before those who 
remained in Palestine finally al>andoned their houses and moved to Bedford. 
The old county buildings were sold at auction. Moses Fell bought the old 
court house for forty dollars. 

Some citizens removed their dwellings, taking down the log 1)uildings in 
Palestine and setting them up again in Bedford, which city today contains 
about a dozen of the old log houses which once formed a part of Palestine. 

In less than ten years the last resident of Palestine had departed, the 
log buildings that composed the town went to deca}- or were sawed up for 
fire wood. The lots were sold for taxes, and at last all came into the hands 
of one owner, Thomas Dodd, who lives near the site of the old town. 

The Bedford branch of the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern railway 
skirts the hill on which Palestine once st.jod. Gradually the wilderness 


encroached on the site of the abandoned town, and it became a forest of 
Lombardy poplars. These trees were finally cut down and the original native 
forest trees sprang up in their place. Many of the latter were also removed 
and the land turned into meadow, but a grove of native trees crown the hill, 
occupying the exact site of the old court house in the center of the town, 
whose inhabitants once hoped to make it the capital of a great state. Not a 
single trace or vestige of human habitation remains, but if the visitor will dig 
a few inches in the earth or on the top of the hill he will find bricks which 
formed a part of the old court house of this the first seat of justice of Law- 
rence county. 


From various reliable sources the following has been preserved in con- 
nection with the history of old Palestine : 

John Brown was appointed the first postmaster there in 1819 and prob- 
ably was the only one who held this office there, as he was the first man to 
hold the office at Bedford. Robert M. Carlton established himself there as 
the county agent in 1818. Andrew Evans was another early settler, as were 
Isaac Mitchell. and James Benefield. The latter furnished rooms for the 
courts. Samuel M. Briggs, a tanner l^y trade, was one of the first county 
treasurers, and worked in the tan yard of Joseph and Wier Glover, which shop 
was built in 1819. This was the largest enterprise in Palestine, giving em- 
ployment to six workmen. There were twenty-five or thirty vats in this 
tannery. The hides were sold chiefly in Louisville. The first store in the 
town was opened in the fall of 181 8 by Samuel F. Irwin and Isaac Stewart. 
They brought in about eight hundred dollars worth of general merchandise, 
which were placed in the hands of Mr. Irwin, Stewart being a non-resident. 
In 1 81 9, Patrick Callen also started a small store, selling lots of whisky as 
well. Dr. Winthrop Foote located as the first doctor of the new county 
seat town. Later he practiced law at Bedford. The first attorney of the 
town, or county for that matter, was Rollin C. Dewey, who settled in 1820. 
Winston Criuse, who dug the well on the public square, was an early resident. 
Henry Powell kept the first inn or boarding house and sold whisky. About 
1820, possibly a year later, John and Samuel Lockhart built a large log house 
and installed a wool carding mill, which did an extensive business. They 
carded on shares, and did the spinning of their share, which they kept for 
sale. The first cabinet shop was opened by Ezekiel Blackwell. In the spring 
of 1819 the town had about fifteen families, and they were determined to 
put on a bold front and have the village of Palestine incorporated, as they 


knew full well that it would sound bigger off East where they sent their ad- 
vertising matter. The following election returns were had in the matter : 

"Palestine, Monday, March i, 1819. 

"At a meeting of the qualified voters of the town of Palestine, Lawrence 
county, Ind., agreeably to the first section of an act providing for the incor- 
poration of towns in the State of Indiana approved January i, 181 7, we, the 
President and clerk of said meeting, do certify that the polls stand thus: 
Eleven votes in favor and none against being incorporated. 

"John Brown, President. 

"William Kelsey, Clerk." 

At an election for trustees of the town the following were elected : 
Alexander Walker. William Kelsey. Lemuel Barlow. William Templeton and 
Stephen Shipman. 

One of the early business enterprises of old Palestine, in her palmy days, 
is seen by the following certificate : 

"We the undersigned do certify that Nathaniel Vaughn is of good 
moral character, and do believe it would be for the benefit and convenience 
of travelers for the said Vaughn to be licensed that he may retail spirituous 
liquors and keep a house for public entertainment in Palestine. 

"Palestine, September 4, 1819. 
"Vingand Pound James Gregory 

"Isaac Farris Thomas Fulton 

"John Anderson John Sutton 

"William Templeton James Conley 

"Willis Keithley Weir Glover 

"John J. Burt Joseph Glover 

"Samuel Dale G. G. Hopkins." 

"Ezekiel BlackM'ell 

The number of small streams in Lawrence county raised the necessity 
of an easy and quick way to transport goods across them, in the commercial 
intercourse of one part of the county with another, and also to facilitate the 
traveler. Bridges were crude and unsafe, so numerous ferries along White 
river and Salt creek were constructed and form an interesting note in the 
early history of the county. 

' On White river, at the eastern boundary, Sinclair Cox kept a ferry near 


the present site of Fort Ritner. A man by the name of Dixon came into 
possession of this ferry later, and it became known for a long time as Dixon's 
ferry. It was in section 22, township 4 north, range 2 west. Loiiden's 
ferry, at the town of Bono: Beck's ferry, near Tunnelton; one at the mouth 
of Fish creek, near Lawrenceport ; William Fisher's ferry, below Lawrence- 
port ; Ezekiel Blackwell's, at Palestine, during the time that town was the 
county seat; the ferry of Levi Nugent, in section 3, township 4 north, range I 
west: Drury Davis's ferry, at the mouth of Leatherwood creek in 1826; one 
at the mouth of Salt creek owned by Robert Woods in 1823; the Fields 
Feny, a short distance below Woods' : Taylor's, Dawson's and Green's were 
among the important ferries established along White x'wtr. A bitter feud 
existed between Woods and Fields, caused by the close proximity of their 
ferries. One night Woods' boat was burned, but the owner immediately 
built another and continued his trade. Two men. Lackey and Taylor, were 
sent to the state prison for the deed. 

On Salt creek there were also many ferries. On the Levi Bailey land a 
man named Lee kept a ferry for a long time : another where the Rawlins mill 
stood: Dougherty's ferry west of Bedford: these were perhaps the most 

Dougherty's ferry was situated where the bridge is on the Fayetteville 
road. There was an Indian trace here in the early days, crossing the western 
part of the countv to a government supply store, kept by a man named Bigger. 
This was called Bigger's trace, and passed near Davis Lick creek in the north- 
ern part, then south a mile east of Fayetteville, crossing the river where Tay- 
lor's fern- was afterward located. 


The following are the towns and hamlets within this county, at this date, 

Armstrong. Avoca, Becks, Bedford, Bono, Bosler, Bryantsville, Buddha, 
Bartlettsville, Buff Ridge, Carr, Coxton, Dark Hollow, Dodd, Fayetteville, 
Flatwood, Ft. Ritner, Georgia, Guthrie, Heltonville, Hoosier, Huron, Indiana, 
Keach, Lehman, Lawrenceport, Logan, Miles Standish, Mitchell, Oolitic, 
Peerless, Pinhook, Prosser, Reed, Rock Ledge, Rivervale, Sand Pit, Shaws- 
wick, Silverville, Springville, Thornton, Tunnelton, Wallner,' Williams, 
Yockey, Zelma. 

These towns, aside from Bedford, Mitchell, Heltonville, Oolitic and 
Tunnelton, are under two hundred population, and many are mere hamlets of 
no consequence historically. 



On Friday night, January 21, 1904, occurred one of the most brutal 
and wanton crimes ever committed in Lawrence county. On that night at 
six-thirty o'clock, Sarah C. Schafer, a talented and pretty teacher in the Bed- 
ford high school, left her boarding house to return to her room, a few blocks 
distant. Her route lay north on Lincoln avenue, and as a cold drizzle of rain 
was falling, she shielded herself with her umbrella. At an alley on the west 
side of the street, between Thirteenth and Fourteenth streets, she met her 
murderer. Evidence has been conclusive that she was stunned by a blow on 
the head, the instrument being a piece of brick, and then dragged nearly sixty 
feet up the alley to a shed, a cab shelter. There, presumably to prevent her 
struggles and outcry, she was murdered. Early the next morning, the owner 
of the cab housed in the shed found the young woman's body, but no evi- 
dence other than her cast-off umbrella, a few strands of dark hair in her 
clutched fingers, and some smaller details, all of which availed nothing. 

The motive, the exact character of the deed, and the identity of the 
murderer have never been learned, nor can the known facts of Miss Schafer's 
life and her relations with her fellows justify any tenable theory. She was a 
religious, straight-forward, conscientious girl, of simple habits, and loved 
sincerely by all of her acquaintances. The truth will probably never be un- 
covered, for had the act been the work of a degenerate, a transient madman, 
his motive would have been too clear, and with the twelve hours' time he 
had to escape, could have been hundreds of miles from the spot, his conscience 
protected bv the depravity of his mind. There was no cause, no premeditated 
reason, for Sarah Shafer's murder; it was an act conceived on the moment, 
and any other woman who might have chanced along the alley entrance that 
night instead of Miss Schafer would undoubtedly have suffered the same fate. 




That the reader may have a general idea of the surface and geological 
formation of the county, it will be well to take up such natural features by 
townships as follows : 


Perfy township affords the best soil within the county. Clear creek, a 
clear, fine stream, having its source in the township, together with its many 
small branches, has heavy deposits of mingled silica and alluvium, fitted for 
the best production of cereals and grasses, especially for timothy and clover. 
No better soil is found for wheat, but corn, for the lack of certain elements, 
does not thrive so well, though parts of the township have deep, black soil 
stich as is found in the great corn belt (if Illinois. Springs abound in the 
township, some being sulphur. 


This portion of Monroe county is rough and stony. Outcroppings of 
fine stone were discovered by pioneers and as the county developed it was 
found that great wealth was their inheritance. No finer quality of lime- 
stone can be found in Indiana. This is of the Warsaw division of the Lower 
St. Louis group, aftd has taken the name of American marble, which is sus- 
ceptible of high polish. See township history concerning this stone indus- 
try, as well as the chapter on Stone Industry. 


This section of the county possesses interesting features as it came 
from Mother Nature. Here one finds the bluffs, with soil of semi-sterility; 


tlkii llu' IdwiT lands, wlicri' llir lainicr rcai)s his best har\csts; there are also 
(iml)c'i- tracts ol ,L;irat \n\uv. \'\n- lourr land is a rich (.■onihincd soil of sand, 
linio, clay and alhninm. An ahundancr of excellent lime rock is I'onnd near 
the snrl'ace, and has lor \ears heen a source of mnch re\enne to the owners 
and workers of the vast qnairies. Many years since the state .geologist 
slated that "The oolitic linn'slone of Monroe connty, hy reason of its acces- 
sihilitx and other \alnahle considerations, is oi vast importance to the mater- 
ial i)ros])eril\ and proj^iess of the state oi Indiana." This stone extends, 
with other i^radi's of stone, from sixty liw to thri'c hundred and sevenl\-li\e 
I'eet in depth I'roni the snrfate. 

\AN liliRI'lN TOWNSllll'. 

I li'ie the surface is less rolhn^ than in other portions of the connty. 
It is well watered and drained, howe\er. Several small streams take their 
rise heri', ,nid lu'nce we find numerous cooling' springs ihroughont the do- 
main, that make i;lad the heart i)\ man and heast. Originally there were 
found large hodii-s of limhi'r, including holh species (^f walnnt, hard and soft 
maple, oak, chestnut, elm, hect'h, sycamore, all kinds of poplar, cherry, gnm, 
sassafras, dog wooti, spice wood, etc., hut long since this liinher has been 
cut away too n)uch, in fact. In the northwestern ])art is a large natnral 
ca\e; its depth, which has often heen tested, is yet not fully known. It 
Covers at least a nule in extent. Mere man\ lowrs o\ nature and geologists 
lind pleasun- in maknig wonderful explorations, and from its caxerns have 
heen taken man\' rare and \aluahK' mineral collections. It is known as 
I'uilt's Cave. ( )nce a party of students hecame bewildered and tlnally lost 
in this ca\e, and had it not been for the teams the\ dro\e out there having 
been seen b\- a neighbor, who rescut'd them, no ti'lling what might ha\e been 
their fate. 

IN'niAN CKKF.K rOWNSltll'. 

Mere one Ihids one of the richest sections for soil of producing qnalities 
to be found in Monroe connty. There is more loam in the soil than is 
usnally found in any Indian,! connty. Indian creek and Clear creek water and 
drain this tmvnshii). ('hester sandsttMie appears at the sm-face, and 
consists of gra\- and light red colored laminated stone, irregularly imbedded. 
The iron deposit on section (» and |)arts of 7 is unusually rich and heavy, yet 
hardly rich enough to vviM'k, when there are bettei- mines to from. The 
main stone of the township lies next nnilerneath the sandstone and belongs 


to llic I'pivr Si. l.ouis group oi" linu-stono. lliorc Ih-iul; a total ot" sixty six 

foct. r.oth saiul aiul liiucstouc arc t'ouuil Iuto in j^iA-ai quaiiiiiii-s. I'lu- iron 

luriiislu-s tlio sprinj^^s oi litis siA-tioii of Monroe wilh pU-nis ol oxci'lK-nt 
blooil lonii.-. 

CiavAK OKl-l-K low N still'. 

'riiis, ai^ricultuiallN spcaknii;, is oiu-, it' not ilio Ik-si, t'or mMicial use in 
Monrot.' county. It lias an alniiulaiui' ot low laiuls and lies eliu'll\ ni ilu- 
forks of Clear aiul Salt creeks. The soil is exeelleni lor all kinds ol' eiops 
grown in this latitude. Tlie geoloi^ical tonnation is re\ealed in ipianies 
along- the old .\e\\ All.anv railway n-lil-ol w av, \t llanodslMir- die ele 
vation is 510 t'eel al»o\e >ea lexel, and at .^iimln ille. 710 t'eet. X'oriliwesl 
of BkH)ininglon, the iii^hesi ele\ation i-- SS ; ieet. Near Snnllnille the 
Keokuk group laps onto the knohstone -^lrata. Wondeit'iil gcologicil speei 
mens are taken Iroiu this section oi ilie coiint\. \ snip alonu; the west side 
oi this township is co\ered with the Si. 1 oiiis liiiiestone. Hence the town- 
ship has three distinct strata oi sione. all excellciu ,iiid woikahlc, 

w \siii xo rox row xsii ir. ■ . 

Here one originalh toiind exeelleni l;iowi1i ot' linihei. iiincli ol' which, 
with passing years, has heen ntili/ed l>\ the niiineroiis nulls. The surt'ace 
rocks oi the townsliii> helong lo the knohstone and Ixeoknk groups. There 
are faint traces of the action t^i the glaciers. 

i:r X rox low xsu ir. 

'Tins pan ol' Moiiioe coiint\ is, generalh speaking, longli j.iid sion\, 
with iiKin\- sleeji lulls and iiiige hlufls. .md is ciU l)\ iiiinieroiis r.i\ iiies, wlieie 
small streams oi pure water liiul llieir cool heds. i,'Ia\ is loo coniinon lo 
make it a lirst-class piodiicing township; e\ en on the lower lands this holds 
true, ^'et within the township max he seen a goodix niimher ni line piodnc 
ing farms, well kept and paying. It is heller adapted to gra.^mg. (\oo:\ stone 
is found here, as nearl\- e\ei\ place in the county the home ol siipciior 
stone for conimercial and hiiilding purposes Iraces oi more s.iln.ihle miiiei 
als, such as copper, gold and iron, are also found, hiil iioi m pa\ iiig tpiaii 



Here there is much good soil, but it is scattered here and there in small 
tracts. The lower lands and slopes are best for farm purposes. Hill- 
side land is usually found the best for cultivation. The higher lands are 
usually seeded down to profitable pasture grasses. Good springs of hard 
water abound everywhere, while in the western portion are seen fine sulphur 
springs, excellent for medicinal uses. An abundance of good stone can be 
had easily. Lime was manufactured in the seventies and eighties in great 
amounts in this township. 


This portion of Monroe county is generally very rough in its topog- 
raphy, and the soil none the best. Other portions are more fertile and 
rolling, containing numerous springs of excellent water, with a soil practi- 
cally inexhaustible. Much of the land here, owing to its poor grade, was 
not entered from the government until the seventies. But with sturdy, 
scientific work the domain has come to be very valuable in these days of high- 
priced lands. 


Some of the finest, most valtiable farms in the county are to be viewed 
here. It is generally a rolling upland, largely of a clay, while along the 
numerous streams there may be seen rich alluvial soil, mingled with sand. 
The best source of wealth in early years was the fine timber. Fine springs 
everywhere are the rule here. They are pure and almost ice cold. The for- 
mation is six feet of clay, seven feet of dark blue limestone, one foot of 
bluish gray clay, and five feet of light gray Keokuk limestone. Near Monroe's 
mills, on Hacker's creek, the bed and banks are thickly strewn with granite 
boulders. A mile east is found knobstone one hundred feet thick. On 
Honey creek black sandstone (magnetic iron ore), similar to the gold-bearing 
sand of Bear creek, Brown county, may be seen. Granite boulders strew 
the ground. Black sand containing gold deposits is found in Wolf creek, 
which rises in Brown countv. 



It IS not the provinct; of this work to treat what is termed the Pre-his- 
toric race, who possibly inhabited this portion of the country long years 
before the territory was held by the North American Indian tribes, but in 
compiling the annals of any county, in any state in this Union, it is of inter- 
est to the reader to know something concerning the Indian occupancy of the 
county, or group of counties, to be written about, hence the following brief 
account of the tribes who once held as their own the lands within what is 
now Monroe county, Indiana. 

The territory now comprising Monroe county was formerly the rightful 
property of the Miamis. The same is also true of all Indiana, for at the 
treaty of Greenville, Ohio, in 1795, Little Turtle, or Mish-e-ken-o-quah, the 
head chief of the Miamis, and one of the most brainy and famous Americans 
of any tribe that ever lived, stated to the government commissioners that the 
Miamis formerly owned all the territory a\ ithin the following "bounds : 
From Detroit south to the Scioto river and down the same to the Ohio. 
then down the Ohio to the mouth of the Wabash, thence up the same to near 
Covington, thence north to Lake Michigan, thence east to Detroit. Soon 
after the war of the Revolution, the efforts to colonize the lands west 'of the 
Atlantic coast were so extensive and persistent that the natives inhabiting 
those regions were forced back into the wilderness upon the territory of 
their western brethren., and thus the broad domain of the Miamis was in- 
vaded by homeless natives of various trilies. who were given tracts of terri- 
tory upon which to hunt and live. At what time the Delawares. Shawnees, 
Wyandots, Pottawatomies, Piankeshaws, ^^'eas, Kickapoos, etc.. gained a 
footing upon the soil of Indiana cannot be stated for a certainty, but there 
seems no doubt that Little Turtle stated the truth when he claimed all the 
lands of the above Ijounded territory as the former domain of his people, 
the Miamis. It is possil)le that some of the trilies named above (xxupied 
portions of Indiana before the Revolutionary war. The former home of the 
Delaw'ares was on the Delaware river, and later in western Pennsylvania and 
eastern Ohio, and still later in Indiana. The original home of the \V'yandots 


was in Canada and later in Michigan and northern Ohio, and still later in 
southern Indiana. The Shawnees were of Southern origin, and also occu- 
pied a section of country on the Wabash about Lafayette. The Pottawat- 
omies seem to ha\e owned territory in northern Illinois, southern Wiscon- 
sin, and to have gained from the Miamis at some early period by invasion 
or conquest much of the land north of the Wabash. The Weas, Kickapoos, 
Piankeshaws and Paincashaws seem to have owned lands along the western 
boundary of the state. At the Fort Wayne treaty, September 30, 1809, the 
second article was made to read as follows : "The Miamis explicitly ac- 
knowledge the ecjual rights of the Delawares with themselves to the country 
watered by the White river. But it is also to be clearly understood that 
neither party shall have the right of disposing of the same without the con- 
sent of the others, and any improvements which shall be made on the said 
lands of the Delawares or their friends, the Mohicans, shall be theirs forever." 
As to the territory of Monroe county, it seems to have been on the 
boundary line l^etween the lands of the Delawares and that of the Pianke- 
shaws, so tliat it was the home and hunting ground of the three tribes as 
well as the Miamis. 


The lands now composing Monroe county were not obtained from the 
Indians wholly at one time. The old Indian boundary which extends from 
near Gosport in a southeasterly direction, leaving the country on section 26, 
Benton township, divides two important Indian cessions. The territory of 
Monroe county south of that division was part of Harrison's Purchase, ob- 
tained from the Indians by the treaty of Fort Wayne, September 30. 1809, 
and all of Monroe county above that treaty line was part of the New Pur- 
chase, obtained from the Indians by the treaty at St. Mary's, Ohio, October 
2 to 6, 1 81 8. As Monroe county was organized before the last named treaty 
was effected, it will be seen that all the present county north of the Indian 
boundary was not at first a part of the county. The exact boundary of the 
countv when first formed will lie seen from the act creating the county, 
which act is quoted further on in this work. 


The survey of lands in this county, south of the Indian boundary, was 
executed in the fall of 181 2, with Arthur Henrie and William Harris as 
government surveyors. All that portion to the north of this Indian bound- 


ary was not surveyed until 1819 by Thomas Brown and J. Hedges. There 
was no land thrown open to the public until 18 16, when many entries were 
made. None were entered before September, 181 6, and all were within 
what is now styled the civil townships of Clear Creek, Indian Creek, Van 
Buren, Richland, Bloomington and Bean Blossom. Several tracts were 
entered by speculators, but, generally speaking, the land was taken up by 
actual settlers, or by those who at once sold to actual settlers. 



January 14, 1818, was the date on which the act authorizmg the or- 
ganization of Monroe county was signed, hence from that day and date 
ah legal matters within the county must conform to such period, for it was 
then that the hrst foundation stones of a civil organization were laid by the 
General Assembly of the state of Indiana. The act reads as follows : 

"An Act for the Formation of Monroe County Out of the County of 
Orange : 

"Section 1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the state of 
Indiana, that from and after the loth day of April next, all that part of the 
county of Orange enclosed in the following bounds shall form and constitute 
a new county : Beginning on the line of Orange and Jackson counties where 
the line dividing townships 6 and 7 crosses the same; thence west with 
the last mentioned line to the line dividing ranges 2 and 3 west of the second 
principal meridian ; thence north with said range line to the Indian bound- 
ary; thence southeastwardly with the said boundary line of Orange and 
Jackson counties ; thence south with the same to the beginning — to be known 
and designated l\v the name and style of Monroe. And the said county of 
Monroe shall enjoy all of the rights, privileges and jurisdictions which to 
separate counties do or may properly belong or appertain. 

"Section 2. John Penicks and Jonathan Jones, of Orange county; 
Daniel Connor, of Daviess county: David Fonts, of Washington county, 
and Samuel Burcham, of Jackson county, be, and they are hereby ap- 
pointed commissioners for the purpose of fixing the permanent seat of jus- 
tice in Monroe county, agreeably to an act of the Assembly, entitled 'An act 
fixing the seat oi justice in all new counties hereafter laid ofif." The com- 
missioners aliove named shall convene at the house of Abner Blair, of the 
said new county, on the first Monday of .April next, and then proceed to dis- 
charge the duties assigned them by law. 

"Section 3. It shall be the duty of the sheriff of the said new county 
to notify the above named commissioners, either in person or in writing, 
of their said appointment and of the time and place at which they are re- 


quired by this act to meet, at least six days previous to the day appointed 
for their meeting, and the said sheriff shall be allowed a reasonable com- 
pensation for his services out of the hrst money in the treasury of the said 
county of Monroe to be paid as the county claims usually are. 

"Section 4. The board of county comnnssioners of said new county 
shall, within twelve months alter the permanent seat of justice shall have 
been established, proceed to erect the necessary public buildings thereon. 

"Section 5. Until suitable accunimodations can be had (in the opinion 
of the circuit courtj at the seat of justice for said county, all the courts 
which by law become necessary to be held at the county seat shall be holden 
at the house of Abner Blair aforesaid, or at any other place in the same 
neighborhood to which the circuit court may, for the purpose of getting 
better accommodations, think proper to adjourn to, after which time the 
said courts shall be adjourned to the seat of justice established as aforesaid. 

"Section 6. The agent to be appointed for the county of Monroe shall 
reserve m his hands ten per centum out of the net proceeds of the sales of 
lots, which may be made at the seat of justice of said county for the use of a 
county library, which sum, or sums, of money so reserved shall be paid by 
said agent or his successor m office over to such person or persons as may 
be authorized to receive the same, in such manner and \\ ith such install- 
ments as may be directed by law. This act to take effect from and after its 
publication in print." (Approved January 14, 181 8.) 

The first election for the newly created county was held under super- 
vision of the sheriff who had been appointed, in the person of John W. 
Lee, commissioned by the governor of Indiana. This election took place in 
1818, but no records were preserved permanently, hence details cannot be 
here made use of, interesting though such records might be. It is known 
that at this first election the following officials were elected : Bartlett Wood- 
ward. Michael Buskirk and James Parks, county commissioners ; William 
Love, county clerk; he was also auditor; Chesley Bailey, recorder; Joseph 
Berry and Lewis Noel, associate judges. 

The first "court house" was the residence of Abner Blair, but Bloom- 
ington was immediately laid out as the county seat and a log court house 
was soon erected. The county seat locating commissioners, appointed by the 
governor and Legislature, met and deliberated, and finally submitted the 
following report of their work to the first county board of commissioners : 

"To the Honorable Board of Commissioners for the County of Monroe: 
We, the undersigned commissioners, appointed by the act of the last Gen- 



eral Assembly, for fixing the permanent seat of justice in and for said 
county, having met agreeable to the above recited act, and after being duly 
sworn, proceeded to business as the law directs in such cases, to receive dona- 
tions from persons offering lands to fix the county seat on. and after exam- 
ining the same and taking into contemplation the future as well as the 
present weight of the population, together with additions and divisions that 
may take place hereafter, do agree that the southwest quarter of section 33, 
in range i west, township 9 north, is the most eligible and convenient place 
for the permanent seat of justice for said county, and have accordingly 
purchased the same of D. Rogers, at one thousand two hundred dollars; also 
have purchased one hundred and fifty acres out of the northeast quarter of 
section 32. of Robertson Graham, for nine hundred dollars, in the same 
range and township above mentioned, the said Robertson Graham reserving 
the balance of the above described quarter section of land to himself in 
the northeast corner of said quarter section of land, beginning at the north- 
east corner and running south twenty poles, thence west eighty poles, 
thence north twenty poles, containing ten acres. 

"Given under our hands and seals this irth day of April. 1818. 

"David Fouts, 
"Samuel Burcham, 
''Jonathan Jones, 
"John Perkins, 

"Locating Commissioners." 

formation of townships. 

At the first session of the board of county commissioners the following 
townships were laid off as civil sub-divisions of Monroe county : 

Bloomington Township.— Beginning at the corner of sections 18 and 
19. where they intersect the line dividing ranges t and 2 west: thence north 
on said range line to the boundary line; thence southeast with said line to 
where the Jackson line intersects the same ; thence south of the Jackson line 
to the middle of fractional township 8; thence through the middle of town- 
ship 8 to the place of beginning. 

Bean Blossom Township. — Beginning at the line dividing ranges i and 
2 west, at the corners of sections 13 and 14. where they intersect the same; 
thence north on said line to the boundary line; thence northwest on the 
boundary' line to the northwest corner of Monroe countv ; thence south on 


the Daviess county line to the middle of township 8; thence through the 
middle of the township to place of beginning. 

Indian Creek Township. — Beginning at the corner of Bean Blossom 
and Bloomington townships, on the line dividing ranges i and 2 west; 
thence south on said line to the line uf Lawrence county; thence west on 
said line to where it intersects the county line of Daviess ; thence north on 
said line to the corner of Bean Blossom township; thence on the line of the 
last mentioned township to the place of beginning. 

Clear Creek Township. — Beginning at the corners of the townships in- 
terlocked on the line dividing ranges i and 2 west; thence south on said 
line to the countv line uf Lawrence ; thence north on said line to the place 
of beginning. 

Granville Ward was appointed inspector of elections in Bloomington 
township : John Cutler, in Bean Blossom township ; James Trotter, in In- 
dian Creek township, and John Storm, in Clear Creek township. Elections 
were held in the townships just enumerated on May 9 for two justices of the 
peace in each, the elections ordered to be held at the following places : In 
Bloomington township, at the house of David Rogers ; in Bean Blossom 
township, at the house of Coleman Peets : in Indian Creek township, at the 
house of John Berry; in Clear Creek township, at the house of Thomas 
Graham. The above were Monroe county's original tow^nships. 

Lamb township was organized in May. 1821. in the New^ Purchase. Its 
bounds were fixed thus : Beginning at the old Indian lx)undary line, where 
the line of township 10 intersects the same; thence east on the line of town- 
ship 10 until it intersects the meridian line; thence north with said line to 
the southeast corner of township 13; thence west on the line between town- 
ships 12 and 13 until it intersects the said boundary line: thence to the be- 
ginning. Subsequently, this tow-nship composed the southwestern portion 
of Morgan county, and derived its name from old Mr. Lamb, who settled 
in Lamb's Bottoms, that county, in 18 19. before it was a county. At the 
same date Walnut Creek township was created or erected, as the record has 
it. Its bounds were fixed thus : Beginning at the northeast corner of Lamb 
township on the meridian line; thence north on said line to the northwest 
corner of township 15 north; thence west on the line dividing townships 15 
and 16 until it intersects the boundary line; thence southeast on said bound- 
ary line until it intersects the line of Lamb township. This town.ship com- 
posed the northwest portion of Morgan county. 

At the same session of the commissioners' board, Raccoon township 


was created and was given the following bounds : All of Wabash county 
north of Walnut Creek township. The Legislature had attached all this 
territoiy to Monroe county. Reuben Fullen was appointed inspector for 
Lamb township and Samuel Rogers the same for Walnut Creek township. 

March i, 1825, it was ordered that "'a township be laid off in the north- 
east corner of the county, to be known by the name of Jackson, and desig- 
nated by the following bounds, to-wit : Beginning at the northeast corner 
of said county, thence west eight miles to the meridian line; thence south 
to the line dividing townships 8 and 9, thence east eight miles to the county 
line; thence north on said line to the beginning." 

The election was held the last Saturday in April, 1825, at the house of 
Banner Brummett. Then a strip on the west side of Brown county, three 
miles in width, was a part of Monroe county. 

In May, 1825, Salt Creek township -wsls created. It began at the south- 
east corner of Monroe county ; thence west to where the meridian line inter- 
sects the same ; thence north on the meridian line to where the comer of 
townships 8 and 9 intersects the same; thence east on the line dividing said 
townships 8 and 9 to wliere the same intersects the county line ; thence south 
on said line to place of beginning. Elections were held at the house of 
Boston Bails. John Pollard and Ezekiel Hendricks were appointed fence 
viewers, and George Todd and Solomon Butcher, overseers of the poor. 


In July, 1828, it was ordered that all the territory attached to Monroe 
county (on the east), by an act of the Legislature of 1827-28, should be at- 
tached to the townships of Salt Creek and Jackson, as follows : Beginning at a 
point on the line dividing townships 7 and 8, range 3 east, where the line divid- 
ing sections 31 and 32 intersect the same; thence north to the line dividing 
townships 8 and 9 ; thence west to the former county line on Monroe county ; 
thence south to the line dividing townships 7 and 8; thence east to the place 
of beginning — such territory to form a part of Salt Creek township. Also, 
beginning at the northeast corner of Salt Creek township, as above en- 
larged; thence north to the line dividing Johnson and Bartholomew coun- 
ties ; thence west to the northeast corner of Monroe county ; thence south to 
the northern boundary of Salt Creek township, thence east to place of be- 
ginning. Such territory was to form a part of Jackson township. The ter- 
ritory thus attached to Salt Creek and Jackson , townships now constitutes 
much of the western half of the present county of Brown. 


Two new townships were erected in Monroe county in July, 1829, as 
follows : 

Washington Township.^ — Beginning at a point on the meridian line be- 
tween townships lo and ii north; thence west with said line dividing town- 
ships ID and II aforesaid to the line dividing ranges i and 2 aforesaid to 
Bean Blossom creek; thence in an eastern direction with said creek to the 
meridian line; thence north with said line to place of beginning. 

Richland township (the other newly made). — Beginning at a point 
where the line dividing ranges i and 2 west intersects the line dividing town- 
ships 9 and 10 north; thence west with said line last mentioned to the Owen 
connty line; thence south with said last-mentioned line to a point where the 
line dividing sections 18 and 19, in township 8 north, range 2 west, inter- 
sects the same; thence with said line last mentioned to the range line between 
ranges i and 2 west ; thence with said range line to place of beginning. 

At the January, 1830. meeting of the commissioners" board, it was 
ordered "That all territory attached by legislative enactment to the county 
of Monroe subsequent to the original formation of townships therein be and 
is hereby attached to and included and shallcompose parts of .said townships 
in the following manner : By extending the boundary lines of the town- 
ships which run in a direction perpendicular to the county boundary entirely 
thereto, and thereby attaching to the respective townships all such territory 
as lies adjoining thereto." 

By petition of seventy-five citizens, the townships of Perry was formed 
in May. 1830. Its boundaries were fixed as: Beginning at the line dividing 
sections 12 and 13, township 8 north, range i west; thence west along said 
line to the west line of said township 8 north, range i west ; thence south to 
the line dividing sections 6 and 7. township 7. range i west : thence east on 
.said line of .said township to place of beginning. An election was held at 
the old Clearwater place at the home of Benjamin Kenton. 

In May, 1833, on petition of Jacob Romans and others, Jackson town- 
ship was divided and Benton township was organized from a part thereof as 
follows : Jackson to be divided into two portions by the line dividing ranges 
I and 2 east, the eastern portion to retain the name of Jackson and the west- 
ern portion to be known as Benton township, in honor of Thomas H. Benton. 
United States senator from Missouri. 

Van Bnren township was formed in ^larch. 1837, and was to comprise 
all and no more than congressional township 8 north, range 2 west. 

Salt Creek township was divided in September. 1840. and Polk town- 


^ship created as follows: Commencing in the bed of Salt creek on the line 
dividing township 7, range i west and range i east ; thence due south on said 
township line to the count}- line ; thence due east to the southeast corner of 
the county; thence north on the county line to Muddy Fork or Salt creek, 
or where the same crosses the county line ; thence down said stream to the 
main Salt creek; thence down said stream to place of beginning. An elec- 
tion was ordered held at the house of John Todd, at Big Springs, with 
Peter Norman as inspector. 


By legislative act, dated December 31, 1821, all of Monroe county- 
lying west of White river was attached to Owen. The second section of this 
act reads as follows ; "All that part of Monroe county lying west of the 
White river be and the same is hereby attached to Owen county, and that all 
suits, pleas, plaints, actions and prosecutions whatsoever shall be conducted 
in the same manner as if no change had taken place." Section 3 of this act 
reads as follows: "So much of the New Purchase as is contained in the 
following boundary, to-wit: Beginning on \A'hite river where the line divid- 
ing the townships 10 and 11 north crosses the same; thence east with said 
line to the corners of sections 4 and 5, township 10 north, range 2 east; 
thence south to the Monroe county line, shall form and constitute a part of 
Monroe county." Jt will be observed that this section attached to the county 
all of the present county north of the old Indian boundary, together with a 
strip three miles wide no\\- a part of Brown county. By an act of the Legis- 
lature approved January 16, 1828, the following territory was attached to 
Monroe county : Beginning at a point on the line dividing townships 7 and 8, 
where the line dividing sections 31 and 32 intersect the same; thence north 
with the last mentioned line to the line dividing the counties of Johnson and 
Bartholomew ; thence west with said line to the northeast corner of Monroe 
county ; thence south to the line dividing townships 7 and 8 ; thence east with 
the last mentioned line to the place of beginning." 



The Statement of old Colonel Ketchum, who settled in the northwest 
corner of Clear Creek township in 1817, shows that he believed the first white 
settler within Monroe county to have been David McHolland. Mr. Mc- 
Holland's wife, who was still living, at a very advanced age, in the eighties, 
says her husband came to the county when Indiana was yet a territory, in 
1 81 5. Mr. Ketchum, just mentioned, came two years later and was well 
acquainted with the tirst settler, as it appears from many incidents. Of 
course prior to the settlement of David McHolland, there had been transient 
hunters and trappers, but, so far as is known, no white family had ever be- 
fore invaded this county for the purpose of making permanent settlement. 
He was also a famous hunter and it is said supported his little family chiefly 
with his trusty rifle. He killed many bears at different points within what 
is now Monroe county, often under great difiiculty and personal danger. 
His wife was frequently heard to boast of baking the first corn pone in Mon- 
roe county, and doubtless she was correct. The McHoUands cultivated a 
few acres of land in Clear Creek township upon which they squatted, and 
after a few years weflt to the northwestern part of the county, where they 
continued to reside many years. 

Settler number two has slipped from the records and from the memory 
of anyone now living here. Bartlett Woodward came to Clear Creek town- 
ship in 1 816 and entered a large amount of go\ernment land. He built a 
log house for himself and family. He reported several families as being in 
Clear Creek township when he came. Pioneer Woodward was a prominent 
citizen and was elected one of the county commissioners in 1818. 

Colonel Ketchum built a grist mill on Clear creek as early as 18 18, which 
was for many years famous in all the surrounding scope of country. Other 
mills were Greene's and Chambers' and Shirley's, each being waterpower 
mills. The Taylors sent the first fiat-boat loaded with pork and grain down 
the stream of either Clear or Salt creeks from Monroe county. 

By the time of the first land sales in the county, there had come to what 
is now Bloomington township more than a dozen families. During the 


first four years after the land sale in 181 6, the persons who entered land 
were inclusive of these: David Rogers, section 33, in 1816; Joseph Taylor, 
section 33, 1816; George Ritchey, section t,t.. 1816; George Hendrick, sec- 
tion 33, 1816: John Ketchum, section 6, 181 6; Henry Wampler, section 6, 
1816; Adam Bower, section (), 181 6; Thomas Smith, section 7, 1816; William 
Julian, section 7, 1816; William J. Adair, section 7, 1816; John Griffith, sec- 
tion 15, 1817: James Matlock, section 18, 1817: James Wood, section 19, 
1817; John Buskirk, section 25, 1817; William Goodwin, section 13. 1818; 
Thomas Barker, section 19, 1818; Abraham Buskirk, section 24, 1818; 
Stephen P. Seal'ls, section 26, 1818; George Whisenand, section 6. 1820; 
Thomas Hardy, section 24, 1821. These and a few more were the only 
ones who entered lands in Bloomington township before 1822. 

In Bean Blossom township the first settler is not now fully known, 
but certain it is that John Fullen and Nathaniel Gilbert located in 1816. 
Other early settlers of the county are given as from this township, in the 
township history in this volume. 

In Richland, township, many land entries were made in 1816, and it is 
usually believed that the first family to locate permanently was that of Will- 
iam Edmunson, near Ellettsville, where he built a small log cabin. It is 
not believed that he was a land owner at that date — simply a squatter. Later 
he bought his claim from George Cutler on section 9. 

In 1S15 there were a few white settlers in what is now Van Buren town- 
ship, but just who is entitled to first place among the pioneer band is now 
unknown. The chief settlement and land entries here were made in 1816. 

In Indian Creek township the first settlers were the Lambs and Walkers. 
The first settlers were scattered here and there throughout the entire town- 
ship, living in rude log huts, many miles apart, though all did their part to- 
ward developing the country. 

In Clear Creek township, the first settler was also the first in the county, 
as before stated — David McHolland. who came in 1815. 

In Washington township the first to enter land and effect his settlement 
was James Bennington, who entered at the land office at Vincerines, Septem- 
ber 12. 1817. the southwest quarter of section 30, township to north, range 
I west. The next settler was John Patterson in 1823, on section 31. 

In Benton township the first land entry was made by Elisha Pollard, on 
section 34, September 27, 1822. 

In Salt Creek township, Moses Williams purchased the first land on 
Se])tember 9, 1817, in section 7. 


In Polk township the first to enter land was Elijah Elliott, who iDought 
ninety odd (fractional) acres in congressional township 7 north, range 1 
east, on section 4. 

In ^Marion township, the first to enter land was Osborn & Brown, 
merchants, who claimed land on section 6, but not with the view of becoming 
actual settlers. This was in 1823. This township was among the last to 
be settled. 

The various township histories, found elsewhere in this work, will give 
more in detail of the settlement of the county, hence need not here be men- 
tioned further. This county has been settled almost one hundred years, and 
has made a wonderful history and its development will rank high among 
the sister sub-divisions of the great state of Indiana. 



After the organization of Monroe county, the locating of the county seat 
at Bloomington, by the locating commissioners appointed by the governor 
of Indiana, and the holding of the original general election, at which officers, 
including the first board of county commissioners, were chosen, the real 
machinery of the county government commenced to do active service. The 
first meeting of the first board was held at the house of Abner Blair on April 
lo, 1818. The board consisted of Bartlett Woodward, Michael Buskirk and 
James Parks. The time which each was to serve was determined by the 
number of votes each had received when elected — a very fair manner of dis- 
posing of such choice, instead of drawing lots, as is the usual modern-day 
process for choice of long and short terms. Mr. Woodward received the 
highest number of votes and hence served three years; Mr. Buskirk had the 
next highest number and served two years ; Mr. Peck, having the lowest num- 
ber of votes, received the shortest term, or one year as member of the county 

The first official act of the newly elected board was the appointment of 
William Lowe as county clerk, pro tempore, and the second was the appoint- 
ment of Capt. James Bigger as lister or assessor of the county for the year 
1818, his bond being fixed at one thousand five hundred dollars. Roderick 
Rawlings was then appointed by the commissioners as county treasurer, and 
he was required to put up bonds in the sum of twenty thousand dollars. 

The second day of the board's meeting, they adopted a county seal, 
which was only intended to be temporary, and was simply a scrawl enclosing 
the words "Temporary Seal of Monroe County." 

William Milliken was appointed superintendent of the sixteenth section 
(school section) in township 10 north, range 2 west; George Parks the same 
in township 8 north, range 2 west; John Storm, the same in township 7 
north, range i west : William Matlock, the same in township 9 north, range 
I west. 

Benjamin Parks was appointed county agent, with bond fixed at twenty 
thousand dollars. By order of the board, the county seat was to be styled 


and known as "Bloomington." The locating commissioners, who had served 
by appointment of the governor, were allowed the sum of thirty-three dollars 
to David Fonts; thirty dollars to John Pernicks ; thirty dollars to Jonathan 
Jones; thirty dollars to Samuel Burcham. 

The first road petition in the county was headed by William Hardin, 
and the highway sought was to extend from Bloomington to Scott's Ferry 
on Salt creek, and thence on to the Lawrence county line. The viewers ap- 
pointed were William Jackson, John Scott and William Craig. This wagon 
road was ordered constructed and was the first wholly built by Monroe 

The town of Bloomington was then ordered to be surveyed and laid off 
into lots, the whole matter being left in the hands of the county agent. 

On the third day of the first session of the board of county commis- 
sioners, a log house was ordered constructed known as a "double-log house," 
which was to be used as a court house, and it was specified that it was only 
for temporary use. 

The board also, on the third day of its first session, selected the first 
grand jury of Monroe county, which was composed of the following gentle- 
men : Dudley Carl, William Chambers, David Chambers, John Scott, John 
Mercer, Thomas Grimes, John Berry, William Newcomb, Jesse Tarkington, 
Solomon Green, Jonathan Nichols, George Sharp, William Millikan, George 
Parks, Sr., Coleman Puitt, Eli Lee, William Hadin and Henry Wampler. 

The sheriff in attendance, John W. Lee, was ordered to notify these 
grand jurymen to meet for action at the house of Abner Blair. The traverse 
jury was then selected as follows : William Matlock, George Burdrick, 
John Thompson. Samuel Scott, Thomas Clark, Jonathan Rains, John Storm, 
Jr., John Couch, John Matlock, John Cutler, Joseph Peeshaw, David Sears, 
Elijah Morgan, James Wright and James Matlock. 

Jonathan Rogers, Robert Russell and Samuel Scott were appointed first 
road supervisors. John W. Lee, sheriff, was paid eighteen dollars for notify- 
ing the locating commissioners of their appointment, and was also allowed 
seven dollars for making returns of the first election held in the cnunty. 


A full report of the sale of town lots in the newly located seat of justice 
will be found in the chapter on the township and cit\ of Bloomington. In 
passing it may be said, however, that the monev recei\e(l from the lot sales 


was the chief source of revenue to the county for a number of years. From 
the start the county board were compelled to issue warrants or orders at a 
discount, which were later ordered received for county dues. Wild-cat bank 
issues were the only paper money then, and almost every report of the 
treasurer of the county exhibits an entry of certain def>reciation on the bank 
bills in possession of the county. A holder of a "bank note" those days was 
not sure in the morning that it was worth anywhere near as much as the night 
before. The contrast with today is indeed marked — now every bill, and 
every coin, whether copper, silver or gold, is worth what it carries in denom- 
ination upon its face. 


When the county was first organized the rate of taxes on various ar- 
ticles was as follows: On each horse, thirty-seven and a half cents; on each 
hundred acres of first class land, fifty cents; on each hundred acres of second 
class land, forty cents; on each hundred acres of third class land, twenty-five 
cents; and many other items in like proportion. 

The license fixed on tavern keepers in February, 1819. was seven dollars 
and fifty cents in Bloomington and five dollars in the country. The board 
also fixed the charges of tavern keepers (a thing that now might be considered 
"unconstitutional" by landlords) which run thus: For breakfast, twenty-five 
cents; for dinner, twenty-five cents; for supper, eighteen and three-fourths 
cents ; lodging, six and one-fourth cents ; corn or oats, per gallon, twelve and 
a half cents; horse at fodder or hay, twenty-five cents; one half pint of 
whisky, twelve and a half cents; same quantity of brandy, eighteen and 
three-fourths cents; one half pint of French brandy, thirty-seven and one- 
half cents ; same amount of wine, same price. 

In the summer of 1820 County Agent Benjamin Parks reported the total 
sales and rents of town lots and other donated lands amounted to the sum 
of $27,874.58. He had paid over, $9,383.73; discounts on bad cur- 
rency, $98.80: balance on hand, $32.51. A fine financial showing for early- 
day Bloomington, indeed. 

Addison Smith succeeded Benjamin Parks as county agent, in August, 
1820, and later in that year James Boreland succeeded Roderick Rawlins 
as countv treasurer. The census enumerator in 1820 was Addison Smith. 



As has been shown, the first business of the county was transacted at 
the private residence of Abner Blair, where the first courts assembled, but 
the order of the commissioners was carried out, in the erection of the double- 
log coui't house — two cabins, one being twenty by twenty feet and the other 
twelve by twenty feet in size. These structures were ten feet apart, with a 
covered "entry" connecting the two buildings^ — really the two houses and 
entry- way were all under one roof. The houses were to be built of round 
logs and later to be hewed down flat. Each was to be ten feet high to the 
eaves, each to contain one door and one window. The contractor was 
Samuel Elliott, and the price paid was about four hundred dollars. 

Mr. Elliott also contracted to clear away the trees and bushes from 
around the pioneer court house. The work was pushed along so rapidly 
that the building was occupied in August. 1818. 


Monroe county's second court house was planned for in February, 1819. 
The specifications as prepared by William Low stated that the structure was 
to be of brick with a stone foundation. It was to be two stories high and 
forty-five feet long, east and west, and forty feet wide, north and south. It 
was in May, 181 9, when Rol>ert Stafford took the contract, but failing to put 
up security — the bond being fixed at twenty thousand dollars — the contract 
was re-awarded to John Ketchum, for seven thousand nine hundred and 
sixty-five dollars. Work was commenced in June, and in August the first 
installment of one thousand dollars was paid the contractor. At this date 
posts and railings were placed around the old court house. Samuel Harry- 
man was one of the brick-layers on the court house. In February, 1820, 
County Treasurer Rawlins donated certain commissions due him on receipts 
for lot sales, provided such donation should go toward the purchase of a 
clock for the new court house. His offer was thankfully received and ac- 
cepted by the county commissioners and taxpayers of the county. It was not 
until 1824 that all the trees had been cleared from the public square, and 
such work was finally completed by David Teague. who received for such 
work the sum of twenty-four dollars. In February, 1820, the plans for the 
court house were somewhat changed, but the main work went forward. In 
August, 1821, Mr. Ketchum was paid four thousand dollars on his contract, 


the rough work having aU been completed at that date. David Armstrong 
was contracted with to build what the county clerk wrote in record as a 
■"cubola" to the building. For three years prior to December, 1822, the 
clerk's office was maintained at the house of Jacob B. Lowe, and he was paid 
sixty dollars as rental money. Early in 1823 the court house was nearly 
completed and ready for occupancy. But as it was not fully finished it was 
not occupied for a long time afterwards, notwithstanding the county had 
paid the contractor for all the work. In 1824 Edward Borland was paid 
three hundred fifty-two dollars and twenty cents for additional work on this 
building, and David Armstrong the sum of one thousand five hundred five 
dollars and twenty cents; Benjamin Neeld, twenty-four dollars and other 
parties eighty-one dollars. Mr. Ketchum was never paid quite his full con- 
tract price, but nearly that amount. The court house was not completed, 
inside and out, before ]826, and its cost was eight thousand three hundred 

Lightning rods were then termed "Franklin rods," in honor of Benjamin 
Franklin, inventor of the lightning rod. The county board had great faith 
in such electric conductors and purchased rods for the new court house, and 
by this act they had an endless amount of trouble. Austin Seward was en- 
gaged to paint the building a fire red and to pencil it of¥ in white, and such 
work was all to be finished before September, 1826. In 1825 Samuel Dun- 
ning engaged to build a county clerk's office and county library room, which 
work was performed before November that year. At that date the public 
square was neatly fenced. Z. Williams executed the wood work on the 
clerk's office, while Ewing & Montgomery did the plastering. The finished 
building was occupied in May, 1826, and occupied for the first time that same 
month. Z. Williams was handed the ke_MS to the court house and instructed 
by the board to keep it locked, permitting it to be occupied only by the courts, 
county commissioners, taking of depositions. Fourth of July celebrations, 
elections, "when any person shall want admittance for the purpose of acquir- 
ing agricultural knowledge, and in the discretion of the keeper to any preacher 
of the gospel." 

This court house was a fine structure for that early day and was the 
pride of Bloomington and this portion of Indiana. Bloomington, the county 
seat, was looked upon as one of the most promising towns in all the Hoosier 



In March, 1827, the citizens petitioned the county board as follows: 
"To the Honorable Board of Justices of Monroe County : The undersigned 
petitioners respectfully represent that they conceive that the honor of the 
county and the future interests and importance of Bloomington, which now 
ranks among the best villages in the state, imperiously requires that the court 
house should be surrounded b}- a permanent inclosure, which would add to 
the convenience and beauty of our public square, and at the same time hold 
forth a powerful inducement to the citizens of the town to make correspond- 
ing improvements in the streets and alleys." The long lot of suggestions as 
to how such fence should be constructed wound up b\- sa}ing the same "should 
be built of brick on a stone foundation." The petition was heard and granted. 
The honorable petitioners were as follows, names still familiar in Monroe 
county : Thomas Graham, William Alexander, Edward Borland, John 
Hight, George Henry, James Whitcomb, Edmund Wyman, Granville \\'ard, 
Richard Hardesty, William S. W^right. James Slocum, Robinson Farmer, 
George H. Johnson, Frederick Butler, Jacob Harsh, John S. Barnes, "and 
others." William Bannister and John Robinson did the work of fencing 
the square. The final settlement with contractor Armstrong, builder of the 
court house, was not made until 1829. 

In 1856-58 this court house was remodeled, the work being performed 
by John F. Rogers, who built the two brick wings at a cost of about seven 
thousand dollars. A few more changes were made on the property up to 
1884. when it was stated that it was in as solid a condition as when first built, 
sixty years before. It served the purpose of Monroe county as a temple 
of justice until the erection of the present magnificent stone court house. 


The following tablet adorns the wall of the lower story (]>asement) 
of the present court house, and it gi\es much history in a condensed form: 

Building ordered March 6, 1906. 

Completed June i, 1908. 

County Commissioners — igo6, James W. Davis, Isaac Mitchell, Jacob Miller; 

1907, Jacob Miller, Isaac Mitchell. Benjamin F. Cooter. 

Isaac C. Batman, County Attorney. 

Auditor, Samuel M. Kerr. 


Citizens' Advisory Board — Fred Matthews, M. H. Bogemann, J. D. Showers, 

S. C. Freese, P. K. Buskirk. 

Architects — Marshall S. Mahurin, Guy M. Mahurin, Ft. Wayne, Indiana. 

Contractors — George W. Caldwell and Lester Drake, Columbus, Indiana. 

Secretary — August H. Knosman; Superintendent, Herman Vergin. 

The cost of the above structure was two hundred and hfty thousand 
dollars. Its corner stone was laid with impressive Masonic ceremonies on 
the loth day of May, 1907. It stands in the center of a beautifully kept pub- 
lic square, with stone and cement walks running to all the entrances. A rest 
room is found for ladies in the northeast corner of the cool basement. The 
room opposite is used by the Grand Army of the Republic. The county 
officers are found on the second floor, while the law library, jury rooms and 
court room are found on the third floor, as well as many of the county 
officers' rooms, such as school superintendent, etc. A fine tower surmounts 
this massive stone building, in which is hung a great bell and clock, that 
sounds the hours as they go by, year in and year out. The dials of this 
clock are illuminated and face each direction, and may be seen at a great 


In October, 1818, it was deemed a necessity to provide this county with 
a suitable and safe jail. Roderick Rawlins was engaged to draw plans for 
such a building. It was to be built of oak timbers, one foot thick, and was 
to stand north of the court house; was to be twenty by thirty feet in size; to 
be provided with a dungeon and a criminal's room, and a jailor's room, the 
latter to be constructed on the east side of the jail proper. Roderick Rawlins 
took the contract and hurried the building along to completion. John 
Rawlins built a "stray pen" for the town, for which he was paid the sum 
of twenty-three dollars. Joel Woodward and others dug a well on the public 
square. Early in 18 19 it was ordered that the square be fenced in, but this 
work was delayed some time. 

The jail was reported finished in February, 1820, luit the inspecting 
committee found that the debtor's room was incomplete, and David H. Max- 
well was employed to remedy the objections. So be it remembered that 
Monroe's first jail had a debtor's room, and that, too. in Bloomington, only 
ninety years ago! 

The first jailor was Enos Blair. We have no records of the men and 


women who were from time to time placed in this jail; however, it matters 
not now, for long years since they have been numbered among the dead ! 

In 1837 the county concluded to build a new jail and appointed John 
Bowland, E. T. Butler, William S. Wright, Samuel Hardesty, Joseph Baugh 
and John W. Lee a committee tu remo\e the old wooden jail and build on 
the same lot a new one. The contract was awarded to Hardesty, Graham 
and Chapman, but the price is not now known. The new jail was a strong 
brick structure, costing hve thousand dollars, and was ncjt fully completed 
until early in the forties. That jail did duty until 1869-70, when bids were 
invited looking towards the erection of a new jail, which had really been 
needed since 1856. Four bids were received, and that of George Finley & 
Company being the best, it was accepted, the same being to erect a jail and 
sheriff's residence, all of stone work, for the sum of six thousand nine hun- 
dred and ninety-eight dollars. That prison house was thirty- four by forty- 
one feet; the residence was to be twenty by forty- four feet, with a kitchen 
and guard-room fourteen by thirty-three feet. It was to be brick, on stone 

The next jail was the present one, on Walnut street, it has a jailer's 
residence and jail proper. The former is a three-story brick structure, while 
the remodeled prison, or jail, in its rear, is constructed of stone, the chief 
product of the county. Its walls are veiw thick and heavy steel grating, set 
back to the back sides of the deep window openings, affords a safe retention 
of prisoners there incarcerated. 


Nothing speaks better for any county or state than tu note that the un- 
fortunate poor within their boundaries are well and humanely cared for. 
Of this one thing Monroe county may justly boast. No sooner had this 
county been organized than it commenced to look toward the care of the 
poor and distressed within its bounds. In every township overseers were 
appointed to look after the wants of the poor — those claiming citizenship. 
These officers reported to the county board and the commissioners allowed 
the necessary bills, same as any other claims against the count)-. It is now 
seldom that children are "farmed out." l)ut in an early day this practice 
was quite frequent. The keeping of helpless children was put up at auction, 
and he who would provide for their necessary wants for the least money was 
burdened with the responsibility. Much care had to be exercised, other- 



wise children would fall into the hands of cruel and hard-hearted men and 
women, who might half clothe and feed the little innocents. The whole 
system was bad, and but little comfort ever came to the children thus put into 
strange hands. It was, however, more humane than to let them die for lack 
of any care whatever. Much temi^orary and sometimes permanent relief was 
furnished by the townships, and no call made on the county board for reim- 
bursement. Among the first orders for such relief for the poor reads as 
follows : 
"State of Indiana, Marion County. 

"Monroe County, Debtor to Solomon Green for an allowance for an 
injury sustained to his bedding in keeping, laying out and burying Louis Lee, 
a poor person. 

"February 5, 1824. 

"David Sears, 
"William Moore, 

"Overseer of the Poor." 

As the population of the county began to increase, naturally the expense 
of keeping the poor became larger. In 1827, the county paid $46.20 and 
in 1830. $75. Later in the thirties the expense was $200 annually. In 1836, 
it amounted to $204.63. These amounts did not include cases cared for by 
the individual townships. Some extreme years the county's expense ran as 
high as $500. It ran so high that in 1836 the project of establishing a county 
poor farm was agitated. A petition was presented to the county board in 
November, 1836, praying for a poor farm, and, in response to this, John 
Hite, John Owens, and Jesse Davar were appointed a committee to inspect 
various farms with a view of purchasing. Nothing further was done until 
1838 and in May of that year another committee, consisting of John Owens, 
Edward Borland and John Hite, were appointed for the same purpose, the 
farm to cost not less than fi\e hundred dollars nor more than one thousand 
five hundred dollars. The purchase price was to be paid in three equal an- 
nual payments. But for some unknown reason, the matter was allowed to 
rest until 1846, when another committee was appointed in the persons of 
Elias Abel, Henry Tanner and another, to inspect some half dozen farms for 
sale. The one owned bv John Acuff w^as selected and bought at nine hun- 
dred dollars, half down and balance in one year. It was situated five miles 
from Bloomington and consisted of one hundred and twenty acres. Upon 


the farm was an ordinar\- dwelling house, and the county lioard ordered an 
additional log house. Mr. AcutT was appointed superintendent and allowed 
one hundred dollars to look after the farm and care for the unfortunate poor 
that might there be assembled. The first pauper. Crazy Betsey, was taken 
to the asylum in June, 1846. Acuff continued superintendent until 1849 and 
was succeeded by Robert Ray. John N. York was- the third superintendent 
and he found only three inmates to care for. During the fifties, some years 
the expense to this county at the farm was upwards of three thousand dol- 
lars. As high as eight inmates were at the place at one time. The greater 
expense, however, fell upon the several townships. Later in the fifties it was 
found that some better system must obtain to care successfully for the pauper 
element in the county. In 1862, a new farm of one hundred and sixty-eight 
acres was bought from Samuel A. Smith for six thousand dollars. It was 
parts of sections 30 and 31, township 8 north, range i west. One member 
of the board, Mr. Small, protested against the purchase, for various reasons, 
but his objection was of no avail and the land was bought. A building 
known as the Asylum, was constructed by Milburn & Phetridge, for one thou- 
sand six hundred and eighty-eight dollars. It was a frame structure, about 
thirty-five by seventy-five feet, and contained nine rooms on each side. The 
property was paid for on the installment plan and not seriously burdensome to 
the tax-payers. After three or four years the objections made by Mr. Small, 
member of the county Ix^ard, were felt with much force. That the board 
made a mistake was then acknowledged by the people generally. In Decem- 
ber. 1865. the farm was advertised for sale and soon sold to JohnTv May for 
nine thousand one hundred and fifty dollars. ^Ir. May became superin- 
tendent, he agreeing to keep the paupers for two dollars a week each. Samuel 
A. Smith had just preceded him as superintendent. A new poor farm must 
now be purchased and in March. 1866, the board bought of Peter Bollen- 
backer six seminary lots known as the Cuff farm, a mile and a half west of 
Bloomington, each lot containing ten acres, for three thousand dollars. In 
May, 1867, sealed bids were received to build a brick as\lum on this land. 
Samuel A. Smith's bid of five thousand eight hundred dollars seeming the 
best bid of the lot offered, it was accepted. :\ fine building was constructed 
within about two years. 

The present county asylum, or i;)Oor house, ^^as erected on the one hun- 
dred and sixty-acre tract of land owmed by the county, four miles out from 
Bloomington, in Van Buren township, in 1892. It is a brick structure, with 


a deep stone basement. The work and kitchen affairs, etc., are in the large 
basement, while the tw'o upper floors are used for the convenience of the 
unfortunate poor, who in 1913 amounted to about thirty-six, divided about 
equally between the two sexes and nearly all aged persons. Thomas A. 
Cunningham, the present efficient superintendent, has been in office since 1907, 
and during his incumbency the average number of inmates has been about 
thirty-six yearl)-. The farm is well tilled and produces much of the meat 
and vegetables consumed by the inmates and the superintendent's family and 
hired help. About five hundred dollars surplus each year, after keeping the 
superintendent and family, is turned over for the maintenance of the institu- 
tion, the balance having to be made up by the county fund set apart for such 
purpose. Here the poor are well cared for. 


The records show the following concerning the finances of Monroe 
county from its organization, in 1818, to February, 1819, the first year: 
Total expenses of the county, $3,685. In 1827 the expenses amounted to 
$858; in 1836, $1,364; in 1839-40. $2,450; in 1842-43, $3,411; in 1846, 
$3>955; in 1852-53. $6,446; in 1860-61, $15,612; in 1864-65, $106,054. Of 
this latter amount, the poor cost $5,693 ; county officers, $3,023 ; military 
bounties, $81,000. This left the county in debt about $88,250. In 1872-73 
the expense was $49,000. In 1876 the county owed, in round figures, 
$10,000. In 1883 the county issued bonds to the amount of $50,000 to aid 
in building a university building. Each bond was for $500, and it ran six per 
cent, redeemable in ten years. 

Thirty years ago — 1883 — the total state taxes of this county were 
$8,525; the state school tax was $10,945; the county tax was $32,785; town- 
ship taxes $3.863 ;. tuition tax, $3,294. all of which shows a lively interest 
taken in educational matters. 

On January i. 19 12. there was on hand in the county treasury the sum 
of $63,334.85. The receipts for the year 1912 amounted to $310,274.74, 
making a total in receipts up to December 31, 1912, of $373,609.59. The 
disbursements of the county for that year were $344,693, leaving a net bal- 
ance of $28,916.38, January i, 1913. 



The subjoined shows the taxable property of all kinds, in the county, 
. by townships and incorporations : 

Bean Blossom to\vnship__$ 489,080 Polk township I35'3i5 

Washington township 228,020 Clear Creek township 526,515 

Marion township 109,150 Indian Creek township 302,410 

Benton township 223,120 Part of Bloomington city_ 3,469,000 

Bloomington township 738,850 Part of city in Perry twp._ 1,187,755 

Richland township 608,545 Kllettsville, town of 198,455 

Van Buren township 469,265 Stinesville, town of 58.350 

Perry township i,2/^,it,^ 

Salt Creek townshi]) -1-355 Total $10,181,430 


When the Legislature authorized the organization of Monroe county, 
one of the considerations was that ten per cent, of the proceeds of the town 
lots at the county seat to be located was to be used to found and maintain a 
county library. A treasurer was appointed to take care of the funds thus 
derived. In 1821 the first books were bought, when sixty dollars was spent 
for a few dozen standard books (not cheap yellow-covered books), which 
laid the foundation for a good library in later years. In July, 1830, $2,428.14 
had been paid to the library treasurer, the most of which had gone toward the 
purchase of good books, and the library then boasted of eight hundred vol- 
umes. The ten per centum on the receipts of town lot sales in Bloomington 
proved a munificent fund for library purposes in those early days. In 1884, 
there were over two thousand volumes (some having been rebound several 
times ) of standard works, and they occupied the old office building that was 
erected in the twenties. At present there is a small circulating library in 
one of the basement rooms of the new court house. 



While it is not intended by the author of this work to attempt to give 
any extended poHtical history of the county, yet there are several matters 
that must of necessity be mentioned, as showing the general political trend of 
the people from the time of the organization down to the present day. All 
good forms of government have their political parties and every good citizen 
is allied with some one of these parties. ^Vhile it is not practical to give a 
full and complete return of all local and general elections in Monroe county, 
a list of the men who have represented the county in some official capacity 
will be given and the general political complexion of the county wall be thus 
indicated, especially will the Presidential vote show how the voters have 
stood on national issues. 


But little attention was paid to political parties here until 1840 — that 
memorable Presidential campaign — because almost everyone was a Demo- 
crat until that date. Only three townships can be reported at the 1840 elec- 
tion, on account of the loss of the records. These townships are Blooming- 
ton, which gave the Democratic nominees, Van Buren and Johnson, 587 
votes, against 541 for the Whig nominees, Harrison and Tyler. Salt Creek 
gave the Democratic candidates eleven votes, all that were cast in the town- 
ship. Bean Blossom township gave the Democratic candidate 117 votes, as 
against 50 for the Whig candidates. This made 715 votes for Van Buren 
and Johnson, and 591 for Harrison and Tyler. 

This was a memorable political campaign, in which Indiana put forth 
her idol. Gen. William Henry Harrison, the hero of the famous battle of 
Tippecanoe. The whole new West united their forces to make him the 
country's chief executive, and in this were triumphant, and for the first time 
the East had to bow to the power and opinion of the W^est. Monroe county, 
however, gave Van Buren a majority of her votes and, as usual, went Demo- 
cratic. It was about this time that the question of slavery began to attract 


much general attention. Anti-slavery societies were formed all over the 
Northern states and the struggle to maintain or overthrow slavery was fully 
in operation. This was enhanced by the new territories seeking admission 
to the Union, Nebraska and Kansas included, which were tlie scene of much 
violent strife just a little later on. In 1844 the campaign opened just after 
Texas had gained her independence from Mexico, and that territory asked 
admission; this pleased the slave states of the South, knowing that it would 
strengthen their cause to have annexed another slave state of such .great terri- 
torial proportions. This, of course, was not relished upon the part of the 
Northern anti-slavery element. The Democrats put in nomination James 
K. Polk and the Whigs, Henry Clay. Much enthusiasm prevailed at this elec- 
tion in Monroe county, the first of much note, politically, in the county's 
history. The election resulted as follows : Polk and Dallas, Democrats, 
1,118; Clay and Frelinghuysen, Whig, 721; Democratic majority, 397. 

The records for the elections of 1848 and 1852 are not in existence. 

1856 — Buchanan and Breckenridge, Democrats, 1,191: Fremont and 
Dayton, Republicans, 498; iMllmore and I)(jnalson, American, 392. 

During the next four years, people, even in the North, were almost on 
the threshold of civil war. In 1858 the South began to prepare for the 
great struggle that was ine\i table and which came in 1861. 

i860 — Douglas and Johnson, Northern Democrats, 716; Breckenridge 
and Lane, Southern Democrats, 395; Lincoln and Hamlin, Republican, 1,198; 
Bell and Everett, American, 64. It will be observed that the Southern wing 
of the Democratic party was very strong, thus showing that there was in this 
county a very strong sentiment in favor of slavery and the position taken by 
the South. The Democratic strength was broken down between 1856 and 
i860, but during the Civil war it regained much of its former strength. 

. 1864 — McClellan and Pendleton, Democratic, 1,210; Lincoln and John- 
son, Republican, 1,202. 

In 1866 this county iDecame Republican l)y a large majority, which has 
been hard for Democracy to overcome ever since. It was in 1868 that M. C. 
Hunter defeated H. W. Harrison, Democratic, for Congress; and Conrad 
Baker, Republican, was elected over Thomas A. Hendricks, Democratic, for 
• Governor of Indiana. The following is a synopsis of the vote at subsequent 
presidential elections : 

1868 — Grant and Colfax (Rep.) 1,496 

Seymour and Blair (Dem.) 1'369 


1872 — Grant and Wilson (Rep.j • 1.597 

Greeley and Brown (Dem.) 1.359 

Bourbon (Dem.) 5 

1876 — Hayes and Wheeler (Rep.) 1,667 

Tilden and Hendricks (Dem.) 1.559 

1880 — Garfield and Arthur (Rep.) 1,780 

Hancock and English (Dem.) 1,682 

WeaA-er and Chambers (Ind.) 165 

1884 — Cleveland and Hendricks (D) 1,732 

Blaine and Logan (Rep.) 1,896 

1888 — Cleveland and Thurman (Dem.) 1,825 

Harrison and Morton (Rep.) 2,055 

1892 — Harrison and Reed (Rep.) 2,000 

Cleveland and Stevenson (Dem.) 1,910 

Fisk (Prohib. ) 93 

Union Labor 344 

1896 — McKinley and Hobart (Rep.) 2,570 

Bryan and Sewall (Dem.) 2,396 

Prohibition 27 

1900 — McKinley and Roosevelt (Rep.) 2,750 n 

Bryan and Stevenson (Dem.) 2,348 

People's Party 20 

1904 — Roosevelt and Fairbanks (Rep.) 2,990 

Parker and Davis (Dem.) 2.286 

Prohibition 92 

1908 — Taft and Sherman (Rep.) 2,986 

Br\'an and Kern (Dem.) 2,704 

1912 — Taft (Rep.) 1,342 

Wilson and Marshall (Dem.) 2.334 

Roosevelt and Johnson (Progressive) T.448 

The political campaigns in the county during the war were hotly con- 
tested, and were generally in doubt until the returns had been counted. The 
question of the success of the Uhion cause depended greatly on the men in 
public office, and consequently the people were careful to select the man who 
favored the continuation of hostilities until the country was once more united. 
In 1863 the two parties were divided on the question of continuing the war, 
and public meetings were held everywhere for both sides. The result was a 


Democratic victory by a majority of 170, in a total vote of 2,050. In Febru- 
ary, 1864, a Unionist mass meeting was held to elect delegates to the Union 
state convention at. Indianapolis, and they also passed a series of resolutions 
indorsing Lincoln for the Presidency of the United States and Morton for 
governor of Indiana. September 15th, the congressional candidates of both 
parties spoke at the court house. Mr. Harrington, the Democratic candi- 
date, was unable to be present, and David Sheeks spoke in his place. Mr. Hill, 
the Union candidate, spoke with much eloquence ; also a Mr. Gunii. of Ken- 
tucky, spoke. The October and November campaigns, however, were des- 
tined to be the fiercest and longest of any during the war. Each party knew 
that the balance of the war depended in large measure on the outcome of the 
election and each faction exerted every means within its power to win. 
Prominent speakers from over the country were brought to Monroe county, 
and every means was used to carrv the voters to one side or the other. The 
October election showed a Republican gain over 1863. and Governor Morton 
ran ahead of his ticket, receiving a majority of four votes. The retention 
of Indiana's famous "war governor" was great news for the people in favor 
of continuing the fight against the South, and they increased their efforts in 
order that thev might follow up their advantage in the November elections. 
Major Popp. of the Eighteenth Regiment. Hon. Henry S. Lane, General Kim- 
ball. Colonel Anderson, of the Twelfth Cavalry. Hon. M. R. Hull of Wayne 
county, and P. C. Dunning came to Monroe county and expounded political 
theories before the citizens. After the ballots had been counted it was found 
that the Democratic electors had a majority of eight votes, a gain of forty on 
the October elections, and one hundred and sixty on the election of 1863. 
The result was most satisfactory to the l^nion adherents, and they rejoiced in 
noisy and patriotic manner. 

The subjoined is as complete a record of the various county officers as 
can be secured : 


r84i_William C Tarkington. 1888— William Blair. 

1855— Robert C. Foster. 1 892— Jonathan M. Hinkle. 

1863 — Milton McPhetridge. 1896 — Fred Matthews. 

I867 — Henry F. Perry. 1900 — Samuel Kerr. 

1870 — James F. Manley. 1904 — Samuel Kerr. 

1878— R. A. Fulk. 1908— Horace Blakely. 

1882^ — W. M. Alexander. 1912— \V. F. Kinser. 
1886 — Simeon Pedigo. 




1818 — William Lowe. 
1820 — Jacob B. Lowe. 
1838 — W. F. Browning. 
1844 — David Browning. 
1846— M. McPhetridge. 
i860 — David Carson. 
1862 — David Sheeks. 
1866 — Robert C. Foster. 
1870 — John R. East. 

1874 — William F. Browning. 

1882 — D. W. Browning. 

1886— E. Fuller. 

1890 — J. W. Craven. 

1894 — John T. Woodward. 

1898— Ed. F. Hall. 

1902 — Joseph H. Campbell. 

1906 — J. H. Campbell. 

1 9 10 — T- P- Fowler. 


1818— John W. Lee. 
1 8 19 — Jesse Wright. 
1822 — Enos Blair. 
1830 — ^James Alexander. 
1834 — Elias Blair. 
1838— John M. Sluss. 
1842 — ^John Eller. 
1846 — William F. Browning. 
1850 — ^James Kelley. 
1854— P. L. D. Mitchell. 
1858 — Andrew W. Reeves. 
1862 — Acquilla W. Rogers. 
1866 — Lawson E. McKenney. 
1870 — Richard A. Fulk. 
1872 — L. E. McKenney. 
1876— W. M. Alexander. 

1880 — Silas Grinies. 
1884 — Marion Hinkle. 
1888— Marion Hinkle. 
1888— T. J. Farr. 
1890 — T. J. Farr. 
1892 — Wilson Adams. 
1894 — Wilson Adams. 
1896 — George D. Thornton. 
1898— W. F. Kinser. 
1900 — Peter Thrasher. 
1902 — Peter Thrasher. 
1904 — B. J. Hough. 
1906— J. W. Ratliff. 
1908— J. W. Ratliff. 
1910-J. W. Ratliff. 
191 2 — Tames G. Browning. 


1818— Charles Bailey. 
1 83 1 — James J. King. 
1839 — David Browning. 
1844 — Samuel Buskirk. 
1845 — Robert Acuff. 

i860 — James M. Beatley. 
1863— P. W. Richeson. 
1867 — William H. Jones. 
1871— D. J. Hodges. 
1875 — Thomas Howard. 



1876 — I. Milt Rogers. 
1877 — Oliver McLahlan. 
1877 — L. McKunney. 
1878 — Robert Gilmore. 
1880— W. N. Hall. 
1886— Dillion Talbott. 

1890 — J. W. Jackson. 
1894— J. W. Jackson. 
1898 — Andrew J. Lampkins. 
1902 — -Thomas Golliver. 
1906— C. T. A. Burch. 
1910 — Frank W. Lamkins. 


1 8 18 — Roderick Rawlins. 
1820 — James Borland. 
1826 — William Alexander. 
1840 — Stephen P. Seall. 
1 841 — Elias Abel. 
1853— Charles Abel. 
1855 — Samuel Gentry. 
1858— P. L. D. Mitchell. 
i860 — Johnson McCoUough. 
1862— P. L. D. Mitchell. 
1866— David B. Buskirk. 
1870— J. M. Rogers. 
1874 — John A. Reeves. 
1878 — L. E. McKenney. 
1882 — Isaac Clayman. 

1884 — Isaac Clayman. 
i88^-Dr. Gaston. 
1888— Dr. Gaston. 
1890 — T. PI. Sudbury. 
1892— T. H. Sudbury. 
1894— T. H. Sudbury. 
1896 — J. S. Woodward. 
1898 — James S. Williams. 
1900 — John P. Harrell. 
1902 — Peter B. Martin. 
1904 — ^James T. Clark. 
1906— Frank Regester. 
1908 — William W. Weaver. 
19 10 — \A'. W. Weaver. 
191 2 — Joseph D. Hensley. 

1 81 8 — Purnal Chane. 
1822 — William Jackson. 
1827 — James Slocum. 
1828— Richard Hardesty. 
1832 — John M. Sluss. 
1834 — John Hardesty. 
1836 — John Deaman. 
1838 — James Slocum. 
1844 — Samuel Kirk. 
i85C^Y. B. Pullen. 
i8s2 — Tames McBride. 

1854 — John S. Moore. 

1856 — Alexander McClelland. 

1858— Elbert Johnson. 

1859 J. R. Sluss. ': 

1862— J. W. Pullen. 
1863 — John C. Hook. 
1865 — William Adams. 
1867— W. A. Legg. 
1868— W. H. Slerum. 
1870 — W. L. Adams. :. 
1872— G. P. Hines*. ' 



1876— A. J. Axtell. 
1878 — James Dodd. 
1880— C. D. McLehlen. 
1882— J. H. Gaston. 
"1890— J. D. Maxwell. 
1892 — J. M. Rogers. 
1896- — Robert C Rogers. 
1898— C. E. Harris. 

1900 — O. F. Rogers. 
1902 — Charles F. Wier. 
1904 — O. K. Harris. 
1906 — O. K. Harris. 
1908 — R. C. Rogers. 
19 10 — J. Kentling. 
191 2 — Chas. E. Harris. 


1818 — Jonathan Nichols. 

T 820— William D. McCulloch. 

1826 — James Borland. 

* * * * ^ 

1846 — Henry Farmer. 
1 849 — James Woodlxirn. 
1852 — J. W. Spencer. 
1854 — John J. Poynter. 
1855 — J- ^^^- Silencer. 
1859 — I. S. Buskirk. 
1863 — J. W. Spencer. 
1864— J. W. Alexander. 
1867— E. P. Cole. 
1870 — A. C. Spencer. 
1872 — Henry Henley. 

1876— M. H. Buskirk. 
1878— G. W. Varroy. 
1880— M. H. Buskirk. 
1882— M. Buskirk. 
1890 — George B. Rader. 
1892 — E. E. Buskirk. 
1896 — Charles Bowers. 
1898— Frank P. Wood. 
1900 — Lewis Deckard. 
1902 — Charles M. Bowers. 
1904 — E. Buskirk. 
1906 — Charles Bowers. 
191 o — Charles M. Bowers. 
191 2— C. R. Wittaker. 


1818— William Lowe. 
18 It) — William Jackson. 
1820 — J. Greg(M-y. 
1 820 — William Newcomh. 
182T — Samuel lr\-in. 

1823 — Samuel W. Moore. 
1824 — William Lowe. 
1829— P. M. Doty. 
1830— F. T. Butler. 
1 83 1— Benjamin Rogers. 


1 8,cj— William 1). McCuUoch. 1838— Stephen P. Sealls. 

1833 — Aquilla Rogers. 1840 — Henry Filer.- 



1840 — William Edmundson. 
1 841 — Aquilla Rogers. 
1847 — J- B. Lowe. 
1847— E. T. Butler. 

1852-33 — The jurisdiction of probate 
matters was transfered to the court of 
common pleas, and the probate judge 
was aboli.shed. 


1 81 8— Thomas H. Blake. 

1 8 19 — Gen. Washington Johnson. 

1819 — Jonathan Doty. 

1822— \V. ^^'. Wick. 

1824 — John E. Ross. 

1825— B. F. Morris. 

1830 — John Law. 

1830 — Gen. Washington Johnson. 

1832 — Amory Kenney. 
1837 — Elisha AT. Huntington. 
1839— David AIcDonald. 
1852 — James Hughes. 
185^-A. B. Carlton. 
1856 — James M. Hanna. 
1858 — Solomon Claypool. 
1865— D. R. Eckles. 

Since the last date the courts have been presided over by judges includ- 
ing Hons. Martin, Robert W. Myers, of Bloomington, and James B. Wilson, 
of Bloomington. Judge Myers was a member of Congress from this dis- 
trict, and is now engaged in legal practice at Bloomington. 


1818 — Joseph Berry. 
1818— Lewis Noel. 
1 82 1 — John Sedwick. 
1823— William Matlock. 
1825— Michael Buskirk. 
182 s — William Edmundson. 

1832 — Abram Buskirk. 
1832 — Stephen Sealls. 
1839 — Joseph Reeves. 
1839 — John M. Berry. 
1846 — Conrad Koons. 


1818 — George C. Sullivan. 
1818 — John Law. 
1819 — Addison C. Smith. 
1820 — ^John F. Ross. 
1825— W. W. Wick. 
1825 — Calvin Fletcher. 
1826 — John Kingsbury. 

1827 — James Whitcomb. 
1829 — E. M. Huntington. 
1832 — John P. Dowden. 
1833 — Paris C. Dunning. 

1833 Mcjunkin. 

1835 — David McDonald. 
1838— D. R. Eckles. 


1839 — John S. Watts. 1854 — A. B. Carlton. 

1843— W. G. Quick. 1855— Theodore Reed. 

1844— C. P. Hester. 1855— Francis L. Neff. 

1849 — Jolm S. Watts. 1857 — Martin A. Osborn. 

1850 — James S. Hester. 1858^ — Issac N. Pierce. 

1 85 1— Samuel H. Buskirk. 1 861— Willis G. Neff. 

1852— William M. Franklin. 1865— M. A. Malott. 

1853— William F. McLean. 186^-Jacob A. Broadwell. 

1853— A. B. Carlton. 1868 — John C. Robinson. 
1854 — G. A. Buskirk. 


Milton McPhetridge was school commissioner during the thirties and 
forties, and the examiners were Robert A. Milligan, James Woodburn and 
John J. Poynter, in 1853: James Woodburn, Ranson W. Akin, and Benjamin 
Wolfe, 1855; James Woodburn, M. C. Campbell and Theophilus A. Wylie, 
1856; James Woodburn, T. A. Wylie and Elisha Ballentine, 1857; E. P. 
Cole, D. J. Shaw and W. C. Foster, 1859; E. P. Cole. 1859-63; D. E. Hunter, 
1863; James H. Rogers. 1865; T. M. Hopkins, 1867; Edward Wright, 1869; 
James H. Rogers, 1871 ; M. M. Campbell. 1872; G. W. Rumage, 1877; John 
H. McGee, 1879; Frank Axtell, 1884; John Hazel. 1885; John H. Cravens, 
1887; A. K. Dowden, 1891 : Frank T. Tourner. 1893; Thomas J. King, 1897; 
A. C. Fan-. i8q8: W. V. Payne. 1899: B. O. Buzzaird, 1903: W. H. Jones, 


As near as can be learned from the records the following served as 
justices of the peace in Monroe county, down to 1836: 

1 818 — James Bigger, William Matlock, William Edmundson, John 
Barnes, William Chambers. Jonathan Nichols, James Wright, John Matlock. 

1819 — William Hardin, James Borland. 

1820 — Joseph Baugh and Joshua H. Ludes. 

1 82 1 — Daniel Hawkins, Fllery Woodward and Samuel Dodd. 

1823 — John Swift, James Mitchell. Isaac Pauley. Samuel Hartsock, 
David Kellough. Elisha Pollard. James Crane. Joseph Reeves. 

1824 — William Hardin. 

1825 — Michael Buskirk. John Bowland. Mr. Banner. Mr. Brunnett, 
William Jones. Joseph Baugh, Acquilla Rogers. 


1826 — Elzy Woodward. 

1827 — James Mitchell, David Kellough, Elisha Pollard, Benjamin Chan- 
dler, Jacob Mosser. David Borrow, James Wright. 

1828 — William Hite, Alexander Buchanan. 

1829 — James Crane, Joseph Reeves, G. H. Johnson, Isaac Buskirk. Isaac 
Gillaspi, David Byers. 

1830 — George Parks, Henry Burkett, Acquilla Rogers. 

183 1 — W. B. Mars, James Kippe, Jesse Renow. 

1832 — John W. Lee, James Snodgrass, Jonathan Rogers. 

1833 — David Kellough. David Paddock, David Barrow, James Brum- 
mett, John Davis, Benjamin Chandler. Samuel Mart^ck, John C. Marshall, 
Jacob Hudsonkiller, Ezekiel Hendrickson. 

1834 — Henry Berkley, D. G. Weddell. Alexander Buchanan, James 
Crane, G. H. Johnson, Joseph Baugh. 

1835— Alexander Johnson, Hugh McClung, Isaac Buskirk, Robert Hicks, 
John McPhetridge. Emsley Wood, Joseph Mitchell. 

183^-F. T. Butler. Andrew Wampler, John N. Berry, William Hite, 
Elmon Walker, \\'illiam S. Wright. David Byers, Enos Blair. 


1818 — Bartlett Woodward, Michael Buskirk. James Parks. 

1 81 9 — Elijah Morgan, vice Parks. 

1820 — William Lowe, vice Buskirk. 

1821 — Henry Batterton, Micliael Buskirk. 

1822 — Elijah Morgan. 

1823 — Joshua A. Lucas. 

1824 — Henry Batterton. vice Lucas. In September. 1824, the justices 
of the peace were em]:)Owered by law to transact the business previously done 
by the county commissioners. In 183 1 the law was changed and three county 
commissioners were in charge of the affairs of this county. 

1831 — Joseph Reeves, Samuel Patten, \^'illiam Jackson. 

1832 — Isaac W. Young, vice Jackson. 

1833 — Elijah Morgan, vice Patten. In 1834 county business again 
passed to the board of justices and so continued until 1839. since which time 
three county commissioners have without interruption done the business. 

In 1838 and 1839 as high as nineteen justices assembled to do the work 
which has since been transacted by three men. Gideon \\^alker, 1830, for one 
year; George Finley, 1839. for two years; Benjamin Rogers, 1839, for three 


years; Isaac Buskirk, 1840; James Finley, 1841 ; Benjamin Rogers, 1842; 
Benjamin Neeld, 1843; Isaac Buskirk, 1844; George Finley, 1845; Benja- 
min Neeld, 1846; David Barrow, 1847; George Finley, 1848; John Graham, 
1849; I- S. Buskirk, 1850; Joseph S. Walker, 1851; Henry Filer, 1852; 
David Barrow, 1853; Benjamin Rogers. 1854; Henry Eller, 1855, David 
Barrow, 1856; James Carmichael, 1857; Rueben Ward, 1858; Thomas Y. 
Rader, 1859; James Carmichael, i860; James Small, 1861 ; David Barrow, 
1862; Thomas Oliphant, 1863; George Eller, 1864; David Barrow, 1865; 
Clelland F. Doods, i860; James Small, 1867; T. Y. Rader 1868; Samuel H. 
Phillips, 1869; George Eller, 1870; John Hupp, 1871 ; F. M. Oliphant, 1872; 
John Waldron, 1872; ^J/. E. Wood, 1874; R. M. Wylie, 1875; George Eller, 
1876; William Peterson, 1877; J. D. Handy, 1878; John Huntington, 1879; 
W. S. Walker, 1880; J. D. Handy, 1881 ; William B. Baker, 1882; B. P. 
Burton, 1883; Gilmore and McCulla, 1886; Patterson and Clay; Gilmore and 
Walker; Welch, Huntington and Sherlock, 1888; George W. Fletcher, James 
M. Miller, 1896; James F. Eller, John Sure, 1898; James Davis, George East, 
1900; James W. Davis, J. W. Miller, 1902; Jacob Miller, Samuel Bennett, 
1904; B. F. Cooter, O. W. Butcher, 1906; O. L. Fletcher, L. Dunlap, 1908; 
John C. Clay, L. Dunlap, 1910; W. S. Walker, S. Nisely, 1912. 


At the local option election held in Monroe county. May 25, 1909, the 
number of votes for local option cast in the county was 2,619 and those cast 
against the proposition was 2,200, giving a majority for local option of 419. 



While the stone industry is, perhaps, of more financial importance than 
that of agriculture in Monroe county, yet as the early and manv of the later 
years were blessed with the products of the soil in greater or less abundance, 
this branch of industry should find a place in the annals of the county. 
As will be observed later on in this chapter, the pioneers were enthusiastic 
in the organization and maintainance of agricultural societies and county fair 

In 1836. from the county auditor's reports it is gleaned that the county 
then had 1,252 voters who paid poll tax ; it had 72.480 acres of cultivated land, 
valued at $699,383. 

The following statistical table will be admissible in this connection : 

Townships. Polls. 

Richland 181 

Jackson 55 

Perry 128 

Bean Blossom 123 

Clear Creek 76 

Indian Creek 175 

Salt Creek 85 

Washington 60 

Benton 66 

Bloomington . 303 

1.252 72,480 $ 699.383 

In 1909 the state reports gave Monroe county the following array of 
agricultural statistics, which bespeak much for this branch of industry. The 
corn crop was 36,860 acres, producing in round numbers one million bushels, 
or an average of about twenty-five bushels per acre : its value was placed at 

(17) _ : 
























The wheat crop was placed at 16,444 acres, yielding 188,220 bushels, 
the value of which was one dollar per bushel. 

The oat crop was listed at 7,923 acres, with a total number of bushels 
of 156,000, valued at $62,540. 

The rye crop was only 72 acres, with a total of 826 bushels. 

The barley crop was in 1909 one acre, producing 25 bushels, valued at 

The buckwheat cro]) amounted to 25 acres, with a yield of 2^ bushels, 
valued at $19. 

The Irish potato crop was 348 acres, yielding 27,942 bushels, valued 
at $14,000 

The onion crop was five acres, yielding 616 bushels, valued at $370. 

The tobacco cro]) was confined to three acres, vielding 375 pounds, valued 
at $2(). 

The tomato crop was thirteen acres, yielding 31 tons, valued at $248. 

Timothy hay, 11,000 tons; alfalfa, 72 tons; clover, 2,491 tons. 

The number of horses on hand December 31. 1909, was placed at 3,998. 

The number of mules and asses was 651 , valued at $73,000. 

The inimber of gallons of milk ])roduccd was 2,228,000: butter, in pounds 
353.40] . 

The beef and stock cattle sold was 2,514, valued at $73,000. 

The number of hogs over three months old was 5,375 ; died of disease, 

The sheep numbered 5.143: sold. 3,059: wool, 24,525 pounds, valued 
at $4,764. 

The number of hens and other fowls sold was 3,455 dozen; the average 
number of laying hens was 4,524: dozens of eggs produced, 405,294. 


May, 1835, seems to have been the date of the first attempt to form an 
agricultural society in Monroe county. By petition the county board of com- 
missoners ordered that three hundred copies of a notice be published of a 
meeting to be held at the old court house on the last Saturday in May, in pur- 
suance of an act of the state Legislature, entitled "An Act for the Encourage- 
ment of Agriculture," approved February 7, 1835. This call was for the pur- 
pose of organizing an agricultural society. This meeting was held and there 
was an excellent attendance, the result being the formation of a society, as 
will be observed bv the following certificate: "We. Michael Buskirk, chair- 


man, and Craven P. Hester, secretary, of the Agricultural Society of Monroe 
County aforesaid, certify that we were elected according to law for the offices 
above mentioned, and that said society has elected its officers and organized 
itself agreeably to the act of the Legislature entitled 'An Act for the En- 
couragement of Agriculture.' appro\ed h'el:)ruar\- 7, 1835. Done on the last 
Saturday of May, 1835. *>iven under our hands June 4, 1835. 

"Michael Buskirk, 
"C. P. Hester." 

There appears no record, ur even a trace uf an intimation, that any- 
thing further was done toward carrying out the original plans. 

But about 1850 a society was formed here and one or possibly more an- 
nual fairs were held, but no positive record appears of even these exhibits of 
agriailtural products in the county. In 1855 the society was revived and it 
is known that Austin Seward was its first president and Lewis Bollman its 
secretary. The directors of this society were Henry Eller, Asher Labertew. 
Austin Seward. W. S. Stormont, Joshua Shreve, Luke Sanders, Joseph 
Bunger, James Givens, Edward Blakely, Richard Moore. Willis Spencer. 
Monroe Houston. Thomas Payne and Lewis Bollman. 

The first fair of this society was held at Bloomington. Wednesday and 
Thursdav. Octol:)er 10 and 11. 1855. There were jiremiums offered on one 
hundred and sixty-nine articles, covering all farm i)roducts. household ar- 
ticles, implements of agriculture, live stock, fruits, vegetables and garden 
products. No premiums ran higher than three dollars and none less than 
fifty cents. The terms of admission were, per day, twenty cents ; each horse 
and buggv. twentv cents ; single horse, ten cents ; children under ten years of 
age. free. 

The fair held in 1856 had receipts amounting to $333.20 and the deficit 
at the close of the fair was recorded as $61.55. 

equestrian fairs. 

In 1857 ^ popular organization known as the Union Equestrian Society 
was established. It was a district society, and was very well received and at- 
tended for many years. It was alternately held at Gosport, Bloomington 
and Bedford. A Miss Jackson won the first prizes for a number of years, 
despite all opposers. The 1858 program read as follows: 

"Open to- the World — Second annual fair of the Union Equestrian 
Society, composed of Lawrence. Owen and Monroe counties, to be held at 


the District Fair Grounds, near Gosport, Indiana, on Thursday and Friday, 
the 2 1 St and 22d of October, next, 1858. The exhibition grounds, contain- 
ing thirteen acres, are the most beautiful in the state, well fenced in, with 
two wells of water within the inclosure, and a splendid track for gaited 
horses — three times around for one mile. Two hujidred and sixty-five 
dollars in cash premiums! So bring on all your tine saddle horses, harness 
and match horses. The premiums are worth competing for. A magnificent 
premium will be awarded to the best and second best female equestrian. Also 
to the best male equestrian. Young ladies and gentlemen from every sec- 
tion are invited to be present and make an exhibition of their proficiency in 
the art of horse management and equestrian merit. Certainly no art is 
more desii"able than that of complete horsemanship, and every young lady 
and gentleman in our proud Hoosier state can lay some just claim to profi- 
ciency in the art. Come on, then; if you cannot make the display that 5'our 
friends can, come and do your best, which is laudable."' 

In these latter days of fast spinning automobiles and motorcycles, the 
art of horse-back riding has been cast aside by both men and women except 
in the larger cities, where it is still considered a great accomplishment and 
excellent as a health giver to both sexes. 

These earlier fairs were all held just to the east of Bloomington on 
land owned at one time by Mr. Dunn, where a small yard was leased and 
enclosed, but it was too small to admit of racing. Here annual fairs were 
held until the opening of the Civil war, when all such matters were aban- 
doned, men and women being all too busy in aiding the general government 
in putting down the unholy Rebellion. In 1868, however, these county 
fairs were resumed, and continued to be held, with few exceptions, each 
year until in the eighties, when they went down again. The later fairs 
were held on new grounds, west of Bloomington. 

For various reasons, among which is the lack of interest, generally, 
and more especially on account of the growing interest and magnitude of the 
state fair, the county fair in more than sixty per cent, of the counties in 
Indiana has ceased to exist, so far as practical utility and annual exhibitions 
of stock, grain, fruits, grasses and the arts and domestic affairs is concerned. 
It has been a number of years since a county fair in Monroe county has been 
in the minds of the people, who really should have such things at heart. 



The pioneers were not so much absorbed in land entries and clearing 
up farms that they neglected the education of their children, for it is found 
that in the winter of 1 818-19, the same season that the town began its 
existence, school was taught in the log court house. The first teacher was 
probably Addison Smith. The next school was taught in a building erected 
in the summer of 1819, at a point where later stood the old seminary. Two 
years later another log school house had to be built in order to accommo- 
date the rapidly growing village, it being located in the eastern portion of the 
town. In 1822, or possibly 1823. the first brick building was erected for 
school purposes, which, with the two log cabin buildings and other schools 
taught at pri\ate homes, supplied the place with suitable schools for a num- 
ber of years. In the thirties, forties and fifties other houses were provided 
for schools, mostly, however, for the younger scholars. These schools were 
all of the old style subscription order, that being before there was a free 
school system in Indiana worthy of mention. Churches were frequently 
used for school purposes, and the second stories of business blocks on the 
Square w'ere rented for a series of vears Iw educators, who. in time, trans- 
formed them into seats of learning. These schools were largely ior the 
younger pupils, too young to enter the seminary or uni\ersity. Prof. D. E. 
Hunter was prominent as a teacher in the fifties and on into the sixties. The 
teachers of the schools were mostly young ladies, who were scattered 
throughout the town in various improvised school houses. Xo grading was 
attempted : scholars, large and small, attended the school nearest to their 
residence, or where the "'school-mam"' or "master" was best liked by the 
parents. Manv of these schools were of the highest excellence, l>eing taught 
by graduates of the seminary or some unixersity from abroad. Not until 
1863 — middle of the Ci\il war period — was there any attemj)! at grading 
the schools here in Bloomington. Profess(^r Hunter being the first to lead 
off in this important feature of education. A \mh\k meeting was held in 
July. 1863. a large number being present. Professor Hunter explained the 
character of a high school. Other meetings were held and the first term of a 


graded school in the countv was opened early in September, with Professor 
Hunter as principal : assistants in the old Baptist church were Miss Mattie 
Cherry. Miss Lizzie Anderson and Miss Laura Verbryke; assistants in the 
new building, Miss M. McCalla ; assistant in the Second Presbyterian church, 
Miss Mary Anderson, Professor .Hunter held sway in the "new building," 
which was none other than the old tannery, then standing on the site of 
what was later the high school building. Milton Hite was trustee and an- 
nounced that the school system was "free to all in the incorporation.'" It 
was necessary to increase the school fund by several hundred dollars, which 
amount was secured by subscription among the citizens. 

Soon after the school started, another primary department was estab- 
lished with Mrs. S. S. Getzendanner as teacher. The old Center school 
house, as it was so long styled, was used, also a frame building on Seventh 
street, between Lincoln and Grant streets. The old tannery building was 
thoroughly titted up and four departments were instituted in 1864. This 
seems to have been about the state of affairs until the high school building 
was begun in 1871 and completed in 1875. costing fifty thousand dollars. 
Here should be mentioned such principals and superintendents as Profs. D. 
E. Hunter, E. P. Cole, G. W. Lee, James M. Wilson, W. R. Houghton and 
Miss M. H. McCalla. 


In Perry township, where the schools were reported forty years ago as 
being superior to any other in the country districts of Monroe county, 
schools were commenced in the twentie.s — one in the neighborhood of the 
Pauleys and one in the southwestern corner of the township. By 1854 not 
less than five houses were standing in which school was taught, all being 
log structures. In e\'ery advancement. Perry was first to adopt advanced 
methods, and in 1883 there were eight school houses, and more of them 
brick than in any other section of the county. The six brick buildings in 1883 
in one township in this county w as indeed a monument to the good sense of 
Perry's people in educational matters. These buildings were mostly twenty- 
four by thirty feet in size. 

In Bean Blossom township the first school was taught in the Putnam 
neighborhood, about 1828, by a Mr. Taylor. The house was a log cabin, 
vacated by some pioneer settler. A school was, about that date, started in 
the Buskirk vicinity. In 1836 there were four schools established — one east 
of Mt. Tabor, one west of that place, one a mile and a half south of Stines- 


ville, and the fourth three miles west of the last named \illagc. In 1846 
there were six schools in the township. Three famous teachers during the 
decade of the thirties were Eusel>ius, Euraneus and Ambrose Hinkle, broth- 
ers, who were sons of wealthy slave-holders of 'i'ennessee. All were fine 
young men. The elder of these was a Lutheran minister and used to preach 
the Word of Life to German members of his cinn-ch, who could not well 
understand English. Clinton C. Owens was another well educated and 
polished teacher of pronounced success. In 1880 this townshi]) had nine 
good frame school houses, all about twenty b\ twent\"-f()ur feet. 

In Richland township the first school was taught during the winter of 
1822-23, in a log cabin which stood about where later was Ijuilt the residence 
of William Draper. The building was of round logs and a huge fireplace 
graced its enclosure. It took in logs six feet long and as big as could well 
be rolled into place. A log of the walls was cut out on the south side, over 
which greased paper was placed instead of window glass, which was then 
but little in use in this part of the West. The first teacher, William Raw- 
lins, was also the county's first treasurer. The term of school was three 
months. Manv prominent men there learned the rudiments of their later 
higher education. The building referred to was used about five years. Porter 
Edmundson built at his (^wn expense the next building and in it he taught 
school. Benjamin Reeves taught in the southern portion of the township 
in 1823-24. In 1856 the township had eight school buildings, some being 
good frame structures. In 1880 the reports show that the township had five 
frame and two good brick buildings. In Ellettsville. prior to 1855, variovis 
buildings were used for school purposes, and at that time a new building of 
frame, with two rooms, was erected, and used till the brick building was 
built at a cost of seven thousand dollars. It was built by the township a'nd 
was occupied by five good instructors. 

In Van Buren township the first school was taught about 1824. at what 
afterwards Ix^came known as Harmony, Jonathan Nichols I)eing the first 
teacher. The building was a vacated log cabin of a pioneer, who had moved 
away from the county. Probably the next schools were held at the \illage 
of Harmony, under the supervision of the "Blue Springs Community" (see 
account of this community elsewhere). In 1828 a school was started in the 
southeast part of the township, and one al)out 1830 in the north ])arl. In 
1847 there were eight schools in this township. With the enacting of the 
1853 school laws, new buildings went up here and there in this township, 
and delighted were both pupils and patrons, and teachers as well. In 1880 


81 the reijorts show the township to have had eight good frame school 
houses, all twenty-two by twenty-eight feet in size. 

In Indian Creek township it is believed the first school was taught near 
the cabin home of Elmore Walker, about 1824. and it is certain that another 
was taught in the Burch neighborhood and one in the Dick neighborhood 
about that date. Two of these schools were held in vacated log cabins. 
Winter schools were the rule then. The Burches were among the earliest 
teachers. In 1846 the township had five school houses and ten years later 
eight were found, all prosperous for the day in which they existed. In 
1880-81 the township had nine excellent frame school houses and nine 
school districts. From that date on the schools have kept pace with the 
advancement in state educational and public school afifairs. 

In Clear Creek township the first school was probably taught in 1822 
near the old Woodward homestead, a short distance south of present Smith- 
ville. It was held in a vacated log cabin. Another early school was near 
Fairfax, and still another in the Rogers settlement. The Chambers were the 
founders of a school about 1830. In 1840 the old log school house at Har- 
rodsburg was erected and used for both school and church purposes. A 
school was taught at F'airfax in 1838. The Harrodsburg building was 
burned in 1851, when a small frame store building took its place. Dr. 
James Beatley, who was a l>etter teacher than physician, was among the 
pioneer instructors. A l^etter, larger two-stor}" frame building was pro- 
vided at Harrodsburg, at a cost of one thousand dollars, in Civil war days. 
In 1881 the township had nine frame school houses, twent)- bv twenty-six 
feet in size, and there were nine districts. 

In Washington township, during the thirties, in the Colier and Bales 
neighborhoods, there were probably the first schools of the township. These 
schools were taught in the rudest of rude school buildings — simply pole 
cabins, and in which the children of two. or sometimes three families as- 
sembled for instruction. Then it was that children in this part of the coun- 
try went to school w^inter and summer barefooted. The child would get 
so used to going without foot protection that the foot became hard and 
calloused. Sometimes, on severe winter mornings the child might heat a sea- 
soned hickory board by the fire at home and fasten it to his foot, then start 
on the run for the school house. These incidents actually happened in sev- 
eral neighborhoods in Washington township in the pioneer days. By 1880 
the township had become fully equipped with good school houses, of which 
the reports say there were eight, all frame structures. Today one visiting 


this section of the county would scarce beheve that such hardships as have 
been recited could ever have transpired in the township. 

In Benton township the first school was taught near the residence of 
Hugh McClung about 1838. The next was in the southern part of the 
township, and the third near what is now the village of Unionville. In the 
first school named were the children of early settlers — the Coxes, Richard- 
sons, Robinsons, Youngs, Mosiers, McClungs. Alexanders and others. By 
1856 the township had been provided with five fairly constructed school 
buildings. In 1881 there were eight good frame buildings and an average 
attendance of about thirty-six in each district. Since then the school system 
here, in common with all other Monroe townships, has materially improved. 

In Polk township the first school was taught in the vicinity of the 
Todds, early in the forties ; the name of the teacher has long since passed 
from the memory of those now living there. The house was of unhewed 
logs, and had been built by some squatter who had sickened of the country 
and left for greener pastures — to do better, or perchance worse! In 1856 
the township had only four school buildings. Mr. Todd donated the land on 
section 26 for a school house, and William Hunter the land for a school on 
section 31, range 2 east; the latter included the fine spring of water near by. 
Early in the fifties the Methodist church, called Chapel Hill, was organized 
in this neighborhood. In 1880 the township had seven frame and two poor 
log school houses, with an average attendance of thirty-seven pupils. 

In Marion township schools were not established until late in the forties, 
and even then thev were few and poorly conducted anil attended. The 
first houses were of logs, rudely built, and were indeed uninviting places 
until cold weather came on. when the huge fireplaces were filled with roaring 
logs of hipkory and birch, casting a deep, dark red glow on the dingy walls. 
Early in the fifties a good school was opened in the Hendrickson neighbor- 
hood, and for a time was the onl}- really good common school conducted in 
the township. Later, one equally as good was opened in the northern part 
of the township, in the Stepp neighborhood. In 1879 there were five fairly 
good schools within this township. The early residents in the southern por- 
tion were compelled to attend school at Unionville, in order to get the relig- 
ious instruction desired by the parents. 


This institution was organized as soon as the county itself was, though 
no building was erected until 1835. The funds from fines, penalties, etc.. 


had continued to accumulate until at the time of the erection of the house 
ihey amounted to about two thousand dollars. The building was commenced 
in 1832 or 1833, and finished in 1835. Before that, however, aside from 
the Indiana College (now the University), Professor Pering had estab- 
lished in Bloomington a female institute, which grew into a considerable 
school. It will be remembered that at that date no females were admitted 
into the'i Indiana University (College), hence the demand upon the part of 
women for a schooling place for their sex. 

It was this sentiment that caused the Legislature to establish the Mon- 
roe County Female Seminary, with the following persons as incorporators; 
John Borland, John Hight, William Alexander, James D. Robertson, Fred- 
erick T. Butler, Austin Seward. Richard Hardesty, Fllis Stone and John 
Graham. The building erected in 1835 was a brick structure thirty by fifty 
feet, two stories high, containing two large halls, and four smaller rooms. 
The trustees ordered that all doors and windows be thrown open at inter- 
mission for proper ventilation. Single desks were ordered to take the place 
of the long benches. The first principal was Prof. Cornelius Pering, A. M., 
a professional teacher direct from London, England. He had been well 
educated at the Royal Academy of London, and was thoroughly qualified 
for the duties he was called to perform here in Bloomington. From the 
summer of 1835 to 1842 nearly four hundred young ladies finished this 
seminarv course. In all, eight hundred girls and misses attended this in- 
stitution. The average attendance each term was about sixty. 

Following Professor Pering came, in 1849, Mrs. E. J. McFerson. under 
whom the school was greatly improved in many ways peculiar to a woman's 
instruction of ladies. The school was the pride of the town and the faithful 
instructor was fairly .idolized by all in the community. In 1857 Mrs. Mc- 
Ferson was succeeded by Prof. E. P. Cole, who had charge until 1863. when 
the high school system obtained for the first time in the history of this county. 
A few years more and the old seminary building was converted into a dwell- 
ing house and the history of the institution was ready to be written. 


The law of 1852-53 provided for the sale of county seminaries and the 
transfer of the proceeds to the common school fund. The Methodists of 
Bloomington had talked some time of founding an academy or seminary 
of their denomniation at Bloomington, and purchased the old seminary at 


auction, but before the deed was signed it was learned that the title possibly 
might be defective, hence the sale fell through, but the church went ahead 
and organized the Bloomington Female College, using their church building 
for the purpose. Rev. T. H. Sinex was the first president, and was suc- 
ceeded in 1856 by Rev. M. M. Tooks. A large college boarding hall was 
kept on Sixth street between Walnut and \\'ashington. In 1858 Rev. A. D. 
Lynch succeeded Rev. Tooks as president of the college. He remained 
until the breaking out of the Civil war, when the institution closed forever. 


Strange as it seems to us today, the truth is that the people of Indiana, 
generally, including the citizens of Monroe county, did not favor the adop- 
tion of the new cherished free school s\steni, as is seen by the following re- 
turns of the election held over that issue in 1849 • 

» For Free Against Free 

Townships. Schools. Schools. 

Bean Blossom 59 112 

Benton 44 41 

Bloomington 128 307 

Clear Creek 76 85 

Indian Creek 40 loi 

Marion 16 35 

Richland 59 128 

Perry 127 20 

Salt Creek 39 60 

Van Buren ~ 1 43 113 

W^ashingron 36 38 

(y6~ 1 .040 

Majority against iy2> 

Not until the close of the Civil war did educational interests make any 
marked headway under the new school laws of the state. But when once 
understood and tested out, the system of free schools was greatly appre- 
ciated, notwithstanding there had been many "Doubting Thomases" in the 
county, as has been indicated by the above \ote b)- townships. 


SCHOOLS OF 1 91 3. 

According to a digest from the annual report of the county school su- 
perintendent, the following showing was made at the end of the school year 
in 1913: 

Pupils of 
Elementary Teachers 
and High below High 
Corporation. School. School. Buildings. 

Bean Blossom 400 15 10 

Benton 207 9 9 

Bloomington 370 10 , 9 

Clear Creek 417 12 8 

Indian Creek 212 9 9 

Marion 74 5.5 

Perry 385 10 8 

Polk 265 9 9 

Richland 187 8 8 

Salt Creek 229 8 8 

Van Buren 322 10 9 

Washington 173 9 9 

Total 3-241 114 loi 

Ellettsville (town) 177 5 2 

Bloomington (city) 2,226 42 7 

Grand total 5.664 161 no 

Perhaps no more fitting estimate of the Bloomington schools of this 
date can l)e had than to quote the language of the Commercial Club in its 
beautiful, well compiled souvenir issued in 1912, which reads as follows: 

The city of Bloomington believes in supporting well its public school 
system. The history of the school from the time of its organization up to 
the present reveals this fact. Aside from supplying the schools with a 
maximum support from taxation, the community has on various occasions 
made individual donations for special purposes, such as decorating play- 
grounds and e(|uipping the same, also furnishing pictures. In addition to all 


this the patrons by their visits and encouragement ha\e evidenced their 
interest and their faith in the schools. 

It is this interest and this faith that has helped to build up and maintain 
the present educational standards here that demand well qualified school 
officials and teachers. The high school qualifications of school board mem- 
bers, and of teachers throughout the history of the schools, has been no acci- 
dent. At present seventy per cent, of the teaching corps throughout the 
whole system are graduates of universities, colleges or normal schools. The 
high school faculty of sixteen members is composed entirely of graduates. 
A minimum requirement for appointment in the grades is successful ex- 
perience and two years' academic w ork in addition to gratluation from high 

Another factor that has figured in the maintenance of a good school 
spirit and standard in Bloomington is the presence of the State University, 
where all connected with the public schools have access to the university 
library and can frequently arrange to attend lectures. There has been at 
work, too, for many years, a spirit of co-operation between the department 
of education in the university and the public schools of the city, which has 
resulted in mutual benefit. In connection with the university a plan has 
been worked out wherebv pupils who need special attention more than the 
teacher of the room is al^le to give, can receive outside individual help, free 
of charge. Each summer, too. from seventy-five to one hundred of the city's 
two thousand pupils are in school from six to eight weeks, strengthening 
themselves in weak places, or getting assistance in making up a part or all of 
a grade. In this way Blooinington has been able to do a great deal toward 
adapting its schools to the special needs and opportunities connected with 
this particular community. This adaptation is further seen in the provision for 
promotion for subjects instead of by grades in the eighth year, by the intro- 
duction of commercial subjects in the high school, of manual training in 
grades, and of Latin, with special groups, in the grades. 

In t|ie matter of supervision of work, things are so organized that the 
principals of the buildings give from one-fourth to one-half of their time 
in the general oversight of the work. Drawing, music and manual training 
are in charge of special supervisors. 

The buildings, though not all of recent construction, are supplied with 
modern heating plants and are in a satisfactory sanitary condition. With 
only one exception, each building is on a lot large enough to afford ample 
play-ground, the grounds ranging from a quarter of a block to ten acres in 


extent. These grounds are being rapidly equipped with play ground appara- 
tus. Supplementary material in way of readers, text-books, reference books, 
maps, globes, etc., have been generously supplied. 

The fine spirit of support that the community is giving its school sys- 
tem makes the new undertaking of new educational problems promising. 
More than that, it provides teachers capable of and willing to cope with new 
conditions and new problems. It accounts also for the excellent spirit of 
the pupils, a spirit of co-operation and of work. Bloomington feels, there- 
fore, that she has in her schools an inducement to offer to those that are con- 
sidering a change of location. 


CHAPTER IX. • • • ! 


Bloomington, Alonroe count}-, is the seat of the Indiana State Univer- 
sity. Much has been written concerning this great educational institution 
which has sent out and is from year to year continuing to send forth to the 
world many men who ha\e and will in the future become potent factors for 
great good to the world at large, perforce of the training they have received 
at this place. For the purpose of making a proper record of the university 
in the annals of the county in which it is situated, the following is deemed 

In 1838 an act was passed by the Legislature to establish a university 
in the state and John Law. of Knox county. Robert Dale Owen, of Posey 
county, Richard W. Thompson, of Lawrence county, Samuel R. Hosovuer, 
of Wayne county, P. C. Dunning, James Blair, Joshua O. Howe, Chesley D. 
Baile}-. A\'illiam Turner and Lero}- Mayfield, of Monroe county, were ap- 
pointed trustees to make the change from the Indiana College to the Indiana 
University. The history of the old seminary and college that preceded it 
will be found later on in this chapter. 

The above board of trustees met May 24, 1838. elected Paris C. Dun- 
ning president of the board, and James D. Maxwell, secretary, and made 
such changes as they deemed necessary. A new building was erected of 
brick and the course of study was widened. Andrew Wylie. D. D.. served 
as president until his death in 1851. when for two years Theophilus A. 
Wylie, Daniel Reed and Alfred Ryors acted as such. In 1853 William M. 
Daily was appointed president, serving until 1858, when serious trouble 
arose and he resigned. On All Fool's day^ 1854, the college Imilding was 
destroyed by fire, which loss embarrassed the institution very materially, as 
not only were the recitation rooms gone, but a ^'aluable library of rare works 
was burned. It is supposed this fire was caused by an incendiary. The 
citizens at once went to work to funds for a new buildidig. They re- 
ceived a meager sum from the state, and in 1859 completed the building that 
was still standing in 1883, and used by the university of that date. It stood 
on the old campus south of town. 


After the resignation of President Daily, in 1858, T. A. Wylie acted 
as such for a year, and John H. Lathrop for a year, or until i860, when 
Cyrus Nutt was appointed, the latter serving from i860 to 1875. ^^ the 
year last named Lemuel Moss, D. D., LL. D., was chosen president, in which 
capacity he served until 1884 and was succeeded by Dr. David Starr Jordan. 
, The fine brick building, erected on the old campus late in the seventies 
for the use of the scientific department, was destroyed by lightning in July, 
1883, incurring a loss of about three hundred thousand dollars. The library, 
of twelve thousand volumes, the Owen collection of fossils, etc., and other 
valuable articles were also destroyed. In 1883 the trustees of the university 
purchased a tract of twenty acres in Dunn's woods, fronting Fifth street, 
and made preparations to erect thereon two brick buildings, one for the main 
university edifice and another for the scientific department. This twenty- 
acre tract cost six thousand dollars. This appears to have been the brief his- 
tory up to the autumn of 1883. 

From year books, historical accounts, and various information pub- 
lished by authority of the state, and from personal interviews with those in 
authority at the university in the summer of 1913, the following is the con- 
densed history of this institution, of which Bloomington, Monroe county 
and all the great commonwealth of Indiana take a just pride : 


The legislation which led to the founding of Indiana University begins 
M'ith t\\ o acts of Congress setting aside portions of the public domain, within 
the limits of the present state of Indiana, for the endowment of an institution 
of higher learning. The first of these is an act, approved March 26, 1804, 
for the disposal of the public lands in the Indiana territory ; in it provision 
is made for the reservation '"of an entire township in each of the three 
described tracts of country or districts [Detroit. Kaskaskia. and Vincennes], 
to be located by the secretary of the treasury, for the use of a seminary of 
learning." The second is the act of April 16, 1816, which provides for the 
admission into the Union of the district of Vincennes as the state of In- 
diana; in this an additional township is set aside "for the use of a seminary 
of learning, and vested in the Legislature of said state, to be appropriated 
solely to the uses of such seminary by the said Legislature." These two 
seminary townships for Indiana were chosen as follows : One in what is 
now Gibson county, October 10, 1806, by Albert Gallatin as secretary of the 


treasury; the other by President Madison, in i8i6, in wliat is now Monroe 


The first act of local legislation looking toward a university in Indiana 
was the act of the Territorial Legislature,' approved November 9, 1806. estab- 
lishing in the borough of Vincennes "an university * * * to be known 
by the name and style of The Vincennes University."' and appropriating to 
its use the township of land reserved by the act of Congress of 1804. Owing 
to a number of causes the institution thus founded did not prosper, so that 
when the Indiana Seminary, which was later to become the Indiana Univer- 
sity, was established, the General Assembly turned over to it the Gibson 
county lands, together with the township of land in Monroe county. This 
action led to a long and tedious litigation, which resulted finallv in a verdict 
of the supreme court of the United States, in 1852, in favor of Vincennes 
University. To compensate the urliversity for the loss of endowment thus 
sustained. Congress granted to the state nineteen thousand and forty acres 
of public land in Indiana "for the use of the Indiana University.'' (Act of 
February 23, 1854.) 

In the Constitution of the state, adopted in 1816 upon its admission to 
the Union, the following provisions occur with respect to education : 


Section i. Kjiowledge and learning, generally diffused through a com- 
munity, being essential to the preservation of a free government, and spread- 
ing the opportunities and advantages of education through the various parts 
of the country being highly conducive to this end, it shall be the duty of the 
General Assembly to provide by law, for the improvement of such lands as 
are, or hereafter may be granted by the United States to this state for the 
use of schools, and to apply any funds which may be raised from such lands, 
or from any other quarter, to the accomplishment of the grand object for 
which they are or may be intended : But no lands granted for the use of 
schools or seminaries of learning, shall be sold by authority of this state, prior 
to the year eighteen hundred and twenty ; and the monies which may be raised 
out of the sale of any such lands or otherwise obtained for the purpose 
aforesaid, shall be and remain a fund for the exclusive purpose of promoting 
the interest of literature and the sciences, and for the support of seminaries 


and public scliools. The General Assembly shall, from time to time, pass 
such laws as shall be calculated to encourage Intellectual, scientific, and agri- 
cultural improvement, by allowing rewards and immunities for the promo- 
tion and improvement of arts, sciences, commerce, manufactures, and natural 
history; and to countenance and encourage the principles of humanity, in- 
dustry and morality. 

Sec. 2. It shall be the duty of the General Assembly, as soon as cir- 
cumstances will i>ermit, to provide by law, for a general system of education, 
ascending in a regular graduation from township schools to a state university, 
wherein tuition shall be gratis, and equally open to all. 


In accordance with this provision of the Constitution, the General As- 
sembly, by an act passed and approved January 20, 1820, took the first defi- 
nite step toward the establishing of the Indiana University. The act is as 
follows : . 

AN ACT to establish a State Seininary. and for other purposes. 

[Appro\ed January 20, 1820.] 

Section i. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Indiana, 
that Charles Dewey, Jonathan Lindley, David H. Maxwell. John M. Jenkins, 
Jonathan Nichols and William Lowe be, and they are hereby appointed trus- 
tees of the State Seminary, for the state of Indiana, and shall be known by 
the name and style of the trustees of the State Seminary of the State of In- 
diana, and they, and their successors in office, shall have perpetual succession, 
and by the name and style aforesaid, shall be able and capable in law, to sue, 
and be sued, plead and be impleaded, answer, and be answered unto, as a 
bod}- corporate and politic, in any court of justice: and the trustees hereby 
appointed shall continue in office until the first day of January, one thousand' 
eight hundred and twentv-one, and until their successors are chosen and 

Sec. 2. The trustees aforesaid, or a majority of them, shall meet at 
Bloomington, in the county of Monroe, on the first Monday in June next, or 
so soon thereafter as may be convenient, and being first duly sworn to dis- 
charge the duties of their office, shall repair to the reserved township of land 
in said county, which was granted by Congress to this state for the use of a 


seminary of learning, and proceed to select an eligible and convenient site for 
a state seminary. 

Sec. 3. It shall be lawful for the trustees hereby appointed to appoint 
an agent, who shall give bond with security to be approved of by the trustees 
aforesaid, payable to the governor and his successors in office, for the use 
of the State Seminary aforesaid, in the sum of twenty thousand dollars, 
conditioned for the faithful performance of the duties of his office; and it 
shall be the duty of the agent aforesaid, after taking an oath of office, to 
proceed to lay off and expose to sale, under the sanction of the trustees 
aforesaid, any number of lots, or quantity of land, within the reserved town- 
ship, aforesaid, and contiguous to Bloomington, not exceeding one section, 
or six hundred and forty acres thereof. 

Sec. 4. It shall be the duty of the agent aforesaid, first to expose to 
sale, such lots as may be selected most contiguous to the site which mav be 
selected for the seminary aforesaid, and take of the purchase of any lots of 
lands which he may sell, under the provisions of this act, such pavments and 
security therefor, as may be directed by the trustees as aforesaid. 

Sec. 5. The trustees aforesaid, shall, so soon as they deem it expedient, 
proceed to the erection of a suitable building for a state seminarv, as also 
a suitable and commodious house for a jirofessor, on the site which mav be 
selected by them for that purpose. 

Sec. 6. The trustees aforesaid, shall within ten (ia\'s after tiie meeting 
of the next General Assemljly, lav before them a true and perfect statement 
of their proceedings so far as thev ]ia\'e ])rogressed under the provisions of 
this act. and a plat of the lots or lands laid (iff and sold, and the amount of 
the proceeds of such sales, and also a plan of buildings, by them erected, or 
proposed to be erected. 

Sec. 7. The trustees herebv appointed, shall before the\' enter upon 
the duties of their office, give bond and security, to be a])proved of b}- the 
governor, in the sum of five thousand dollars, ])ayable to the governor and 
his successors in office, for the use of the State Seminary, conditioned for 
the faithful performance of the duties of their office; and if any vacancy 
shall happen in the office of trustees, the governor shall fill such vacancy 
bv an appointment which shall expire on the first da}" of January next. 


As a result of this legislation the new seminary was opened in May, 
1824.. "^Vithin three years it had made such progress in number of students 


and the general character of its work that a board of visitors, appointed by 
the General Assembly in 1827, recommended that the Indiana Seminarv- be 
raised to the dignity of a college. This recommendation, approved b\- Gov- 
ernor Ray in his annual message, induced the General Assembly to pass the 
following act : 

AN ACT to establish a College in the State of Indiana. 
[Approved January 24. 1828.] 

Sectiun I . Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Indiana, 
that there shall be, and hereby is created and established a college, adjacent 
to the town of Bloomington, in the count}^ of Monroe, for the education of 
youth in the American, learned, and foreign languages, the useful arts, 
sciences, and literature, to be known by the name and style of the Indiana 
College, and to be governed and regulated as hereinafter directed. 

Sec. 2. There shall be a board of trustees appointed, consisting of 
fifteen persons, residents of this state, who shall be. and hereby are con- 
stituted a body corporate and politic, by the name of "The trustees of the 
Indiana College," and in their said corporate name and capacity may sue and 
be sued, plead and be impleaded, in any court of record, and by that name 
shall have perpetual succession. 

Sec. 3. The said trustees shall till all vacancies which may happen in 
their own body, elect a president of the board, secretary, treasurer, and such 
other officers as mav be necessarv for the good order and government of said 
corporation, and shall be competent at law and in equity to take to them- 
selves and their successors, in their said corporate name, any estate, real, 
personal, or mixed bv the .gift, grant, bargain, sale, conveyance. wiU. devise 
or bequest of any person or persons whomsoever, and the same estate, whether 
real or personal, to grant, bargain, sell, convey, devise, let. place out on inter- 
est, or otherwise dispose of, for the use of said college, in such man- 
ner as to them shall seem most beneficial to the institution, and to receive the 
rents, issues, profits, income and interest thereon, and apply the same to the 
proper use and support of the said college, and generally, in their said cor- 
porate name, shall have full power to do and transact all and ever\- business 
touching or concerning the premises, or which shall be incidentally neces- 
sary thereto, as fully and effectually as any natural person, body politic or 
corporate may or can do. in the management of their own concerns, and to 
hold, enjoy, exercise and use the rights, powers and privileges incident to 
bodies politic or corporate, in law and in equity. 


Sec. 4. The said trustees shall cause to be made for their use, one 
common seal, with such devices and inscriptions thereon as they shall think 
proper, under and by which all deeds, diplomas, certificates and acts of the said 
corporation shall pass and be authenticated. 

Sec. 7. The said board of trustes shall, from time to time, as the in- 
terests of tlie institution may require, elect a president of said college, and 
such professors, tutors, instructors, and other officers of the same, as they 
may judge necessary for the interests thereof, and shall determine the duties, 
salaries, emoluments, responsibilities, and tenures of their several offices, and 
designate the course of instruction in said college. 

Sec. 9. The president, professors, and tutors, shall be styled the faculty 
of said college; which faculty shall have the power of enforcing the rules and 
regulations adopted by the said trustees for the goxernment of the students, 
by rewarding or censuring them, and finally by suspending such as, after 
repeated admonition, shall continue refractory, until a determination of a 
quorum of the trustees can be had thereon; and of granting and conferring, 
by and with the approbation and consent of the board of trustees, such de- 
grees in the liberal arts and sciences as are usually granted and conferred in 
other colleges in America, to the students of the college, or others who by 
their proficiency in learning or other meritorious distinction may be entitled 
to the same, and to grant unto such graduates, diplomas, or certificates, 
under their common seal, and signed by the faculty to authenticate and per- 
petuate the memory of such graduations. 

Sec. 10. No president, professor, or other officer of the college, shall, 
whilst acting in that capacity, be a trustee, nor shall any president, professor, 
tutor, instructor, or other officer of the college e\er be required by the trus- 
tees to profess any particular religious opinions, and no student shall be 
denied admission, or refused any of the privileges, honors, or degrees of the 
college, on account of the religious opinions he may entertain, nor shall any 
sectarian tenets or principles be taught, instructed or inculcated at said col- 
lege by any president, professor, student, tutor or instructor thereof. 

Sec. 12. That all moneys arising from the sale of the seminary town- 
ships, in the counties of Monroe and Gibson, shall be and forever remain a 
permanent fund, for the support of said college, and the interest arising from 
the amount of said sales, together with the three resented sections in the 
seminary township, situated in the county of Monroe, and all the buildings 
which have been erected adjacent to the town of Bloomington, in said coun- 
tv of Monroe, for the use of the State Seminary, with all the real and per- 


soiial property of every description belonging to or connected Avith the said 
State Seminary, as the property of the state, and all gifts, grants and dona- 
tions which have been or hereafter may be made for the support of the col- 
lege, shall be, and hereby are forever vested in the aforesaid trustees and 
their successors, to be controlled, regulated and appropriated by them in 
such manner as they shall deem most conducive to the best interests and pros- 
perity of the institution : Provided, That the said trustees shall conform to 
the will of any donor or donors in the application of any estate which may be 
given, de\'ised or bequeathed for any particular object connected with the 
institution, and that the real estate hereby vested in the said trustees and their 
successors, shall be by them held forever for the use of the said college, and 
shall not be sold or converted by them to any other use whatsoever. 

Sec. 1 6. That the constitution of the said college herein and hereby 
declared and established, shall lie and remain the in\-iolal)le constitution of 
said college, and the same shall not be changed, altered or amended by any 
law or ordinance of the said trustees, nor in any other manner than by the 
Legislature of this state. 


The continued growth and increasing importance of the institution led 
the General Assembly, in 1838, to confer upon it the name and style of the 
Indiana University. The material portions of this, the third charter of the 
University, are as follows : 

AN ACT to establish a University in the State of Indiana. 
[Approved February 15, 1838.] 

Section i. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of In- 
diana, that there shall be, and hereby is created and established a university 
adjacent to the town of Bloomington, in the county of Monroe, for the edu- 
cation of youth in the American, learned and foreign languages, the useful 
arts, sciences (including law and medicine) and literature, to be known by 
the name and style of the "Indiana University," and to be governed and 
directed as hereinafter directed. 

Sec. 2. There shall be a Iward of trustees appointed, consisting of 
twenty-one persons, residents of the state, who shall be, and hereby are cori- 
stituted a body corporate and politic, by the name of "the trustees of the In- 
diana University," and in their corporate name and capacity, may sue and 


be sued, plead and be impleaded, in any ccjurt of record, and by that name 
shall have perpetual succession. 

Sec. 12. That all moneys which ha\e heretofore or which may herein- 
after arise from the sales of the seminary townships of land in the counties 
of Monroe and Gibson, shall be and forever remain a permanent fund for the 
support of said university, and the interest arising from the amount of said 
sales, together with the amiount of the sales of the three reserved sections in 
the seminary township, situated in the county of Monroe, the residue of the 
unsold sections aforesaid, and in all the buildings which have been erected 
adjacent to the town of Bloomington, in said county of Monroe, and which 
are now used by and belong to the Indiana College, together with all the es- 
tate, whether real, personal, or of any description whatever, belonging to, 
or in any wise connected with the Indiana College, as the property of the 
state, and all gifts, grants and donations which have been or may hereafter 
be made, previous to the taking effect of this act, for the support of the 
Indiana College, shall be and hereby are forever \ested in the aforesaid trus- 
tees, and their successors, to be controlled, regulated, and appropriated by 
them in such manner as they shall deem most conducive to the best interest 
and prosperity of the institution: Provided, that the said trustees shall con- 
form to the will of any donor or donors in the application of any estate which 
may be given, devised or bequeathed for any particular object connected with 
the institution, and that the real estate hereby vested in the said trustees, and 
their successors, shall be by them held forever for the use of said university, 
and shall not be sold or convertefl by them to any other use whatsoever. 

Sec. 15. That the power and authority of the present trustees of the 
Indiana College, over and concerning the said institution, the funds, estate, 
property, rights and demands thereof shall forever cease and determine, 
from and after the organization of the board of trustees of [the] Indiana 
University named in this act ; and all the funds, estate, property, rights, 
demands, privileges and immunities, of what kind or nature so ever, be- 
longing or any wise pertaining" to said Indiana College, shall be and the 
same are hereby invested in the trustees of [the[ Indiana University ap- 
pointed by this act, and their successors in office, for the uses and pur- 
poses only of said university, and the said trustees and their successors in 
office shall have, hold and possess, and exercise all the powers and authority 


over the said institution and tlie estate and concerns thereof in the manner 
hereinbefore prescribed. 

Between the years 1838 and 185 1 a number of acts relating to the uni- 
versity were passed by the General Assembly. Of these most are concerned 
with the sale of the seminary lands and with similar matters; but one, the 
act of February 15, 1841, reduces the number of trustees to nine, exempts 
students at the university from military duty and road taxes, and denies to 
the civil courts of the state jurisdiction of "trivial breaches of the peace com- 
mitled by the students of said university within the college campus." 

CHARTER OF 1 852. 

In the constitutional convention of 1851 the question of the relation of 
the state to the Indiana University had arisen, but no explicit statement was 
incorporated in the constitution as adopted. At the first session of the General 
Assembly, after the adjournment of the convention, it was therefore thought 
desirable to have an explicit statement concerning the matter. To this end 
the following act was passed, which may be regarded as the fourth charter 
of the university, and the one by which in the main the university is still 
governed : 

AN ACT providing for the yovcrnuient of the State University, the manage- 
ment of its Funds and for the disposition of the Lands thereof. 

[Approved June 17, 1852.] 

Section 1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of In- 
diana, tliat the institution established by an act entitled "an act to establish a 
college in the State of Indiana," approved January 28. 1828, is hereby rec- 
ognized as the universitv of the state. 
^ -.\: ^ ^ * * ^ * * 

Sec. 5. The trustees of the said university shall receive the proceeds of 
the sales and rents of the three reserved sections in the seminary township in 
xVIonroe county, and the same shall be paid to the treasurer of said trustees, 
on their order. 
* * * *•* * * * * 

Sec. 7. The president, professors and instructors shall be styled "The 
Faculty'' of said university, and shall have power : 

First. To enforce the regulations adopted by the trustees for the gov- 
ernment of the students. 


Second. To which end they may reward and censure, and may suspend 
those who continue refractory, until a determination of the board of trustees 
can be had thereon. 

Third. To confer, with the consent of the trustees, such hterary de- 
grees as are usuaUy conferred in other universities, and in testimony thereof 
to give suitable diplomas, under the seal of the university and signature of 
the faculty. 

Sec. 8. Nu religious qualihcations shall be , required for any student, 
trustee, president, professor, or other officer of such university, or as a con- 
dition for admission to any privilege in the same. 

Sec. 13. The governor, lieutenant-governor, speaker of the House of 
Representatives, judges of the supreme court, and superintendent of common 
schools, shall constitute a board of visitors of the university, and any three 
thereof a quorum. 

Sec. 14. In case the members of such board of visitors fail to attend 
the annual commencement exercises of the university, the president of the 
board of trustees shall report such of them as are absent to the next General 
Assembly in their annual report. 


The funds of the university, in its earlier days, were derived almost 
v^'holly from the proceeds of the seminary lands, from gifts, and from fees 
paid by students. In 1867, by an act approved March 8, the General Assem- 
bly provided for the increase of these funds by an annual appropriation. 
"Whereas," the act reads, "the endowment fund of the State University, 
located at Bloomington, Monroe county, is no longer sufficient to meet the 
growing wants of education and make said university efficient and useful; 
and whereas, it should be the pride of every citizen of Indiana to place the 
State Universitv in the highest condition of usefulness and make it the crown- 
ing glory of our present great common school system, where education shall 
be free," therefore eight thousand dollars annually were appropriated out 
of the state treasur^■ to the use of the university. This amount was found to 
be insufficient, so that from time to time the amount of the annual appropria- 
tion was increased. 

In 1883, by an act approved March 8, provision was made for a per- 
manent endowment fund to be raised by the levy for thirteen years of a tax 


of "one-half of one cent on each one hundred dollars" worth of taxable prop- 
erty in this state." to be paid into the state treasury to the credit of Indiana 

In 1895 'I" ^^"t was passed (approved March 8) levying an annual tax 
of "one-sixth of one mill on every dollar of taxable property in Indiana," 
the proceeds to be divided among the Indiana University, Purdue University 
and the Indiana State Normal School. Of this amount the Indiana Univer- 
sity received two-fifths, or a levy of one-fifteenth of a mill on the taxable 
property in the state. By an act approved March 5, 1903, this law was 
amended to read as follows : 

Section i. That there shall be assessed and levied upon the taxable 
property of the state of Indiana in the year 1903. and in each year there- 
after, for the use and benefit of the Indiana University, Purdue University, 
and the Indiana State Normal School, to be apportioned as hereinafter in 
this act pro\ided, a tax of two and three-fourths cents on every one hiin- 
dred dollars of taxable property in Indiana, to be levied, assessed, collected 
and paid into the treasury of the state of Indiana, in like manner as other 
state taxes are levied, assessed, collected and paid. And so much of the 
proceeds of said levy as may be in the state treasury on the first day of 
July and the first day of January of each year shall be immediately there- 
after paid over to the board of trustees of the respective institution for 
which the tax was levied, to be distrilnited and apportioned among them 
severally upon the basis as follows, viz. : To the said trustees of the Indi- 
ana University upon the basis of four-elevenths (4-11) of the total proceeds 
of this tax : to the trustees of Purdue University upon the basis of four- 
elevenths (4-1 1 ) of the total proceeds of this tax. and to the trustees of the 
Indiana State Normal School upon the basis of three-elevenths (3-1 1) of the 
total proceeds of this tax ; and the auditor of state of Indiana is hereby 
directed to draw proper warrants therefor, and on or before the tenth day 
of January and July of each year the trustees of the Indiana University, Pur- 
due University, and the Indiana State Normal School shall file, or cause to be 
filed, with the auditor of state, a sworn and itemized statement of their re- 
ceipts from all sources, including all tuition fees, and other revenues derived 
from students, contingent fees, interest from permanent endowment fund, 
the proceeds of the tax provided in this act. and all other receipts of every 
kind, character and description, together with a full, detailed, itemized and 
sworn statement of their expenditures for all purposes, including mainte- 
nance and permanent improvements, the amount paid each member of the 


faculty, trustees, all officers of the institution, and file with such report a 
copy of the receipts for each separate item of the expenditures, it being the 
intention of this act that the reports hereinbefore provided for shall set out 
in full and in detail all expenditures of every kind, character, and descrip- 
tion ; and from and after this act is in force it shall be unlawful for the auditor 
of state to issue any warrants to the Indiana University, Purdue University 
or the Indiana State Normal School until they have filed their reports as 
required by this act. 


A School of Law has been maintained continuouslv in the university, 
at Bloomington, since 1889. 

A School of Education, for the professional training of teachers, was 
established by the trustees in 1908. 

A School <)f Aledicine was established in 1903. when the first two vears' 
instruction in medicine was provided for at Bloomington. In 1905, pro- 
vision was made, by affiliation, for the last two years at Indianapolis, and in 
1908 this arrangement was strengthened by the union of the Indiana Medical 
College at Indianapolis with the Indiana Uni^'ersitv School of Medicine. 
The last step in the process of evolution was taken in the passage, by the 
General Assembly, of the following act concerning the School of Medicine 
(approved March 2. 1909) : 

Section I. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of 
Indiana, That the trustees of Indiana University are hereby autliorized to 
conduct a medical school in Marion County, Indiana, and to receive gifts 
of real estate and other property on behalf of the state of Indiana for the 
maintenance of medical education in said county, conditioned that said 
trustees shall conduct as an integral part of the Indiana University School of 
Medicine a full four years" course in medicine in said Marion county, Indi- 
ana : Provided, That there shall be no discrimination for or against any 
school or system of medicine in the university, and that all or each of the 
schools or systems of medicine now recognized by the state shall liave ade- 
quate opportunity to teach the practice of medicine in the uni\ersity accord- 
ing to the principles advocated by them respectively, and that it shall be the 
duty of the trustees of Indiana University to provide such instruction in as 
thorough a manner as the means at their disposal will permit, and as nearly 
as possible to provide the same quality of instruction whenever a reasonable 


demand shall be made for the same : Provided, further, That premedical or 
other collegiate work done in any college or university of Indiana, which is 
recognized by the state board of education of Indiana as a standard college 
or university, shall be received and credited in the Indiana University School 
of Medicine upon the same conditions as work of the same kind, grade and 
amount done in the department of liberal arts of Indiana University. 

Sec. 2. Whereas, an emergency exists for the immediate taking effect 
of this act. the same shall he in force from and after its passage. 


Admission to the university was, until the college year 1868-69, re- 
stricted to men, but by a resolution of the board of trustees the doors of the 
university were at the beginning of that year opened to women on the same 
terms. Since 1868, therefore, the university has been co-educational in all 
its departments. 


By virtue of the state constitutions of 1816 and 185 1. and the acts of 
the General Assembly thereunder, the Indiana University is the state uni- 
versity of Indiana, and the head of the public school system of the state. In 
order that there might be no doubt of the special relationship of the uni- 
versity to the state under the new constitution of 1851, the General Asseinbly 
in 1852 enacted that "the institution established by an act entitled 'an act to 
establish a college in the state of Indiana', approved January 28, 1828, is 
hereby recognized as the university of the state" (act approved June 17, 
1852) ; and again in 1867 the General Assembly characterized it as the 
"crowning glory of our present great common school system" (act approved 
March 8, 1867). Finally, the supreme court of the state in the case of 
Fisher vs. Bower, rendered a decision June 24, 1902, in which these words 
were used : "The Indiana University is an integral part of our free 
school system": "it was the special creation of the constitution"; "the uni- 
versity as well as its endowment has always been under the supervision of the 


The first site of tlie university adjoined the town on the south, and lay 
in Perry township, the township granted by Congress in 1816 for seminary 
purposes. Here, in a temporary structure, what was at first called the State 


Seminary was opened in 1824, the style being changed to Indiana College in 
1828, and to Indiana University in 1838. In 1836 a more pretentious build- 
ing was erected, which, together with its contents in the form of libraries and 
collections, was destroyed by fire in 1854. The friends of the university 
then came to its aid, and another and better building was erected. This 
structure, one of the most picturesque in Bloomington, is now known as 
the Old College; it was purchased in 1897 by the board of education of the 
city of Bloomington, and is occupied by the Bloomington high school. In 
1847 a second large building of similar design to the Old College, was erected 
for the libraries and museum; but in a second fire, in 1883, this building also 
was destroyed with all its contents. 


The fire of 1883 marked a turning-point in the history of the institution. 
It was decided to remove the university to a more ample site, away from the 
noise and disturbance of the railway. For this purpose the tract known as 
Dunn's woods was purchased, east of the city, facing what is now Indiana 
avenue on the west, and Third street on the south. Including later purchases, 
the college grounds have an extent of about seventy acres. The campus 
proper is well wooded and of a rolling nature ; a portion of the remainder 
is more level, and is used for the athletic field and for tennis courts. The 
campus is cared for by an experienced gardener, who, under the direction of 
a faculty committee, has set out many native and exotic plants, shrubs and 


The chief university buildings iorm three sides of a quadrangle on the 
crest of the campus proper. Beginning with the one nearest the Kirkwood 
avenue entrance, they are as follows: The library building, erected in 1907; 
the student building, 1906; Maxwell hall. 1890: Owen hall, 1884; Wylie 
hall, 1884; Kirkwood hall, 1894; Science hall, 1902; the biological building, 
1910. Lying outside the quadrangle are Mitchell hall, erected in 1884; the 
men's gymnasium, 1896; and the two power houses. Within the quadrangle 
is Kirkwood observatory, erected in 1900. 


The library building, completed January i, 1908, at a cost, including 
equipment, of one hundred and forty thousand dollars, occupies a site at the 


north of the Kirkwood avenue or main entrance to the campus. It is con- 
structed of Indiana Hmestone and red tile. The style is collegiate Gothic. 
The main reading room, a well lighted and proportioned apartment, fifty-six 
by ninety- four feet, has seats for two hundred and four readers. Around 
the walls is shelving for six thousand volumes in the open reference collec- 
tion. The stack house has provision for six book levels, three of which are 
at present installed. The third of these levels is continuous with the floor 
of the main reading room. The total book capacity of the stack house is in 
excess of two hundred and fifty thousand volumes. Nearly as many more 
can be housed in various parts of the building without detriment to its other 
uses. Over thirteen thousand square feet of floor space has already been 
divided, or is available for division, into department rooms. The university 
bookstore, which furnishes books and supplies to students at cost, is in the 
east basement of this building. 


The student building was erected at a cost of one hundred thousand 
dollars from funds contributed half by the students and friends of the uni- 
versity, and the other half by John D. Rockefeller. The west wing of the 
building is used by women students ; in the basement of this wing are plunge 
and shower baths and a swimming pool; on the first floor are parlors, rest 
rooms, and the women's gymnasium: on the second floor are the headquarters 
of the Young Women's Christian .\ssociation. The east wing is used by men 
students : in the basement are baths and lockers : the first and second floors 
contain the rooms of the Indiana Union and other organizations for men 
students. In the center of the building is an auditorium capable of seat- 
ing six hundred persons, where vesper services are occasionally held on Sun- 
day afternoons, and popular lectures and entertainments may be given during 
the week. Below the auditorium is a commons room, used for class, or 
club, meetings and bantjuets. 


Maxwell hall, which is occupied by the administrative offices and the 
School of Law. is named for Dr. David H. Maxwell, one of the most ener- 
getic promoters of the State Seminary and a lifelong friend of the university 
in the three stages of its development, and for his son. Dr. James D. Maxwell, 


a member of the board of trustees from i860 to 1892. The main part of the 
building is of white Hmestone, in Romanesque style. 


To give additional space for the School of Law. a three-story addition 
to Maxwell hall was erected in 1907, connected with the main body of the 
building from the rear by a corridor, and separated by an inclosed court. 

Owen hall, rebuilt in 1911, is named for Richard Owen, the geologist, 
who was professor of natural science in Indiana University from 1863 to 
1879. It contains the lecture rooms and laboratories of the departments of 
physiology' and anatomy. 

Wylie Hall, the first building in the east side of the quadrangle, was 
partially destroyed by fire February 7, 1900, but is now restored and in- 
creased by one story. Like Owen Hall, it is built of brick trimmed with 
stone. Dr. Andrew Wylie. the first president of Indiana University, and 
Prof. Theophilus A. Wylie, the colleague of Professors Owen and Kirkwood. 
are worthily commemorated in this building, which was the principal one 
erected in 1884. Wylie hall is used by the departments of chemistry and 

Kirkwood hall, the next building to the south, is built of white limestone, 
as (with one exception) are all the buildings erected since 1884. A Roman- 
esque portal, surmounted bv a tower, is the most striking feature of the 
facade. Tlie building contains the rooms of the following departments : 
Economics and social science ( l^asement, first fioor ) , history and political 
science (first floor), comparative philology ( hrst floor). Cireek (second 
floor), Latin (second floor), romance languages (first and second floors), 
and German (basement, first, second and third floors). 

Science hall was completed in 1902 and dedicated January 21, 1903, at 
the installation of President Brvan. It is the last building in the east side of 
the quadrangle. Its interior construction is of brick, irou, and concrete, the 
exterior being of white limestone. It is one of the largest buildings on the 
campus. It contains a basement and four stories, and is occupied by the 
following departments: Physics (basement, first floor), philosophy (second 
and third floors), educational (second, third and fourtli floors), and geology 
(third and fourth floors). 


Biology building, an additional building for the use of the science de- 
partments, finished in 1910, is the first structure on the south side of the 
quadrangle. It is built of white limestone, and is fireproof throughout. It 
contains the lecture rooms and laboratories of the departments of botany and 
zoology, and the rooms of the department of English. A greenhouse for the 
use of the department of botany is connected with the building. 


Kirkwood observatory, situated south of the student building, is built 
of white limestone. It contains six rooms, including a circular dome room 
twenty-six feet in diameter. Both the observatory and Kirkwood hall are 
named in honor of Dr. Daniel Kirkwood, one of the most eminent of Ameri- 
can astronomers, who was for many years a member of the faculty of the 


Mitchell hall, named for the Hon. James L. Mitchell, a graduate of 
1858 and trustee from 1883 till his death in 1894, is a wooden structure, east 
of Science hall. Until the completion of the student building it was used 
for the women's gymnasium. It is now used by classes in music. 

The men's gymnasium was erected in 1896. In addition to its athletic 
uses, it serves on extraordinary occasions as an assembly room, having a 
seating capacity of One thousand five hundred. 

East of the men's gymnasium is the power house, completed in 1904. 
From this central plant all the buildings except Kirkwood observatory, are 
supplied with steam heat and electric light, and the laboratories of the de- 
partments of physics, chemistry, and philosophy with electric power. The 
old power house, near by, has been converted into a laboratory for electro- 
chemistry, assaying, and electric furnace work. 

A well-house of white limestone, with stained glass skylights, was pre- 
sented to the university in 1908 by Theodore F. Rose, '75, who is now a mem- 
ber of the board of trustees. The stone portals to this structure were the 
portals to the Old College building before the removal of the university to 
the present site. 


In the tract of ground lying northeast of Owen hall and the men's gym- 
nasium is Jordan Field, the athletic grounds — named in honor of David 


Starr Jordan, president of the University from 1884 to 1S91. On con- 
tiguous ground to the west are a number of tennis courts for the use of men 

In the wooded ground on the south side of the campus, near Mitchell 
hall, are four w-ell-shaded tennis courts for women students. 

The various clubs and societies of the university include, the Greek- 
letter fraternities, alumni association. Christian associations for both men 
and women. Also the Indiana Union, a social organization founded in 
1909, with a charter membership of four hundred. Plans are now maturing 
for the construction of a fine building for this society. Then there are the 
Women's League, the musical clubs, literary and scientific societies, graduate 
clubs, departmental clubs and many others. 


In February, 1911, the university received as the gift of Dr. and Mrs. 
Robert W. Long, of Indianapolis, real estate in Indianapolis valued at two 
hundred thousand dollars, for the erection of a hospital in connection with 
the School of Medicine. The purpose of Dr. and Mrs. Long in giving was 
twofold : To make it possible for worthy persons of limited means from all 
parts of Indiana to secure hospital advantages and the services of the best 
physicians in connection therewith : and to provide clinical facilities for stu- 
dents of medicine in connection with the Indiana University School of Medi- 
cine. Recently Dr. Long gave an additional twenty-five thousand dollars for 
the equipment of the Long Hospital. 

By the terms of the will of Miss Louise A. Goodbody, dean of w^omen 
from 1906 to her death on March 5, 1911, real estate in Bloomington valued 
at four thousand dollars was bequeathed to the universit}-. By the provisions 
of the will, the rents and profits of the property are to go to the father of Miss 
Goodbody, Walter G. Goodbody, during his lifetime. As a memorial to Miss 
Goodbody, a loan fund, to be known as the Louise Goodbody Memorial Loan 
Fund, has been established. Voluntary contributions to the amount of one 
thousand three hundred dollars have thus far been received. The principal 
and interest of this fund will be lent to women students who desire assist- 
ance in meeting the expenses of their course in Indiana l^niversitv. 





Students who wish to make a part of the expenses of their college course 
while here, and are competent and willing, rarely fail to get all the work 
thev care to do. The Christian associations make the finding of places for 
those desiring employment a special feature of their practical work. At the 
present time, there are in the university about one hundred and twenty-five 
men students who are making their way, in whole or in part, and about 
twelve women students. The lines of work engaged in are chiefly the fol- 
lowing: Surveying, waiting on table, and dishwashing at boarding clubs; 
attending to furnaces and doing chores ; newspaper correspondence, collect- 
ing and clerking for business houses : typewriting, etc. Girls who are capable 
of assisting at housework have no difficulty in finding places in good families, 
where they will receive room and board in return for their services. A spirit 
of democracy prevails in the university : no stigma attaches to the student 
who is obliged to make a living by honest labor. 


The library of Indiana University at present contains eighty-five thou- 
sand volumes, and is growing at the rate of about five thousand volumes a 
year. The selection of these books has been made by experts within the last 
twenty-five years with a view to facilitating instruction and research. The 
collection is especially strong in literary and scientific periodicals. The 
library is made thoroughly usable by a carefully prepared card catalogue, by 
indexes, and other bibliographical aids. 

In addition to the central library, where the general literary and his- 
torical collections are housed, there are nine departmental collections of vary- 
ing sizes, kept in the dififerent university buildings. The library force con- 
sists of a librarian and twelve assistants, all of whom are at the service of 
anv authorized user of the librarv. 

The expenses of the student will vary according to his way of living. 
Most of the students lodge in private houses and board in clubs. From inquiry 
the following facts have been ascertained, which will indicate to an entering 
student the amount he may expect to spend during the college year. 


A room occupied by one person costs from one dollar to four dollars a 
week. Two students rooming together pay as a rule from seventy-five cents 
to two dollars each ; at the latter rate, fuel and light should usually be included. 
Rooms are generally engaged by the term and paid for weekly. The cost of a 
room for a year will vary, then, from thirty-six tn one hundred and fifty 

Fuel and light are charged for extra, except by special agreement. From 
fifteen to twenty dollars will generally cover this expense. Laundry and wash- 
ing" mav be estimated at from ten to twenty-fi\e dollars. 

Boai'd may be had in clubs at three dollars a week (payable weekly). 
Board in hotels costs from four dollars to five dollars. The amount to be set 
aside for board for the vear varies from one hundred to one hundred and 
eighty dollars. 

Text-books and stationerv are supplied students ])y the university book- 
store at practically cost price, b^or a student in the College of Liberal Arts 
this item of expense is about twenty dollars a }'ear ; for a student in the School 
of Law, or the School of Aledicine, about thirty to thirty-five dollars. 


The College of Liberal Arts is the nucleus of the uni\ersity. Passing 
over the seminary stage of the university's history, the C(^llege of Liberal Arts 
may be said to have begun in 1828. with the chartering of the institution as 
the Indiana College. L'ntil the Law School was re-established in 1889, the 
College of Liberal Arts was ( with the exception of the then existing prepara- 
tory school) the only permanent department of the universit}'. The statutes 
governing the university which date from this period, therefore, deal chiefly 
with what is now the College of Liberal Arts. 

The departmental organization of the college was made in 1887. Since 
that date the number of departments has, of course, considerably increased. 


The founders of what is now the Indiana Cni\ersity designed, from its 
inception, to incorporate in it a school of law. .As early as 1835 the board 
of trustees, considering the question of the immediate opening of such a school 
at Bloomington. went so far as to select the foremost lawyer of his day in 
Indiana, Judge Isaac Blackford, as its first professor of law. In 1838, when 
the Indiana College became by act of the Legislature the Indiana L^niversity. 


it was expressly required that a course of law should be given in it. A school 
of law was accordingly opened at Bloomington, as a department of the uni- 
versity, in 1842. This was, it is believed, the first State University law school 
established west of tlie Alleghanies. 

The original purpose of the uni\'ersity board was to establish a two years' 
course of law. The conditions of the time, however, prevented this for many 
years. It was not until 1889 that such a course was definitely established. 
A three years' course was established in the year 1901. 

Lack of funds resulted, in the year 1877, in a suspension of the Law 
School, which lasted twelve years. With this exception, the school has been 
in continuous operation since 1842. 


The steps in the development of the Indiana University School of Medi- 
cine will be evident from the following historical statement : 

The Indiana Medical College, Indianapolis, was organized in 1869. 

The College of Physicians and Surgeons, Indianapolis, was organized in 
1874 and continued until 1878, when it was combined with the Indiana Med- 
ical College, thereafter known as the Medical College of Indiana, which for a 
time was the medical department of Butler University. 

The Central College of Physicians and Surgeons, Indianapolis, was or- 
ganized in 1879. 

The Fort Wayne College of Medicine, Foi't Wayne, was organized in 

The Indiana University School of Medicine, Bloomington, was organ- 
ized in 1903. 

The State College of Physicians and Surgeons, Indianapolis, was organ- 
ized in 1906. 

In September, 1905, the Medical College of Indiana, the Central Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons, and the Fort Wayne College of Medicine 
merged under the name of the Indiana Medical College, the school of medicine 
of Purdue University. 

In the summer of 1907, the Indiana University School of Medicine and 
the State College of Physicians and Surgeons united under the name of the 
Indiana LTniversity School of Medicine. 

In April, 1908, negotiations were completed whereby the Indiana Medical 


College was united with the Indiana University School of Medicine under the 
name of the latter. 

On February 26, 1909, an act was passed by the Legislature authorizing 
the trustees of Indiana University to conduct a medical school in Marion 
county, to receive gifts of real estate and other pi'operty in behalf of the state 
of Indiana for the maintenance of medical education in said county, and 
declaring an emergency. 


The university offers in the summer a full term's work, the term being 
divided into two half-terms of equal credit value. Although many courses 
continue through both half-terms, the work of each is in charge of a different 
corps of teachers. 

The purpose of the summer term is to extend to those who are otherwise 
engaged during the school \ear the advantages which the university offers for 
instruction, together with the aid afforded l>y the library, laboratories, and 
other facilities for stud) connected with the university. It is the aim to 
present courses of study which are equivalent in quality oi instruction and 
grade of work done to those offered in the other university terms. Some of 
the courses have been specially arranged for the purpose of aiding those who 
teach, or wish to prepare themsehes to teach, in high schools, academies, and 
other schools. ^Methods of teaching will also lie treated incidentally in other 


An act of the General Assembly, passed in 1853, provided that the uni- 
versity should "establish a normal department for instruction in the theon,- 
and practice of teaching," wherein young persons might be prepared as teach- 
ers for the common schools of the state. In accordance with this require- 
ment, the university established, that same year, such a department, "with a 
male and female model school as schools of practice." in connection therewith. 

From 1856 to 1886. inclusive, the normal department was suspended. 
In the latter year it was revived, first as the department of pedagogy, and later 
as the department of education. In each case, the department was regarded 
as organically a part of the College of Liberal Arts, in which a major subject, 
leading to the degree Bachelor of Arts, might be taken as in other similar 


The enactment of the school law of 1907, requiring pedagogical training 
from all classes of public school teachers of the state, was followed by the 
segregation and formal organization of the pedagogic courses and faculty in 
the uni\ersitv. The result is the present enlarged School of Education. 


The first advanced degrees, conferred for graduate work, were granted 
in 1 88 1. During the eighties, well defined regulations for graduate work 
and graduate degrees were stated in the university catalogue, and a consider- 
able number of graduate students were enrolled, especially in the natural 
sciences. In the years 1881 to 1893, inclusive, the university graduated four- 
teen Doctors of Philosophy, ninety-nine Masters of Arts, and twelve Masters 
of Science. For some years following 1893, however, the degree of Doctor 
of Philosophy was not conferred. 

In 1904 there took place the segregation and formal organization of the 
Graduate School, and in 1908 the office of dean of the Graduate School was 


1816 — First Constitution of Indiana adopted, providing for a general 
system of education, ascending in regular gradation from township schools 
to a state university. 

1820 — January 20. Act of the General Asseml^ly estalilishing a state 
seminarv. This da\' is observed as Foundation day. 

1824 — Seminary building erected. Seminary opened in May with an 
attendance of ten boys. 

1828 — Januarv 24. Act changing the State Seminary into the Indiana 

1836 — First college building erected; destroyed by fire. 1854. 

1838 — February 15. Act changing the Indiana College into the Indiana 

1842 — School of Law established; suspended, 1877-89; revived, 1889. 

1852 — June 17. Act recognizing the university as "the University of the 

1855 — "Old College" building erected; used for Preparatory School, 
1885-90; sold to Bloomington school board for use of high school, 1897. 

1865 — President of Indiana University made a member ex-officio of the 
state board of education. 


1867 — March 8. First annual appropriations made to the university. 
The university made coeducational; first woman graduated in 1869. 

1873 — Closer relations established between the university and the high 
schools through the system of commissioned high schools. 

1874 — Old Science hall erected; destroyed by fire, 1883. 

1883 — March 8. Endowment act passed levying one-halt of one cent 
on each $100 taxable property, for thirteen years. 

1884-5 — Wylie, Owen and Mitchell halls erected on new campus, and 
removal of the university to its present site. 

1886-7 — Reorganization of the curriculum on the major sul>ject and de- 
partmental basis. 

1890 — Maxwell hall erected. Summer school estal:)lished. Preparatory 
department abolished. 

1891 — March 3. Vet providing for the election of three trustees by 
the alumni of the university. 

1894 — Kirkwood hall erected. 

1895 — March 8. Act for annual tax of one-fifteenth of a mill for the 
uni\'ersity. Biological station established at Turkey lake; removed to Winona 
lake in 1899. 

1896 — Alen's gymnasium erected. 

1900 — Kirkwood observator\- erected. 

1901 — Three-\ear course estal)lished in School ni Law. 

1902 — Science hall erected. June 24, sui)reme court of the state de- 
cided that "the Indiana University is an integral part of our free school sys- 
tem"; that "it was the special creation of the constitution," and that "the uni- 
versitv as well as its endowment has always ])een under the supervision of 
the state." 

1903 — School of Medicine establi-^hed. Tax le\-}- for university in- 
creased to one-tenth of a mill. 

1904 — Graduate School organized. 

1905 — Student liuilding erected with funds from private su1)scription. 
New power house erected. 

1907 — Xew Hbrary Iniilding completed. 

1908 — Erection of the well house, gift of Theodore F. Rose, '75. 

1910 — Biological building erected. 

1911— ;-Gift from Dr. and Mrs. Robert W. Long of real estate \alued at 
two hundred thousand dollars for the erection and maintenance of a ho.spital 
in connection with the School of Medicine at Indianapolis. Bequest of prop- 


erty valued at four thousand dollars by the will of Dean Louise A. Goodbody. 
Establishment of the Louise Goodbody Memorial Loan Fund. 

1913 — Tax levy for university increased to two and four-fifths cents on 
the hundred dollars. 

1913- — Additional gift of twenty-fi\e thousand dollars to the Medical 
School by Dr. Robert W. Long. 

During the last twenty years, this institution has grown as follows : 1892 
it had 497 students; in 1S97, it had 944; in 1902, it had I-334; in 1907 it 
reached 1,821 ; in 1912 it had 2,522 students. 

The subjoined is a brief biography of each of its presidents: 


Dr. Andrew VVylie, the first president of Indiana University, was born 
April 12, 1789, in western Pennsylvania, son of Adam Wylie, a native of 
county Antrim, Ireland, who came to Fayette county Pennsylvania, about 
1776. The son Andrew was reared to farm duties and spent his evenings at 
hard study. He loved outdoor sports and especially did he love to handle 
an axe in the forests, and this remained with him to his old age, as will present- 
ly be observed. When only fifteen years old he entered Jefferson College, 
from which he graduated in 1810 and was appointed a tutor of that institution, 
and finally became its president, the youngest person to ever hold such ofifice 
there. In 181 7 he resigned and went to Washington College, Pennsylvania, 
with the hope of uniting the two schools. In 1829 he was elected president 
of Indiana University (College). Flere he made many warm friends as well 
as man}- opposers of his policies. He had strong likes and flislikes. As a 
writer, he was clear and terse. He was sought after by such men as Daniel 
Webster, who liked his writings and speeches. In 1839 he had published 
books, including his "Sectarianism is Heresy." He was reared a Presby- 
terian, but in i(S4i um'ted with the Episcopalian church, which displea.sed 
many. He died November ii, 185 [, after having his foot cut with bis axe 
accidentally, and still later pneumonia set in and killed him. 


Doctor Ryors, the university's second president, was born in Phila- 
delphia, June 23, 18 1 2, and was left an orphan at a very tendej age. not recall- 
ing vividlv his parents in after years. He went to live with friends in Mont- 


gomery county, Pennsylvania, and there remained until 1823, in which year 
he united with the Presbyterian church and commenced a preparatory course 
for entering the theological school. He entered Jefferson College in 1831, 
remaining two years, and then taught school at Bristol, Pennsylvania. In 
1834 he went back to Jefferson College, graduating in 1835. and was made 
professor at Lafayette College, Easton, Pennsylvania : held chairs at the Uni- 
versity of Ohio, was ordained to preach in Philadelphia ; was elected professor 
in mathematics at Indiana University in 1843, held one year, and then again 
back to the University of Ohio. He preached at Bloomington, Indiana, two 
years to the Presbyterian people and was ordained by the presbytery in 1845. 
In 1852 returned to Bloomington as president of Indiana University; re- 
mained one year and resigned ; he was then professor in a Kentucky college, 
where he died May 8, 1858. 


The third president of Indiana University was born in Coshocton, Ohio, 
in 181 2. His youth was spent in Indiana and he taught at the age of fifteen 
years. He was a delicate child and youth, hence gave up the rugged work 
of a farm. He grew up in the Methodist Episcopal church; at the age of 
sixteen years he became an exhorter and was styled "boy preacher." In 1831 
he united with the Methodist conference and was made an elder in 1835. He 
kept on studying, even being up at four in the morning with his books. He 
was stationed at Bloomington in 1835-36: in 1838 was an agent for the 
Preachers' Aid society of his church and transferred to Missouri, being- 
stationed at St. Louis till 1840. when he returned to Indiana in ill healtli. In 
1843, ^t Bishop Ames' suggestion, he was made pastor at Madison, Indiana. 
In 1844-45 he was chaplain of the L'nited States Congress. He was agent for 
Asbui-y University (now De Pauw). In 1853 he was made president of 
Indiana LTniversity, was here six years, and returned to the Madison Methodist 
church. In 1862 he was hospital chaplain at St. Louis, under appointment of 
Mr. Lincoln. In 1865 he was appointed special mail agent in the Southern 
states. He received the degree of Doctor of Divinity from Indiana LTni- 
versity in 185 1 and later that of Doctor of Laws from the Louisville Uni- 
versity. He preached in the South until his death. 



John H. Lathrop, the fourth president of Indiana University, was born in 
January, 1799, in Sherburne, New York. He entered Hamilton College in 
1815 and Yale two years later, receiving his degrees in 1819. He was a tutor 
of note at Yale College ; taught school in New England ; was professor in 
mathematics at Hamilton, 1829. In 1840 he became president of the Uni- 
versity of Missouri, when it tirst started, and when it took him six weeks to 
get there. On account of the slave question, he resigned in 1849 ^.nd went 
as cliancellor to Wisconsin University and after ten years was made president 
of Indiana University, where he remained one year, after which he returned, 
as a professor, to the University of Missouri. He died in May, 1866, at 
Columbia, the seat of the university. 


Cyrus Nutt was the hfth president of Indiana University. He was born 
in Trumbull county, Ohio, September 4. 1814. He graduated at Allegheny 
College, Pennsylvania, in 1831, and soon after went to Asbury University 
(now DePauw), Indiana, where he was licensed to preach in 1837. He was 
professor of languages in 1841, professor of Greek, Latin and Hebrew in 
1849, ^iid served as president of Fort Wayne Female College one year. Then 
he was at Whitewater College for h\e years and again took up preaching. 
In 1857 he was made professor of mathematics at Asbury University, Indiana, 
for two years, until Rev. Thomas Bowman (later Bishop) became its presi- 
dent. In i860 he was made president of Indiana University until end of the 
college year of 1874-75. He died a few weeks after his resignation, August 
24, 1875, and lies buried at Greencastle. Indiana. 


The sixth president of Indiana Uni\ ersity was born in Kentucky in 1829. 
He graduated at Rochester, New York, as a Bachelor of Arts in 1858, was 
made a Doctor of Divinity in i860, and in 1860-64 was pastor of the Baptist 
church at Worcester. Massachusetts. In 1864 he was made secretary of the 
United States Christian Commission. From 1865 to 1868 he held a chair at 
Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, from 1868 to 1872 was editor of the National Bap- 
tist. In 1874-75 he was president of Chicago I'niversity and was then made 


president of Indiana University. He was author of "Annals of the Christian 
Commission" and editor of the "'Baptist and Centenaiy, 1876." Resigned in 
November, 1884. 


Indiana University's seventh president was born in W yoniing, New York, 
in 1851, and was reared on a farm. He early took to botany and in 1869 he 
entered Cornell University, New York, graduating as a Master of Science in 
1875: also had the degree of Doctor of Medicine from Indiana Medical Col- 
lege. He was instructor in botany at Cornell in 1872, and held many chairs in 
various states. From 1879 to 1885 he was professor of biology in Indiana 
University and was made its president in 1884. In 1882 he explored Lake 
Superior; in 1886 the Adirondacks and also Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas and 
Texas; in 1888, Virginia, Tennessee and the two Carcjlinas : 1889, Colorado, 
Utah and Wyoming. He resigned at Indiana Unixersity in 1891 to accept 
the head of the Leland Stanford I niversity, California, which was a hard 
blow to our university in Indiana. More credit is due to this president than 
any other man, living or deceased, for the upbuilding of Indiana University. 


This was the eighth president for Indiana University. He only ser\ed 
a short time and resigned in 1893. baving been made president of Lake Forest 


Doctor Swain was the ninth to hold the presidency of Indiana Uni\ersity. 
He commenced his work in 1893 and ser\ed until in T90J, to go to Swarth- 
more College, of the Society of the Friends, in Pennsylvania. 


Doctor Bryan, the present and tenth president of Indiana University, 
commenced his work where Doctor Swain left off. antl his record is tot> well 
known to be enlarged upon here, in this particular connection. Under his 
wise administration the university is coming fast to the front as one of the 
nation's great educational institutions. 



In the publication of a newspaper, as well as in all other branches of in- 
dustry, there must of necessity be a first one, and here in Monroe county it is 
conceded that Jesse Brandon, an ex-state printer, established the first news- 
paper, at Bloomington about 1826. It was styled the Bloomington Repub- 
lican, although its name was forty years in advance of the birth of the Repub- 
lican party, as now understood in American politics. Mr. Brandon came over- 
land from Corydon with his material and soon took in as a partner Jacob B. 
Lowe. There is no file of this pioneer paper extant now, but it is known from 
various historical events that it only survived imtil about 1829. Either Janu- 
ary I, 1829, or January i, 1830, appeared the first number of a small sheet, 
known as the Independent Whig. It was a five-column paper and its price 
per year was two dollars; its motto was "Measures, Not Men." In 1831 this 
newspaper went defunct. Indeed many have gone the same way in this 
county, for in Bloomington alone there have been no less than thirty-five 
newspaper \'entures. W . D. McCollough & Company were the proprietors 
of the Independent U'liig. 

September 15, 1832, Jesse Brandon and Marcus L. Deal issued the first 
number of the Far West, an exponent of the Whig faith. ^ "Willing to praise, 
but not afraid to blame," was this paper's motto. D. R. Eckles was its pub- 
lisher, and its life was about two years. During the summer of 1832. Dr. 
Deal began the publication of the Literary Register, devoted to the special 
interests of Indiana College, but upon the Far West springing up, this publica- 
tion ceased to be issued. Subsequently. Mr. Deal issued the Bloomington 
Post, another \\'hig organ. This was conducted for about nine years, and 
had a subscription rate of two dollars a year or three dollars if not paid in 
advance. Ben Franklin was another paper started by Jesse Brandon, who 
seemed to be a genuine "starter" of papers ! The Herald was a Whig paper 
established late in the forties by C. Davidson. At the same time J. S. Hester 
conducted an opposition paper at Bloomington. The Christian Record was a 
religious publication by Elder James M. Matthes. This was a monthly in the 
interests of the Christian Church. He also conducted the Independent 


Tribune mid Monroe Farmer. C. G. Berry and Mr. Brandon were also con- 
nected with this paper. 

The Northwestern Ga::ette was established in 1852, by James Hughes, 
and continued for a year and a half. In 1853 Eli P. Fanner and Jesse 
Brandon published the Religious Times, later known as the Western Times. 
In 1854 J. F. Walker and L. M. DenKjtte purchased the Times office and 
began publishing the Bloomington Times. This was the first real organ of 
the newly organized Republican party in Monroe county. Later, this plant 
was removed to Nashville, Tennessee. 

In 1854 A. B. and J. C. Carlton founded the Bloomington News Let- 
ter, a Democratic organ. Howard Coe bought this paper in 1856 and com- 
menced to issue a seven-column paper, called the Bloomington Republican. 
Again the paper changed hands, and Clement Walker and W. S. Bush as- 
sumed control in 1858. Subsequently, Bush severed his connection and J. 
F. Walker became a w(jrking partner. During the years of the Civil war, 
and just after that conflict, this paper had a very large, profitable circula- 
tion. While the Republican was in existence many attempts were made to 
found successful Democratic papers, but without avail, such attempts proving 
but loss and disappointment to their owners. 

In 1867 William A. Gabe began the publication of the Republican, and 
later changed the name to the Republican Progress, and it existed until in 
the nineties. In 1868, the Bloomington Democrat was founded by Thomas 
C. Pursel and continued for some time. He also published the Indiana 
Student, devoted to university interests and local news of the day. 

In August, 1875, the Democrat office was sold to O. G. Hunt and J. V. 
Cook, who began the publication of the Bloomington Times, a Republican 
organ, and two months later H. J. Feltus established the Bloomington 
Courier, a paper still published in connection with the World, and now 
(1913) owned by Oscar Cravens. 

In April, 1877, Walter S. Bradfute began the publication of the 
Bloomington Telephone, prolmbly the first paper bearing this name, as it 
was about that date that the electric telephone was discovered and put in 
practical use. The first issue of the Telephone was about the size of a note- 
sheet of paper, and was full of choice, spicy local items. The Telephone 
office was burned in 1910, and its files and materials generally destroyed, 
but. Phoenix-like, it arose from the ashes and built new quarters, which 
building is among the handsomest in all Indiana for a newspaper pulilication. 

Before passing to other newspaper history, let it be stated that when 


the Telephone was first established Mr. Bradfute had associated with him a 
young man named Arnott, l)ut in November of the same j^ear the pubHca- 
tion was launched, the latter left the office, after which Mr. Bradfute con- 
tinued alone. In 1878 the weekly was enlarged, the first time; in 1880 again, 
and still another enlargement in January, 1883, when it took on the form of 
a six-column quarto. In 1892 the Daily Telephone was started, and is now 
an eight-column folio, printed on a Babcock power press. It is in every 
way an up-to-date paper and has the good will of the community. 

The newspaper publications of Bloomington in 19 13 are the World- 
Courier^ the Telephone and the Star, a weekly, with a university paper styled 
the Daily StudeuL The World-Courier, since comljined. is a semi-weekly, 
while the World is a daily, as well as the Telephone. 

James Marlin conducted a Greenback organ, The True Plan, in 1878, 
when the doctrine of greenback money was rife in the nation. A few months 
in 1880 the Bloomington Hazvkeye was published; it was a Democratic 
pa])er. John East also conducted a small political organ in the campaign of 


Up to 1883-84 the only other place in Monroe county where a newspaper 
had been established was at the enterprising town of EUettsville, where in 
1872, or possibly a year later, Howard L. Morris, editor, and S. B. Harris, 
proprietor, issued the first number of the Ellettsiille Republican, which after 
two issues passed into the hands of Mr. Harris. .\t the end of two issues 
more Harris emjjloyed John Walker to edit the paper, which had a life of 
about six months, after which Harris assumed control for about two years, 
then leased his office to Charles McPheetridge. who sold to William B. and 
S. B. Harris. After \V. B. Harris had continued a while he moved the 
office to Spencer, and a year later came back and was still at the helm in 
1884. While he was absent, a Mr. Hyatt issued a publication styled the 
Graphic. S. K. Harris also issued the N r<.vs for a time. 'I'he first paper 
was the Republican, the second the Sun, the third the People, the fourth the 
Graphic, the fifth the Nei^'s, and the sixth the Monroe County Citizen. The 
present paper of the town is the Farm and Real E.'^tate, a seven-column folio, 
with a subscrii)tion rate of fifty cents per year. It is printed on a power 
press by gasoline power. It was established in 1881, succeeding the Ellctts- 
ville Republican, established in 1872. It is published by B. H. Harris and is, 
politicallv, a Republican newspaper. To go more into details concerning 


the founding and publishing of these Elletts\ille newspapers, it will be well 
to state that in July, 1872, S. B. Harris bought a printing plant which had 
been shipped in by a local stock company. The "company" failed to put up 
the cash, and Mr. Harris advanced the money. The first few issues were 
gotten out by Howard ^Morris, the promoter of the stock company, after 
which Air. Harris hired John V. \\alker, one of the ijldest printers in the 
ccHinty, who had charge till the following December, when \\\ 15. Harris 
took charge, and with the exception of a )ear at Clcnerdale and two vears 
at Spencer, has been in charge ever since. Besides this publication Mr. 
Harris, between 1801 and 1905, established throughout Indiana, Illinois, 
Ohio and Kentucky, one hundred and thirty-fi\e newspapers, the printing 
being done at the plant in Ellettsville. In December, 1905, the W. B. Harris 
& Sons Company was capitalized at twenty-fi\e thousand dollars for the 
purpose of publishing a youth's magazine. Our Boys and Girls. W. B. Har- 
ris, editor, which was the first publication in the United States to give Shet- 
land ponies away as premiums. This publication attained a circulation of 
thirty-five thousand, and was later absorbed by the Star Monthly, of Chi- 
cago. The Saturday Evening Post later took up the plan of giving Shetland 
ponies as premiums, after first getting pointers from the Ellettsville editor 
and publisher. 

Another Monroe county paper is the Suiithzille Nezvs, an independent 
paper established at Smithville on July 31. 1908, by R. B. Carter. 



Tlic leligious sentiment has always been well represented in Monroe 
county, according to statistics gathered at various dates. In 1861, the first 
year of the Civil war, the Ministerial Association of Bloomington had pre- 
pared a table showing the standing of the various churches at that date, 
which may be of interest now : 

The Old School Presbyterians had sittings for 350; average congrega- 
tion, 200; members. 105. 

The New School Presbyterians had sittings for 225 ; average congre- 
gation, 150; members, 83. 

The United Presbyterians had sittings for 300; average congregation, 
100; members, 60. (This was Professor Wylie's church.) 

The United Presbyterians, under Mr. Turner, had sittings for 500; 
average congregation, 250; members, 225. 

Methodist Episcopal, sittings, 500; average congregation, 300; mem- 
bers, 230. 

The Baptists had sittings for 250; membership, 40. 

The Christian church had sittings for 400; average congregation, 200; 
members, 175. 

This gave a total of all sittings, 2,525; average congregation, 1,200; 
total membership, 916. Bloomington then had only 2,200 population. 


This denomination, with the Presbyterians and Baptists, were pioneers 
in this county. They all established church homes about the same time and 
very soon after the county was organized. 

At Bloomington, the Methodists occupied the field in 1820, by organiza- 
tion of a class, and six years later erected their first church. Among the 
early menibers were Joshua O. Howe and wife, Daniel Rawlins and wife, 
Benjamin Freeland and wife, Samuel Hardesty and wife, Ebenezer Shep- 
ard and wife, Mrs. Wright, Jonathan Legg and wife, Naomi Otwell and 
familv, James H. King and wife, Abraham Pauly and others. 


The rir^il church buikliui;- cost six hundrtnl dollars and hdias Abel 
wheeled mortar for it and the Wrights did the brick work. It was sold in 
the forties to the Baptists, and in the sixties to the t atholic people. The 
Methodists erected a new house of worship in i84(), when Rev. Owen was 
pastor. It was the custom to ha\e a door-keeper, and in place of a bell to 
call the congregation together, a large tin burn was used. In 1873 another 
more modern and much larger edifice was built on College street, at a cost 
of twelve thousand dollars, which served until the completion of the present 
magnificent stone ediiice, surmounted with a d(Juble-cross, which at night 
time is kept illuminated by electricity, the expense being provided for Iw a 
prominent member, now deceased. The cost of the present building was 
about one hundred thousand dollars, and it was hnished in 1909, and stands 
on the corner of Washington and Fourth streets. The present member- 
ship of the church is one thousand two hundred and seventy, and its pastor 
is Re\-. J. W. Jones. 

A Alethodist class was organized at the Putnam school house, in Bean 
Blossom township in \St,2 and there met for many years. Early in the 
fifties a church building was provided in the southern ])art of the township 
and services ha\'e been kept up in the township ever since, at various points. 

In the thirties a class was formed in \^an Buren township, with Lewis 
Dale as a pastor, in 1850. A building was erected later at Stanford and 
the society has always prospered. 

In Indian Creek township the Methodists were first in the religious 
field, the first class being formed in the Walker neighborhood, about 1825. 
This was known as Alt. Salem church and was famous in early days for its 
revivals of power and attendance from far and near. I'inally the church was 
divided, some uniting at Stanford and others at various jilaces for conven- 

In Clear Creek township, earlv in tlie fifties, a Methodist class was 
formed at Smithville. 

In Polk township, in the fifties, a clas- was formed and a church or- 
ganized, known as Chapel Hill, a building soon being erected. Later one 
was built at Pleasant A'alley. Salem Chapel was another earl)- organized 

A Methodist church, styled Wesley Chapel, was organized in Rich- 
land township in the twenties. 




At the date of the last conference report ( 1912) the following appears: 

Bloomington, Eighth Street church — 436 membership; church property 
valued at $2,500. 

Bloomington, First church — 1,270 members; church property, $105,- 
000; parsonage property, $7,500: pastor, Rev. J. \V. Jones: church owes, 

Ellettsville — 300 membership; church property valued at $4,200. 

Harrodsburg — 470 membership; church property estimated at $4,500. 

Stinesville and Paragon— 180 members; value of church property. $6,- 

Smithville- — Membership, 94. 

Cross Roads — Membership, no. 

VVhitaker — 14 membership. 

Total membership in Monroe county, in above charges and churches, 
2,801. The total of all benevolences collected in 19 12 in the Bloomington 
district was $11,747. Total value of church property (estimated), $133,600. 

There may be at this date ( 1913) a few country churches not here 


The Presbyterian church at Bloomington was organized on September 
26, 1819, by Rev. Isaac Reed. The first members included Henry Kirk- 
man. David PI. Maxwell, Mary D. Maxwell, John Ketchum and wife, Eliza- 
beth Anderson, Elizabeth Lucas and Patsey Baugh. The society was or- 
ganized at the old log court house which stood wliere now stands the county 
jail. The first regular minister was Rev. David C. Proctor, who took charge 
in 1822, preaching three-fourths of bis time in Indianapolis. Pie was suc- 
ceeded in 1825 1)v Rev. B. R. Hall, principal of the State Seminar}- (now 
University), .\ndrew W'ylie supplied the pulpit from 1830 to 1834: Re\-. 
Ranson Hawley served from 1834 to 1841 : Rev. W. \Y. Martin, from 1843 
to 1845; Rev. Alfred Ryors. from 1845 to 1847: Rev. Levi Hughes, from 
1847 to T851 : Rev. Thomas Alexander, from 1851 to 1853: Rev. F. H. 
Laird, from 1855 to 1856: Rev. Lowman Hall, from 1856 to 1857; Rev. 
T. M. Hopkins, from 1857 to 1869; Rev. A. Y. Moore, from 1869 on for a 
number of years. The first church was erected in 1826 and another in 1859- 
63. that still did service in the eighties. 


In June, 185J, the Second I'reslivterian church was organized with 
eleven memhers, eight from the Mrst church. Rev. Bishop became stated 
pastor in 1857. In April, 1870, the First and Second churches were united 
under the pastorate of Rev. A. Y. Moore, which union was called the Walnut 
Street Presbyterian church. From date of organization in 1819 to 1882 
there had been received into church fellowship eight hundred and twelve 
members, and twelve ministers had gone forth from the church to do good 
work for the Master. 

The United Presbyterian church of Bloomington was composed of all 
branches. Associate (Seceders), Associated Reformed (Union), and the 
Reformed Presbyterians, which were separately organized in 1833, 1834 
and 1838. The three branches remained separate until 1864, when the As- 
sociated Reformed, under Rev. William Turner, and the Associate, under 
Rev. John Bryan, came into the above named union, forming the United 
Presbyterian congregation. In 1809 tlie Reformed congregation, under 
Rev. T. A. VVylie, came into the union. The members were mostly from 
North Carolina and left on account of slavery. At the time of the union the 
membership was about two hundretl. In the early se\enties their church 
was erected in the northern part of the city. 

Of the First Presbyterian church of Bloomington it may be stated that 
it is located in a new thirty tlmusanrl dollar stone edifice on the corner of Sixth 
and Lincoln streets. It now has a membership of more than four hundred, 
including many of the present facult\ of the university, whicli institution 
has a student pastor, Rev. Thomas R. U'hite, and the church's regular pas- 
tor is Rev. John R. Ellis. 

The Reformed Presbyterian churcli, located on Walnut street, was 
organized in 1820 by the Scotch-Irish Covenanters from South Carolina. 
Its neat little brick edifice is still intact and there the faithful from both 
town and city meet regularly and hold divine sen'ices after their own fash- 
ion, and here much spirituality is oliserved. Midweek day prayer services 
are held at present. 

The United Presbyterians, above mentioned as among the early socie- 
ties of the city and Monroe county, have a church on the corner of College 
avenue and Ninth street. Their membershi]) is now a1)out two hundred and 
fifty. This congregation maintains a mission on Maple Heights. Among the 
last pastors is the Rev. Thomas H. Hanna. Jr. 

The Presbyterian denomination also has churches at Ellettsville and 
Harrodsburg, the latter of the Cuiuherland sect or branch. 


Bethesda Presbyterian congregation, east of Bloomington. was organ- 
ized in the thirties. An acre of land was bought in section 3, township 8, 
range i west. Another society was formed and land was donated on sec- 
tion 29, by Mr. Campbell, and in 1856 a church was erected there known 
as "Christian Union." 

The Cumberland Presbyterian church was organized at Harrodsburg 
in the fifties, meetings being held at the school house. 

Another famous church was the Cumberland church of Richland town- 
ship, which was formed in 1830. 


While this denomination has never been as strong in the county as 
some other churches, yet it has been represented at many places in this 
county from early in the twenties, when a small society was formed at 
Bloomington, the Fosters, Stones and Vanoys being leaders in the organiza- 
tion work. 

In Richland township the old Vernal Baptist church was one, if not 
the very first organized in the county. Meetings were held during the 
winter of 1817-18, but a real societv was not perfected for several years 
thereafter. A rude log church was l)uilt in the Sanders neighborhood about 
1826, antl used until 1838, when a frame church was l)uilt further north 
and three-quarters of a mile from Ellettsville. So open and cold was the 
log church that in wintertime services were h,eld at private homes. The 
first minister was Rew James Chambers, who was succeeded by Rev. Leroy 
Mayfield, who served thirty years. Bethany Baptist church, another in the 
same township, was early in organizing. 

In Van Buren township, early in the forties, the Cnited Baptists formed 
a society near Stanford and in 1850 they built a neat church. The old 
Baptist church in the south part of Richland township for years drew large 
congregations from Van Buren township. 

The old Hebron Baptist church, in the southern part of Indian Creek 
township, was formed in the forties, and its influence was felt many dec- 
ades — indeed it is still going on. 

In Clear Creek township an early Baptist church was formed in the 
Nichols neighborhood, probably about 1828. There were numerous points 
within this township at which smaller classes of this denomination did ex- 
cellent pioneer work. 


In Benton township, as early as 1834. a Baptist society was formed, 
near the residence of Lewis Stevens, and it was styled "Little Union." It 
was noted for its spirit of enthusiasm and faithful work. 

In Bean Blossom township, a Baptist church was formed in 1S40, known 
as "Jack's Defeat." Another Bai)tisl church was Mt. ("armel, built in the 
forties. After Stinesville started up, their old log church was a])andoned, 
and the Baptists, Methodists, Christians and Lutherans united and Ijuilt a 
"box" church in the village, which was used until a better Ijuilding was 
erected in 1883-84 b\- the Baptist denomination. The Methcxlists retained 
the old building. 

The present Baptist church at Bluomington is located on the corner of 
Washington and l-'ourth streets: it is a splendid stone structure of recent 
construction, modern in all of its appointments. It has a large, active con- 
gregation and attends well to the needs of the Ba])tist denomination in the 
city. Its latest pastor is Re\-. James A. Brown. 

There are now (1913) Baptist churches at both Stinesville and Fdletts- 
ville, both doing an excellent work. 


By Amzi Atwater. 

In the early day of our country's history a goodly number of religious 
teachers advocated reform chiefly by rejecting creeds and taking the word of 
God as their only guide. Two of the most learned and worthy of these were 
Barton W. Stone, of Kentucky, and Alexander Campbell, of Virginia. Both 
of them had been educated as Presbyterians. Stone began his reformatory 
work about ten years before 1800, Campbell nine years after that time. 
Some of the followers of Stone arri\ed in Bloomington by the time the town 
was laid out in 1818. As they had no church building they met from house 
to house, in their log cabins in winter and in a grove to the northeast in 
summer. The Christian church chapel is not far from the place. Here they 
held great camp meetings, often with much sensational exhorting. John 
Henderson was their preacher. He was a large man, had a strong voice 
and was a great singer. Old settlers said that the voice of John Henderson, 
singing the old-time hymns at evening, could be heard a mile away. He had 
in his employ an ex-slave brought from Kentucky. The people called him 
"Black Aaron." He could preach and act out his sermons at the same time. 
'When he took David and Goliath as his text he would fold his handkerchief 
into a sling, put in the stone, whirl it and let it fly, then turning quickly he 


would personate Goliath, receive the stone in his forehead and fall down 
dead on the platform. 


When the brick court house was built in 1826 Barton Stone came from 
Kentucky and held meetings in it. which made a fine impression on the 
pioneer hearers. The people at once bought a lot and built a house to serve 
both for school house and church. This lasted them, with one enlargement, 
about fifty years. The church parsonage stands on that lot today. Stone 
and Campbell having conferred together as early as 1824, and they and 
their followers many times later on, and having come finally to almost a 
perfect agreement, a union was effected in 1833, in which the views of 
Campbell more largely prevailed. 


Faith and repentance were now much preached and baptism by immer- 
sion to be administered at once w ithout a mourner's bench delay. The com- 
munion was now observed every Sunday. Some people had called the asso- 
ciates of Stone "Newlights." Some now called the church "Campbellite," 
but the members objected and desired to be called simply "Christians," or 
"Disciples of Christ." The deed of the above named lot (167) was given 
in 1826 to the "Trustees of the Christian Church." Though Stone himself 
joined forces with Campbell, some of his associates never did go into the 
"new organization." A few have remained firm to this day and very gen- 
erally say they have the first claim to the name "Christian Church" as a 
distinctive name. Thus some confusion exists. Campbell always preferred 
the name, "Disciples of Christ." Again in these later years a marked division 
has sprung up between the more progressive and more conservative of the 
churches — the one readily adopting missionary and Endeavor societies. Sun- 
day schools and organs, the other rejecting them. The latter party tend to 
the exclusive use of the name, "Church of Christ," which all acknowledge 
to be as Scriptural as "Church of God," both being used in the New Testa- 
ment. Thus again some ambiguity has arisen. The writer hopes that this 
careful explanation will remove all confusion from the mind of every 



It is believed that no other rehgious body has organized so many churches 
in Monroe county as this people who sprang from the Campbell and Stone 
movement. Of these there have been about a score started. A few of them, 
in time, have weakened and ceased to meet. 

While this church has not greatly inclined to organization or combina- 
tion of any kind, the brethren of the early day repeatedly strengthened their 
work by county and district co-operative effort. This can be seen especially 
in the years before the war. Their county co-operation began as early as 
1848, when James Blankenship, who had just come to us from the Baptists 
at Unionville, was chosen county evangelist, and went at once to holding 
meetings in destitute places, while the churches supported him by their con- 
tributions. Later John C. Mathes was chosen county evangelist. Again in 
185 1, the churches of Monroe, Lawrence, Brown, Morgan, Owen, Green. 
Martin and Daviess counties formed a district organization, held annual 
meetings and employed an evangelist. This they kept up till war times, dropped 
it, but resumed it after the war. 

Let us now name the leading events in the formative period of this 
people. Minister John Henderson moved to Illinois in 1830. Though he was 
in sympathy with the new reformatory changes, he did not stay to see them 

Among the men who were in the lead of Bloomington church when 
John Henderson left were Jonathan Nichols, who had laid out the town of 
Bloomington, and later was president of the board of trustees of the Univer- 
sity; Dudly C. Smith, later leader at Harmony church (father of Dudly F. 
Smith) ; David Batterton, afterwards a mainstay in Bloomington church, and 
Jonathan Rogers, the last named grandfather of many in the church today. 


A new impetus was given to the movement and many churches were 
now formed in different parts of the county. Harmony and South Union 
started in 1834, Richland and Clear Creek were organized in 1838. Union- 
ville had a peculiar experience. The Baptist church of that village had as its 
minister in 1848 James Blankenship. At this time he became convinced that 
the Reformers had the true ground. He therefore invited his Baptist breth- 
ren (after setting forth the argument) to go with him, which they did, and 
he thus formed the Unionville Christian church, which took on the geo- 



graphical name. "Young's Ridge," which reported to the district meeting of 
185 1 ninety members. Mount Gilead church was starting about the same 
time, but in a small way, under the lead of Washington Houston as preacher. 
John C. Mathes and Pressly Mathers were active in the work, the latter hav- 
ing the first meetings at his house in the locust grove. Isaac Buskirk and 
wife generously gave the land. Their first house was built in 1851. Mathes 
and Mathers, in the district meeting of that year, reported the little church 
had a membership of twenty members. 

Mount Pleasant, up five miles east of Gosport, near the Morgan county 
line, may have been the next church to get a start about 1850. It was repre- 
sented in the district meeting of 185 1 by Penel Houston and John Cooter 
(father of Elder Nathan Cooter and Benjamin Cooter. commissioner when 
our new court house was built). They also reported their little church had 
twenty members in May of that year. A church was also organized in 
Benton township, known as the Bean Blossom church. 


The New Albany and Salem railroad, stretching north and dotting sta- 
tions along its line, helped to start several churches in the fifties. One of 
these was Ellettsville. The people far to the east and five miles north of 
Bloomington had begun their religious work at Maple Grove as early as 1850 
and really helped Ellettsville make a beginning. The two worked together 
for some years, holding meetings in common. The preachers gave the name of 
"North Liberty" to the Maple Grove movement, but the designation seems 
to have dropped ofif with the following years. The Houstons (J. W. and 
y. O. A.) were leaders and liy August. 1851. they were able to report that 
North Liberty had forty-seven members. This was before Ellettsville had got 
on the church map. The people of these two churches found in B. M. 
Blount (a college student) a man who was a tower of strength to them. 
This worthy preacher may be still living at Indianapolis at this writing in 
extreme old age. He visited Bloomington not many years ago. 

Three other railroad villages must be remembered in mentioning Christ- 
ian church planting, Stinesville, Smithville and Harrodsburg. The last named 
is the oldest, but happened to get located away over the hills and out of 
sight of the railroad builders. Preaching began here earlier than at the other 
places, but has not kept its start. Moses Field was the most zealous and 
most generous contributor to the building of their brick house, which was 
completed in 1869. Rev. William F. Black, who had just held a great revival 


in Bloomington, was called to dedicate it. It illustrates what has been said 
in these pages about modifying church names that at the dedication "Christ- 
ian Church" was put up over the doors, but years afterward those words were 
removed and "Church of Christ" was put in their place. 

At Stinesville one man, John L. Ashbaugh, almost built the little church 
himself in 1856. This burned in 1865, but his son-in-law,, James S. Williams, 
provided an audience room in his business block. This, dedicated by Rev. 
Thomas J. Clark in 1899, lasted them till they could buy a good church 
house high up on Stinesville side-hill. At this writing, 1913, "Uncle Jimmy 
Williams" is enjoying in his old age the friuts of his labors among his breth- 
ren and fellow citizens. 

Years ago you could see at Smithville one man doing the community a 
great service. This was William Leonard. Under his lead they built the 
Christian church in 1856. He was a good, true, safe. Christian leader. The 
annual August meeting in Leonard's Grove may be regarded as an annual 
memorial of William Leonard. 


Let us now glance at the succession of pastors of the Bloomington Christ- 
ian church. Beginning with 1834 }0U may mark ofif the score of years to 
1854 as the period of the labors of James M. Mathes and Elijah Goodwin. 
At first Mathes came from Owen county by monthly visits. Later he came 
with his family in 1838, to attend college and be the settled minister. In 
1 84 1 they remodeled and enlarged the church. In 1843 Mathes began pub- 
lishing a magazine called the "Christian Record." Later Goodwin came and 
helped him. Mathes was the chief editor, Goodwin the great worker. The 
county and district co-operation owe their success to Goodwin. Thomas P. 
Connelly was an able student preacher, 1843 to 1846. The stay of Prof. 
Robert Milligan in the university during 1852 to 1854 was a great advantage 
to the church. The pastorate of Randall Faurote and his good wife. 1859 
to 1 86 1, brought a blessing to all the people. Then followed Harrison Hight. 
lately graduated from the university. 1861 to 1863. James H. McCollough, 
1864; Amzi Atwater. 1865 to 1867 (while he was a student or professor). 
John LaGrange, 1868. W. B. F. Treat, 1869 to 1873. H. D. Carlton. 1875 
to 1877. John H. Hamilton, 1878. Allen B. Philputt, 1879 to 1885, under 
whose leadership the present Christian church was built. George B. Peak, 
1886 to April, 1887. Peter J. Martin, 1888. Franklin Ross, 1889 to 1891. 
L. T. Van Cleve, 1892 to 1894. Thomas J. Clark, 1894 to 1908. Joseph C. 


Todd, 1908 to 1912. ^^'illiam H. Smith, November i, 1912, to the present 


Bloomington congregation has been favored by the visits of great men 
and ardent missionaries. Barton W. Stone came, as has been mentioned, in 
1826. Again he came in 1835, still again in 1838, and lastly in 1843, a year 
before he died. Alexander Campbell came in 1850. He v^^as passing through 
the state, accompanied by another noted man and pulpit orator, John O'Kane. 
They stopped to attend our Indiana state constitutional convention, which was 
then in session, and he was invited to conduct devotional exercises, v^'hich he 
did. At Bloomington he addressed a university audience, preached in the 
church and visited his old friend. President Andrew Wylie. Campbell came 
again in 1861, while the mutterings of the coming war were being heard. 
He was accompanied this time by Isaac Errett. Though he was still able to 
set forth impressively the great doctrines of scripture, his mind was failing 
in common matters of present time. This may have been his last journey 
among the churches. His was a great mind and a noble life. He lived to see 
the success of a world-wide reform. 

One object of the writer of this historical sketch has been to correct 
misunderstanding with regard to the people of whom he has written and 
present to the public the facts as they occurred in this community. Many 
worthy deeds have been done by noble men and women in years gone by, but 
time fails me to duly record them. If they have not "subdued kingdoms," 
they have at least "wrought righteousness." Those who know of them 
should tell the story to their children for a memorial of them to future gen- 
erations. Take for in.stance Thomas Nesbit. James Mathes said of him. "one 
of the best men ever in Monroe county." Dow Foster has written of him 
for our Historical Society under the title, "History of Richland County:" 
"For thirty-five years his home was a haven of refuge for the weary traveler, 
and he was the faithful friend, counselor, spiritual adviser and judge for the 

Henry Dillman has written a most valuable history of Qear Creek 
church, going back to its planting and its charter members. In that history 
he has mentioned many good people; among the best of these was Samuel 
Mathers. Read Dillman's History and see their names by the score. 

Mount Gilead people have their history written up in a book of nearly 
three hundred pages. They have thus recorded the generous deed of Isaac 


Buskirk in giving the land and as their members are called to the better world 
they carefully record the death. 

South Union church has its history started and expects to go on to 
perfect it. Among the first things to be put down will be that P. L. D. Mit- 
chell gave them the land for the church in 1846, but the present house seems 
to have been built ten years later. Among the good men of that congregation 
of the olden time you may write Elder James Shipman. He had been a 
member of Bloomington before South Union was organized. Among the 
good men of the later days we must remember the name of Jacob Car- 
michael, whose funeral we attended with tearful eyes. 


The withdrawal of some members of Bloomington Christian church in 
November, 1877, may be regarded as the natural separation of the progres- 
sive and the conservative element which frequently takes place. Those with- 
drawing have successfully maintained their organization and have built a 
good house at the comer of Fourth and Lincoln streets. 

The Bloomington churcii has started a mission at the corner of Eleventh 
and Indiana avenue for Sunday school and preaching purposes. It is doing 
good work and will some day be a flourishing church. The efifort dates from 
Christmas time, 1911. 

A goodly number of churches adopted a form of co-operation in August, 
1910. They have a county advisory committee made up of representatives 
from each church. Their action is not binding on anybo4y, but just what its 
name indicates. It has already awakened much activity. 

The Kirkwood Avenue Bible Chair is an organization incorporated 
October. 1910, for the more perfect education and cultivation of the young 
people of the Christian church in the university. It ought to accomplish great 


Trinity Episcopal church, at Bloomington, is located on East Kirkwood 
avenue, and is one of the finest specimen of church architecture in the city, 
where so many fine edifices abound. The old church building, in the rear 
of the new structure, is used as a parish house. This society purchased the 
large stone chapter house, next to the church proper, and this is used as a 
home for the Episcopal girls who attend the Indiana L'niversity. The latest 
rector is Rev. William Burrows. This denomination has never been counted 


among the strong churches of Monroe county, but here and there, especially 
in Bloomington, there is a goodly following at present. 

Other denominations and church societies of Bloomington are the 
Christian Scientists, the Colored Methodist and Baptist churches, and the 
Sahation Army, all doing a good work in their own special and unique man- 
ner, reaching those whom the other sects could not hope to reach, under 
present circumstances. 


This is really a church of no special denomination, but adheres as near 
as possible to the apostolic teachings. They separated from the Christian 
church man\' }ears ago, being opposed to instrumental music in churches and 
are also against organized missionary movements. About 1830 such a 
society was organized in \'an Buren township. They first met at the resi- 
dence of Joseph Berry, a leading member. In 1834 a church house was 
erected and ser\ed many years. At Harrodsburg another was formed in 
the thirties and is still in existence. Other points in this county where these 
societies have a footing may be named, in Marion township, formed in the 
forties: on ^'oung■s Ridge, about the same date, and they built in 1851 on 
lot No. 26 in Unionville. 

In Bloomington, the Lincoln Street Church of Christ is a strong society, 
and recenth' erected a beautiful stone edifice on East Fourth street. Rev. 
H. H. Adamson is pastor. 


About the year 1850, Catholics began to settle in and about the city of 
Bloomington, at the time when the Louisville, New Albany & Chicago rail- 
road was built. Hitherto, the most of the inhabitants were Scotch Presby- 
terians, and had kept the Catholics from entering this territory. But, as the 
railroad was the result of the work of Catholic people mostly, the members 
of this denomination began to gather in Monroe county. 

The first priest was the Rev. Patrick Murphy, who lived at Mt. I'leasant, 
and visited Catholic families scattered along the line from Salem, in Wash- 
ington county, to Gosport, in Owen county. Rev. Louis Neyron, who had 
once been an officer in the great French army under Napoleon Bonaparte, 
next visited this region and said mass to the Catholic families. During this 
perit)d an important step was taken, namely, the purchase of a lot. Rev. 


Edward Martinovic, of Columbus, came next to this district, and then the 
Rev. Simon Siegrist, of Indianapohs. Rew Joseph O'Reilly, stationed at 
Greencastle, Putnam county, in [8()0, paid a visit to Bloomington on the 2nd 
of December, i860, and made a regular practice of ^•isiting this place at 
intervals. Rev. Charles J. Mongin, of Crawfordsville, became the \isiting 
pastor in April, 1864. At this time the cpiestion of a church building l^e- 
came agitated, the first mention having been made in 18^0. b_)hn Waldron 
kindly purchased the oldest brick building in town, which was formerly a 
Methodist church erected in 1826. This purchase was made on juh" 4, 
1864, for six hundred dollars. Mass was first held in that church on the 
igth day of that month of July, 1864. A mission was held shortly after- 
wards by the Passionist Fathers, Martin and Luke, and was attended with 
notable effect. From the departure of Father Mongin until the arrival of 
the first resident pastor, the Rev. Julius Clement, residing at (ireencastle, 
attended Bloomington and in 1868 built a parsonage. 

Rev. Henry H. Kessing became the first resident priest at Bloomington 
on November 4, 1868. He remained until July, 1877. Kev. Leopold M. 
Burkhardt was appointed resident pastor on July 2<). 1877. The congrega- 
tion at that time numbered twenty-se\'en families, and had two hundred and 
seventy dollars in the treasure The necessity for the building of a new 
church became apparent to the Catholics of Bloomington, as the old struc- 
ture had been for a long time unsafe for use. This was a difficult and 
doubtful undertaking, ])ut the memt)ers set to work with a will not to be 
defeated. The Rev. August Bessonies laid the corner stone for the new 
house of worship on June 16, 1878. and in December of the same year the 
congregation took possession of their new church. The structure was of 
Gothic architecture, sixty by thirty-five feet, with a hundred-foot steeple, 
and cost five thousand six hundred dollars. 

In March, 1879, Rev. John B. Unxerzagt succeeded b'ather I'.urkhardt 
as resident pastor. On Se|)teml)er 7, 1879, the church of which St. Charles 
B. is the patron, was consecrated by liishop Chatard. blather Cnverzagt 
continued until 1882, when he was in turn succeeded by Rev. T. X. Logan. 

Rev. Af. H. Bogemann. the present pastor of the church at Blooming- 
ton, came here in June, 1885. He had under his charge on his arrival seven 
counties, Owen, Greene, Brown, Monroe, Lawrence, Orange and Washing- 
ton. Father Bogemann has served continuall\- since that time, and has won 
a place of respect and affection with everyone in the cit)- of Bloomington. 
His fidelitv, devotion and sympathetic intercourse with the people is char- 


acteristic of the man. Broad and logical in intellect, tender as a child, but 
with Viking strength and unswerving integrity, Father Bogemann graces 
well the holy position which he occupies. The church at Bloomington now 
numbers five hundred souls. Plans are being considered for the erection of 
a new church at a different location. This undertaking, of course, is ac- 
companied by difticulties, but with the wise leadership of the priest it is a 
near realization. An adecjuate i:)arochial school will also be established with 
the church. 

Father Bogemann was born in Franklin county, this state, on March 
lo, i860, and was the son of Henry and Elizal>eth (Broxtermann) Boge- 
mann. His parents resided in Cincinnati, Ohio, before his birth, but finding 
climatic conditions there unsuited to the father's health, moved into Franklin 
county, Indiana. Rev. M. H. Bogemann was educated by the Benedictine 
Fathers in Spencer county, Indiana, at St. Meinard's College and Seminary. 
In the year from 1899 to 1900 he attended Oxford College. England, doing 
post-graduate work, and was known as the first Catholic priest, secular priest, 
to matriculate in Oxford since the days of the Reformation. Father Boge- 
mann has been interested in architectural work during his life, and has re- 
garded the profession as sort of an avocation. He drew plans and built the 
first Catholic church at French Lick in 1886. He also constructed the Bed- 
ford church, and later planned the construction of Kirkwood hall. Indiana 
University, for the state. The school authorities had given up the building 
of this last edifice because the plans could not be made to fit in with the 
amount of appropriation, due to the high cost of stone. Father Bogemann 
took charge of the work, reconstructed the architectural drawings to a 
straight line style, and arranged so that the building could be built, with 
funds left over. Father Bogemann was chairman of the building committee 
of the Monroe countv court house, and suggested the use of concrete in its 


Without attempting to go into the detailed history of the workings of 
the civic orders of the county, it will be but proper to give some facts con- 
cerning the three prominent secret fraternities, the Masons, Odd Fellows and 
Knights of Pythias. 



Cecilia Lodge No. i66, at Bloomington, was instituted by J. B. Ander- 
son, grand master, August i. 1853, the following being the charter member- 
ship: H. C. Smith, John W. Smith, L. M. Hays, C. H. Laird, Daniel 
Shrader, C. R. Miner, John Warner, Theodore Johnson, Peter Clemison and 
Thomas H. Sinex. It had a membership of one hundred and fifty in 1884, 
was in a flourishing condition, and owned a good lodge room on College 
avenue. It also had an encampment here, known as Herndon No. 56, insti- 
tuted at Gosport. August, 1858, but in January, 1862, was removed to Bloom- 
ington. At present the membership. of the subordinate lodge at Blooming- 
ton is three hundred and fifty, and its elective officers are : Mort Gaskins, 
noble grand ; Edwin Carmichael. vice-grand ; Arthur G. Lewis, recording 
secretary ; A. H. Beldon, financial secretary ; Lsaac W. Walker, treasurer. 
This order owns a good hall on Walnut street. The encampment in Bloom- 
ington has a membership of about one hundred and sixty, with present officers : 
A. H. Beldon. chief priest; James H. Cooper, high priest: W. J. Durst, senior 
warden ; Harrv Barnes, junior warden ; Isaac W. Walker, treasurer. 

In the side towns of this county are located Odd Fellows lodges as fol- 
lows : Ellettsville; Oolitic Lodge, at Stinesville; Arbutus Lodge, at Clear 
Creek ; Harrodsburg Lodge, at Harrodsburg, each having about one hundred 
members. Ellettsville has also an encampment. 


The first Masonic lodge in Monroe county was instituted at Blooming- 
ton, as Monroe Lodge No. 22. Its detailed history is not attainable at this 
date, but is being prepared by a committee of the fraternity, in a booklet form, 
but too late for insertion in this work of the county. The fraternity is strong 
here, having in Bloomington alone three hundred and sixty members, with 
present officers as follows: John T. Eller, worshipful master; Fred A. 
Seward, senior warden; Stacy O. Harrell. junior warden: Frank C. Duncan, 
treasurer : Hugh Baker, secretary ; Joseph Boyd, tyler. 

Bloomington Chapter No. 70, Royal Arch Masons, was organized in 
1867, by the following membership: Cyrus Nutt, Hiram Gilmore, G. \\\ 
Hardin. J. J. Durand, J. J. Hight, Asher. Labertew, George Sheeks, M. C. 
Hunter, J. G. McPheeters, M. L. McCullough, J. B. Hamilton, Augustine 
Holtzman and J. T. Holtzman. The present membership of this chapter is 



one hundred and fifty. Its present ( 1913) officers are: Orville B. Fuller, 
high priest; Alilton L. I'xjrden, exalted king; Fred A. Seward, exalted scrihe ; 
Lon D. Rogers, treasurer ; Hugh Baker, secretar)- ; John L. Boyd, tyler. 

Bloomington is also the home of a council of Royal and Select Masters, 
but there is no comniandcry of Knights Templar. 

In other parts of the county this ancient and honorable order has flourish- 
ing lodges at the following points: Ellettsville, Stanford and Harrodsburg. 
The lodge rooms of this county will compare favorably with any county in 
the state, where there are no larger towns. 


This is the youngest of the three great secret orders, and was first insti- 
tuted in Monroe county in Bloomington. It was Franklin Lodge No. 22. 
It moved on rapidly until today it has a membership of three hundred and 
ten, with the following present elective ofticers : W. A. Wellon, chancellor 
commander; Fred Hazel, vice-commander; H. E. Wahl, prelate; Arthur 
Lewis, master of work; John T. Foster, master of exchecjuer ; John Kirby, 
master of finance ; Wilson I. Ross, keeper of records and seal ; Walter Billeg, 
master at arms ; Keneth Stout, inside guard ; Walter Pruett, outside guard. 

The county has lodges of this order at the following points : At Smith- 
\ille, Stinesville, Stanford, Harrodsburg and Ellettsville. In each there is 
a round membership of about one hundred. 



These two professions haxe been al)ly represented in AJijnroe connt_\ and 
its county seat, Blooniington. it will not be possible to give a detailed account 
of all who have served as either lawyers or physicians here for the last ninety 
odd years, but the following will call to memory many of those who have 
graced the two professions with the flight of years; also there will be found 
in conclusion, the names of the present attornexs and phwsicians of the county. 

In searching for those who have practiced law, for a longer or shorter 
peri(jd, the writer has had much difticult}', as tlierc are no I'ecord.s kept in 
regular order nf tliese legal men. We depend du the memory of older men, 
and on books and ])apers published man\' \-ears since, for what data we have 
collected, b'rom such sources it is learned that the following ha\'e |)racticed 
law here, the list not calculated to be gi\en chronologically: 

Eli K. Milieu, who commenced the practice of law here in the autumn of 
1858, was born in this countv in i<S37: graduatetl at the uni\ersity here .in 
1858: was prosecuting attorney tw(j years: was considered the best lawyer in 
the countv manv vears ago. He acted as a special judge in Monroe county 
at \arious times. Politically, he was a life-long Democrat. 

John PI. Louden, a Peimsyhauian b\- l)irth, was the son of an elder in the 
Reformed Presbyterian church. Pie taught school in 1861 -fij. and during 
the last year studied law as well, his preceptor being Judge Read of Conners- 
ville. He also assisted in the summer of 1862 in raising a com])an\- of Ci\il 
war troops for the Fifth Indiana Regiment, and intended entering the >er\-ice. 
but was taken ill and abandoned the thought, lie bad charge of tbe lUooiii- 
iiu/toii Republican, at the same time reading law with judge Hughes. He 
graduated from the law department of Indiana Tniversit}- in r8r)4 and at once 
commenced the practice of his profession. He had fm- bis i)artners -;uch men 
as Capt. John W. McCoy, Frank Wilson and Hon. M. V. Hunn. als,, R. \V. 
Miers. He became one of the state's best lawvers. 

George A. Buskirk, born in 1820. the son of .\bram Puskirk. was edu- 
cated at the Rloomington schools, then entered the ofhce of David Browning, 
clerk of the Afonrop countv coiu't. He entered the jireparatorv course of 




Indiana University just as the war with Mexico broke out, and he enHsted 
at Lafayette, but transferred to the Third Indiana Regiment, under Col. 
James H. Lane, serving till the end of that war. He followed the printer's 
trade for a few \ears, on the Democratic paper at Bloomington, and in 1849 
began the study of law, graduating from Indiana University in 1850. In 
1856 he was elected judge of this circuit, and was re-elected in i860. He 
was sent to the Legislature in 1867, being again elected to the same position 
of trust in 1868-69, and was speaker of the Lower House. In 1871 he organ- 
ized the First National Bank of Bloomington, and was made its president. 
In war days he was greatly appreciated by Governor Morton, who appointed 
him colonel of the Indiana Legion. 

John \\". Buskirk. second son of John B. Buskirk, was born in 1845 '^'i 
Lawrence count}', Indiana, and entered the State University of Indiana in 
1859. He enlisted in Company G, h^orty-ninth Indiana Regiment, serving 
until June, 1863. He soon entered the law office of Hon. J. L. Collins at 
North America, and after two years formed a partnership with his preceptor. 
Two years later he removed to Paoli, where he was a law partner of his 
brother until 1869, then moved to Bloomington, Indiana, and after two years 
formed a partnership with Lester L. Norton, l>ecoming two years later a part- 
ner of H. C. Duncan. He was a successful lawyer and in time was elected 
prosecuting attorney. Politically, he was a stanch Democrat. 

Hon. John R. East, born in Indian Creek township, this county, in 1845, 
was the son of pioneer William East, who settled here in 1828. In February, 
1864. he enlisted in Company I, Fifty-ninth Indiana Regiment, serving nearly 
two vears during the war of the Rebellion, aiid was with Sherman on his 
famous march to the sea. He returned, taught school and in March, 1869, 
entered the law office of Judge S. H. Buskirk. He graduated from the Uni- 
\ersity in 1870, and fc^rmed a law partnership with James H. Rogers, after 
which he assumed the duties of circuit clerk. He then resumed his law prac- 
tice, having for partners, at dififerent times, Hon. C. \\'. Henderson, and 
Colonel W. C. L. Taylor. In October. 1878, he was appointed prosecuting 
attorney, served a year, remaining in jjractice alone until 1882, when he 
formed a partnership with his brother, William H. East. 

William H. East, a native of this county, l>orn in 1852 in Indian Creek 
township, and the voungest of seven children in the family, when eighteen 
years old entered the printing office of Thomas Purcell. One year later, 
seeing he had missed his calling, he taught school until 1874, when he became 
deputy clerk, then taught and read law alternately for three )'ears. He then 


farmed two years and taught another year, after which he formed a partner- 
ship with his brother, J. R. East, in the law business, which proved to Ixt his 
success in Hfe. 

Robert C. Foster, born in i'hihidelphia, I'ennsylvania, in 1S31, entered 
Indiana University in 1844, graduating in 1850. lie went back to his native 
city and studied law two years and was elected deputy auditor of Monroe 
county, under William Tarkingtou, ser\ing until 1S55. He was then elected 
auditor, and in 1859 was re-elected. In 1863 he went into the dry goods 
trade for three years, and was then elected county clerk, and after four years 
in that office practiced law for a time and was made cashier of the Blooming- 
ton First National Bank ,ser\ing until 1880, after which he practiced the legal 
profession. For twentv-five vears he served faithfully and well as secre- 
tarv of Indiana University. In 1876 he was elected to a seat in 'tlie State 
Legislature and held other positions of trust in Monroe county. 

John Graham was born in Bloomington, Indiana, in 1842. where he re- 
sided until manhood. He entered the State I'niversity, at Bloomington, 
graduating from the law department. In 1870 he was elected librarian of 
the supreme court of Indiana, served two years, returned to Bloomington, 
and soon engaged in his profession. In 1882 he was elected as representative 
to the Indiana Legislature, and also had a large real estate business. 

J. E. Henley, born in 1856, in Orange county, Indiana, came to Bloom- 
ington when fifteen years of age. He graduated in 1873 from the State Uni- 
versity with high honors. The following autumn he took the chair of Greek 
in Smiths Grove College, Kentuckw but a \ear later was made superintendent 
of the city schools in Shoals, Indiana, serving two vears. He studied law and 
in 1880 entered upon his regular ]uactice. He was a jiartner of William P. 
Rogers. In 1882 was elected prosecuting attorney in which he made an 
efficient official. 

Hon. Robert W'. Miers, Ijorn in 1848, was reared to farm labor, but at 
the age of sixteen commenced to teach school. In 1868 he entered the State 
University of Indiana, graduating in 1871. One )ear later he graduated 
from the law department, and was at once admitted to the practice of law. 
In the spring of 1874 he became a partner of Judge Echols, and was one year 
later elected prosecuting attorney, on the Democratic ticket, and re-elected 
in 1878. He served as a representative from this county, and developed into 
an excellent attorney and served on the bench of his district. 

James F. Morgan was born in Harrodsburg, Indiana, in 1855, and after 
obtaining a common school education taught school to secure funds with 


which to enter the State L'iii\ersity, which he did in Septeml>er, 1874, re- 
mained one year and again laught sch(jul. Jn 1877 he entered the North- 
ern Indiana Xornial at \alparaiso, whence lie gradnated in the teacher's 
department in 1878. lie then taught in StinesviUe and Rockville, Indiana, 
and in June. 1881, entered the law office of Buskirk & Duncan, of Blooming- 
ton, and was soon appointed deputy prosecuting attorne}- of Monroe county 
by Judge Mavity, and after his term expired was engaged in the law and real 
estate business. 

feremiah I'. I'ittman, jjurn in 1842, in Orange county. Indiana, received 
a common school education, and at fourteen years of age went to school in 
Leaxenworth, Crawford county. Indiana. In the fall of 1861 he began teach- 
ing, but resigned, and in Xo\ember, that year, enlisted in Company F, 
h'iftieth Regiment Indiana Volunteers, serving o\ er three years in the Union 
cause in Cix'il war days. After his return he was elected county recorder, 
served three years and in the meantime studied law and entered the practice 
of that profession in IJloomington. He attended law school in the winter of 
1867-68, graduating in June, 1 8r)8. Four years later he was appointed 
prosecuting attornev for this district, lie was also a count\- commissioner 
of Monroe county, and a law partner of Major Mulky. 

William P. Rogers was born in 1857. in ISrown countw Indiana, and at 
the age of sixteen entered the high school of I'loomington, remaining two 
years. During 1875-76 he taught scliool in I'.rown county, and in i87() he 
entered the State Cnixersilw remained three \ears ;nul then began reading 
law with Buskirk t\: Duncan. In 1^71; he formed a i.iartnership in law with 
F. E. Sadler, but after a short time practiced alone until the fall of 1881, when 
he became a jjartner of J. K. Henley and both had a large clientage. 

C. R. Worrall was born in .Marion. Iowa. In 1871 he entered Asbury 
b'ni\ersity (now DeFauw Cni\ersit\). remained three A'ears, and then 
entered tiie law department nf Indiana Cnixersity. from which he graduated 
in 1876. Two years later he commenced the regular jjractice of law at 
Bloomington. hie remained here onlv two \ears and removed to Ogden, 
Iowa, practicing there three years, iluring which time he served as city attor- 
ney and citv recorder. In the autunm of 1881 he returned to Bloomington. 
and. after teaching for a time, engaged in law i)ractice. 

H. C. Duncan, born in 1845, in Fawrence county. Indiana, entered the 
State University in 1864. He enlisted in the One Hundred and Thirty-sixth 
Indiana Regiment in October, 1864. He graduated from college in 1868: in 
i86q was appointed enrolling clerk in the Indiana Fegislature, and in 1872 


loriiiecl a partiiL^rshin with Mr. Dunn in law practice. Two years later lie went 
to Bloomington and had tor a ]jartner John \\". Ikiskirk. In iSSo he was 
elected prosecuting attorney. 


The members ol" the bar in this countv in Ud^ were all residing at the 
county seat, as near as can be learned from the counl\' clerk. Thev are these : 
Batman. .Miller ^X: Blair, h'rank J. Durm, Ernest .\. Darbv, Rutus H. East. 
Jess B. Eields. Joseph E. Henley. Walter E. Hottel. Thomas J. Louden. 
^^"illiam M. Louden. Lee & Lee. Miers X- Corr, R. L. Morgan, :Malott & Bar- 
clay. John E. Regester. Springer &- Sare. Judge John B. Wilson. Wellons lK: 
Carpenter. Charles B. Waldron. 

l'[IVSrCI,\XS OF TIT!--. COl'NTV. 

Among the earliest doctors of Moriroe county ma\' be recalled the names, 
lives and characters of such as Drs. David H. Maxwell. W. C. ^\^ster. Roach. 
Jenkins and Janies D. Maxwell. 

Dr. J. Ci. McPheeters. a native of Kentuckx. born in rSi 1. studied medi- 
cme under Dr. 1). hi. Maxwell and others here and in Kentucky. Fie came 
to Bloomington in the spring of o'^^i and entered the .State Cni\ersity. grad- 
uating in 183.4. In 1838 he commenced to stud\- medicine innler Dr. War- 
field, of Lexington. Keinucky : the next yeai- he returned to B.loomington, 
and resuivied, his studies w ith Dr. Maxwell. In the spring of 1840 he began 
practice in .Morgantown. Indiana. 1X41 lif came to IMoomington and entered 
into i)artnershi]) with Dr. .Alcixwell. continuing until iN5(). In August. 1861, 
he entered the L'm'on army as a surgeon of the I'ourteenth Indiana Regmient. 
ser\ing three }ears. In 1864 he was honorablv discharged an.l upon his re- 
turn home engaged in the practice of his profession. 

Dr. J. E. Dodds was liorn in 1807 and was reared in Lincoln county, 
Kentucky. He entered the State Cni\er>it\- when twenty years of age. 
graduating in 1834. He taught in the university se\eral years and also taught 
in Cumberland College. Kentucky. In 183Q he began reading medicine and 
entered Louisville Medical College. In ^Vugust. iX|o. he entered into part- 
nershi]i with Dr. Mitchell and began regular ]>ractice at Corydon. Indiana, 
where he remained fne years. l*"rom i86j to 1 8S_' he was examining sur- 
geon for the pension department. 

Dr. James M. Harris, born in Kentucky in 181Q, at the age of twenty 


years entered the office of Dr. S. P. Langdon, of Gosport, and soon located 
at Ellettsville, this county. He was the only doctor of that place and had a 
large, paying practice. In 1865 he established a drug business and later 
retired to his two-hundred-acre farm. He opened the first hotel at Elletts- 
\ille in 1850. He was a public spirited man and made many warm friends. 

Dr. Rice C. Harris, born in Owen county, Indiana, in 1834, was four- 
teen years old when he removed with the family to Ellettsville, where he at- 
tended, and in 185 1 taught school. In 1852. under his brother, Dr. J. M. 
Harris, he ccjmmenced the study of medicine. In 1856-57 he attended lec- 
tures at Ann Arbor, Michigan, and later engaged in the medical practice with 
his brother, Ixit shortly left for Coles county, Illinois, where he practiced four 
years, then moved to this county again He made a handsome property and 
owned several farms and houses. He was postmaster and served as such 
sixteen years at his township residence. 

Dr. James Dodd, born in 1832, in Lawrence county, Indiana, lived on the 
old home farm until 1855, when he commenced the study of medicine with 
doctors at Bedford, I'ennsyhania. He located in Harrodsburg in 1857, and 
in the winter of 1858-59 graduated from the Ohio Medical College. In 1870 
he exchanged his town property for eighty acres of land and there carried 
on agriculture as well as practiced medicine. He was appointed surgeon of 
the Sixty-seventh Indiana Regiment in 1862. His health prevented a long 
stay in the ser\ ice of his country. 

Dr. G. W. Bryan was Ijorn in 1825, in Beaver county, Pennsylvania. 
His educational facilities were poor in his youth. He commenced the trade 
of a tailor, w ith his l)rotlier, w ho died two years later. He then spent three 
vears at that trade in .Vllegheny county, Penns\l\ania, after which he worked 
as a journeyman a year, and then opened a shop in Indiana. He studied 
metlicine with a Dr. 3*1 oon for two years, and attended lectures at Cleveland 
in the Western Reserve College of Medicine, l)eginning his practice in Alle- 
gheu)' county, Pennsyh'ania. He came to Bloomington in 1855 and at once 
set up his practice here. In December, 1862, he was appointed assistant sur- 
geon of the Sixty-seventh Regiment of Indiana X'olunteers. He was a stanch 
churchman of the L'nited Presbyterian faith. 

Dr. A. J. Axtell. born in Washington countw Indiana, in 1827. became 
one of the leading physicians in Monroe county. He commenced the study 
of medicine in [847 in Xoble count)-, Ohio, continuing four years. He 
engaged in regular practice in 1850 and moved to Greene county, Indiana, 
where he continued twenty years and had a large practice. He came to 


Bloomington in 1873 and ever afterwards practiced the art of healing. He 
served as captain in Civil war days in Company A, Ninety-seventh Indiana 

Dr. J. H. Gaston, born in Greene ccjunty, Indiana, in 1844, ^^'^^ reared 
on a farm. He attended the academy at Bloomfield, Indiana, and one term 
at Asbury University, Greencastle, and taught school for two terms. In 
August, 1862, he enlisted in the Ninety-seventh Regiment Indiana Volun- 
teers and saw much hard fighting service. At Kenesaw Alountain he received 
a wound in his arm which disabled him, so he came home. He studied 
medicine with Dr. Bailey at Stanford, and attended Miami Medical College, 
graduating in 1872, when he set up his practice at Stanford, where he had a 
fair practice. 

Dr. Robert M. Weir was born m Richland township, Monroe county, in 
1841. He entered the State University, at Bloomington, in 1857, graduating 
in 1863. He commenced the study of medicine that autumn, under Dr. J. D. 
Maxwell, but after eight months enlisted in Company K, One Hundred and 
Thirty-third Regiment from Indiana, as a "hundred day man." In the fall 
of 1864 he entered the University of Michigan, graduating from the medical 
department in March, 1866. In the seventies he came to Bloomington where 
he built himself up in a good practice. 

Dr. L. T. Lowder, who was born in Lawrence count}-, Indiana, in 184O, 
received a good literary education at the State University at Bloomington, 
and, after attending a full course at the Indiana State Medical College, he 
graduated in 1873 and came to Harrodsburg, where for many years he was 
a successful physician and surgeon, as the term was then understood. 

Dr. Chesley D. ]\lcLahlan. a native of Lawrence county, was born in 
1847 of Scotch-Irish origin. He attended the home schools and later the 
schools of Bedford, Indiana, where he ol)tained a fair common school educa- 
tion. He was a member of the One Hundred and Forty-fifth Indiana Regi- 
ment, serving until the Civil war had ended. In 1867 he came to Harrodsburg 
and commenced the stud}- of medicine in the office of Dr. Beard, a very prom- 
inent physician. He later attended Rush Medical College, graduating in 1871. 
He then commenced his regular practice at Harrodsburg. He succeeded re- 
markably well, and was one of the men whom we may truthfully call "self- 

Dr. R. M. (ireer was born in 1851, in Troup count}-, (ieorgia, l.)ut owing 
to the condition of ])ul)lic schools in the South at thai date, had but little 
chance for an education. He went to school after the war at Davisville, 


Alabama. He then spent some nKmtlis at Lonisville Medical College and two 
terms at the Louisville l'ni\ersit \ . The family remo\e(l to Monroe county, 
this state, in 1870, antl to Stines\illc in 187J. where he was engaged in the 
stone quarries three Aears, after wliich he liegan tlie stud}' of medicine with 
Dr. Smith, of (iosport, hnishing his course in the College of Medicine and 
practical at (losport erne year, then located at Stines\-ille, where he won dis- 
tinction in his profession. He also conducted a good drug ])usiness at the 
same place. 

Dr. Henr\- P. Tourner was ])orn in W'aterford. Ireland, ui uSii. His 
father d\ing while the son was \et an infant, he was placed in the hands of an 
uncle to rear and educate him. When twenty-three years of age he \vent 
to Canada, then to Chicago, after which he drifted .South. In 1840 he pre- 
pared himself for a medical man, whicli ])rofession he followed in Mississippi, 
Tennessee and Kentuckw iinallv locating in lUoomington, Indiana, in 1858, 
entering on a general medical praclice. wdiich he continued until his ileath, in 
1881. As a citizen, he a!wa\-s commanded the ;ittention of e\eryone in his 
circle of ac(|uaintance, heing charitalde, faitliful and tender-hearted. As a 
doctor he possessed rare skill. I' or twenty-three years he was an office- 
bearer in the Church of Christ, and an active member of the Masonic lodge. 

Dr. John P. Tourner, son of Dr. Henry P. Tourner, above mentioned, 
was born in 1854, in Kentucky, but reared near Bloomington, Indiana. In 
1873 he commenced the study of medicine with his father, and two years 
later eiUered the h'.clectic Medical College at (.."incinnati, remaumig one year, 
then returned to IHoomington, forming a ])arlners]iip \vitli hi^' lather in the 
medical |jractice. He took up his father's large practice, at the latter's death 
in October. 1881. 

Dr. |olin D. .Simpson was born in ()wen count}-, Iventucky, in 1846. 
He obtained a lietter lilerarv educatiou ihan the ax'crage doctor (d' his da}- and 
generatiou. In 1 8O4 he went to Louis\-ille, Kentuck}-, and was for one }-ear 
engaged ni ;i wholesale con-imission house. In that cit}-, in 1 8(';6, he began 
the stud}- of medicine, graduating at the Cnixersit}- of Medicine there in 1868. 
The same }ear he came to 1 lehons\i]le. Indiana, and oi)ened his jiractice. 
He graduated at I'elleNue Hospital, Xew ^'ork, in ]87c\ and went to Bedford 
to i)ractice his i)rofession. In 1880 he remoNed lo Harrodslmrg, this count}-, 
where he also engaged in the drug trade. 

Dr. John K. Harris w-as born in KeiUuck}- in 1847. His father was 
liookkeeper a number of \-ears and in i85(') was elected city assessor of Louis- 
x'ille, serving until 1873; he died in 1880. In 1863, John T{. entered the 
laboratory of Prof. Jenkins, and clerked in a drug store until 1865. He ran 


a drug trade, at the same time studying medicine, graduating in \S()H, fr(_)m a 
IDractical school of medicine and su!-gery. He graduated from sexeral schiiols 
of medicine and practiced in Louis\ille until 1S76. then removed to I'.loom- 
ington. Indiana, where he worked himself into an excellent ])ractice. 

Dr. William L. W'hitted was born in Bedford, Indiana, in 1842. In 
i8()i he enlisted as a member of Company B, Eighteenth Indiana Regiment, 
and in 18O3 was made sergeant, ancl sulisequentlv \eteranized and was pro- 
moted to second lieutenant : was then captain and major until the ci\il struggle 
had ended. Having prepared himself and practiced some as a phvsician in 
1869 he came to Monroe county. Indiana, locating in bdlettsxille. In 1877-78 
he attended antl graduated from Miami Medical L'ollege. In 1881 he estalv 
lished himself in the drug trade with .Mr. Hughes. 


As near as can be learned the following were practicing medicine in 
Bloomington and the smaller towns within Monroe counl\' in the month of 
September, 1913 : 

At Bloomington the_\- were 1\. A. Aikin, V. 11. Ilatman. \\\ X. Culmer, 
Fletcher (iardner, Luc_\- Ciardner, C \i. Harris, Phili]) C Holland, (i. V. Hol- 
land. J. E. P. Holland, J. E. Luzadder. O. F. Rogers, R. C. Rogers, John C. 
Ross, Rodney I'. Smith, Charles C. Stroup, ¥. U. Tournev, j. P. Tourne\', L. 
E. Whetsell, James W.' Wiltshire, Homer Woolery, Dr. Bobbitt. 

in the outlying towns are: At Stinesville, Dr. W. Pice IPjltzman; at 
Harrodsburg, Dr. D. J. Holland: at Snuthville. Dr. j. ixentlmg. and at Clear 
Creek. Dr. Morris. 

With the passing of the decades, mucli achancement has l)een made in 
the count}- in the methods of ])racticing medicine. a< well a> in other arts and 
professions. It goes without saying that the doctor^ of long ago clid the 
best they knew how. and in nian\- wa}-s were e\'en more faithful to the knowl- 
edge the\ possessed than modern-da\- practitioners. In surgery, they were 
not ad\anced much, but toda}- this lirancli of medical science has ad\-anced 
rapidly, e\en in the la>t twent\- _\'ears. Operations once belie\ed impossible 
to perform are easil_\- handled now. The old doctors did not ha\e the aid of 
local hos])itals, hence could not meet with the success that now attends the 
profession. Then be praise given in record form, in the annals of Monroe 
county, to those old "family doctors'" who rode against the biting frosts of 
manv se\'ere winters, in darkness and da\light. for the hojie of pav or with- 
out it. Peace to their ashes ! 



The resolutions creating" Monroe county from a portion of Orange 
county were passed by the General Assembly of Indiana and approved 
on the 14th of January, 1818, and in the year after, 1819, the county of Mon- 
roe was formed, as a district, for the organization of the Tw^entieth Regiment 
of Indiana militia. The memories of the war of 1812 were fresh in the minds 
of the people and the necessity of trained troops was realized by force of the 
inadequacy of the soldiery in the Revolution and later conflict in 1812, in ad- 
dition to the continuous and sanguinary struggles with the hostile Indian 
tribes. Monroe county, as an organized district, was not represented in these 
early wars, but her men were scattered through the ranks of the American 
army, and contributed nobly to the service of the country. The long list of 
the honored dead and the heroic tales, scraps of narrative, and other incidental 
records attest the bravery, the sacrifice, and the suffering of these men of 
the territory now Monroe county. The fear of the savages who roamed the 
wilderness was uppermost in the apprehension of the pioneers, and conse- 
quently the militia came to be in that day the prime institution of the county. 
Constant vigilance was observed on the frontier, and everything kept in readi- 
ness for any outbreak on the part of the savages who were stubbornly giving 
ground to the onward march of the settlers. Even after the removal of the 
tribes from Monroe county, the militia was kept intact for several years, until 
the active interest in the organization began to wane, and the military system 
became a mere comedy compared to its former state. As the troubles with 
the Indians had in a measure subsided, the troops that once had paraded 
]jroudly before the admiring crowds now degenerated into riotous, drinking 
fellows, reveling in Bacchanalian sports of all descrijition ; horse racing and 
games M'cre substituted for the red-blooded pastimes when the knowledge was 
imminent that the next moment a call might come for an expedition into the 
field. John Storm was the first colonel of the Twentieth Regiment, and in 
1822 he was succeeded by John Ketchum. After the service of this latter 
itfficcr the men who headed the Monroe countv militia are lost to historical 


record. It is known, however, that \Villiam Lowe was a brigadier-general 
i)f the Twentieth for a short period. 

The first war of any prominence in A\hich Monroe county liad the o[)por- 
tunity to show the mettle of her troops was the Mexican. 'Hie tirst call for 
troops came from Washington in May, 1846, and almost immediately two 
full companies of militia were organized within the borders of this county. 
Bloomington was the tirst meeting point, and the entire enlistment congregated 
in that town for regimental and battalion muster, lliere w ere stirring times 
in Monroe county during those days, business was practically at a standstill 
and the usual activities of the day were forsaken in the martial excitement that 
prevailed. A full company of volunteers was ready for the field by the first 
of June, 1846, having been trained to a nicety in the art of military maneuvers 
and tactics. Their knowledge of the war game in this day and age would 
indeed seem primitive, but then their skill was considered paramount, and was 
adec[uate by reason that the opposing forces possessed no greater facilities. 
The ofificers of this first company were as follows : John M. Sluss, captain ; 
John Eller, first lieutenant ; Aquilla Rogers, second lieutenant. The company 
was given the company letter A, and was assigned to the Third Regiment, 
Indiana Volunteer Infantry, which regiment assembled at New Albany, and 
the company left Bloomington on the 15th of June for the front, accompanied 
by the cheers of their friends and relatives, and presented with a handsome 
American flag, the presentation speech having been made b) .Miss Sarah 
Markle. Company A soon arrixed at the scene of hostilities and were quickly 
engaged in actual conflict with the Mexicans. The comi)am- i)articipated in 
the battle of Buena Vista, receiving their Iwptism of blood with many other 
troops from the North country. Several of the Monroe county hoys, among 
them Buskirk, Applegate, Stout and Holland, were killed, and many others 
received wounds of varying character. Most of the company were mustered 
out at the close of the war with high honors, and returnetl to Monroe county 
to make .succeBses of the civil life as well as the military. 

In the year 1847 ^ call came from the government for three more full 
companies of militia from Indiana, and one Daniel Lunderman ix'gan to raise 
the required troops. He was successful in recruiting a full company, which was 
assigned the letter G, of the Fourth Regiment, Indiana \'olunteer Infantry. 
As was the custom, the company was accorded a glorious farewell, the towns- 
people turning out en masse, and presenting the departing soldiers with an 
American banner. This comi)any was in the (li\ision which accompanied 
Gen. Winfield T. Scott on his memoraljle march from W-ra Cruz to Mexico 



City, and they engaged in all the battles fought along that historic route. A 
nunilier of the Alonrue county men were killed and scores were wounded, but 
the roster of their names is not available. Many of these brave fellows who 
lost their lives were Ijuried in the land south of the Rio Grande, and today their 
graves are unmarked and forgotten, but their deeds are forever written in the 
pages of historw Company G returned when the war was ended, and received 
honorable discharge. Their record was a commendable one. individually and 
collectively, and Monroe county has seen fit luany times since to accord honors 
to their memor}-. 

Militarism in Monroe county now entered upon a period of quiescence, 
not to be interrupted until the firing ujion I^ort Sumter in .\])ril, t86i. The 
first omen of civil trouble in Monroe county occurred on l*>bruary 2, 1860, 
when the citizens of the county seat and surrounding country were given notice 
to meet at the county court house to discuss the general state of the Union and 
the proljabilities of war. The citizens were invited to come irrespective of 
party alignment. T^dge G- A. lUiskirk was nominated chairman of the meet- 
ing: G. 1". Tulcv and J. 1'.. .Mulky were made secretaries: and M. C. Hunter, 
Benianun Wolfe, Dr. W. G. b'oster. 1^ T. liutler and Elias Al)el were ap- 
pointed as a committee to draft proper resolutions signifying the tenor of the 
meeting. During the alisence of the l)ody ]H-eparing the formal copy of the 
resolutions, se\-eral interesting incidents occurred, notal)le among them ])eing 
Governor Dunning's witlulrawal from the meeting and declaration that he was 
an all\' of no party until the differences l)etween the North and South had been 
amicalilv settled. Prof. John ^'oung indulged in a little oratory, speaking 
against the "Grittenden Gompi-omise,"" and in favor of the Constitution as it 
stood, but was perfectl}' willing to abide 1)y the 'Toorder State Resolutions," 
which, all in all, was a very convenient stand for the estimable gentleman to 
take, for no matter which wa\- be fell there would be a support waiting for him. 

The committee finall}- came in and lianded in their set of resolutions. 
Thev declared in favor of the so-called "Border State Resolutions," which 
recommended the repeal of the I'ersonal Liberty bills ; the amendment of the 
Fugitixe Slave law. so as to jM-event kidnapping, and to provide for the equal- 
ization of the comnussioner's fee, etc. : that the Constitution be amended so as 
to prohibit an\- interference with slavery in au)- of the states where it then 
existed : that Congress should not abolish slavery in the Southern dock-yards, 
arsenals, etc., nor in the District of Colum])ia, without the consent of Mary- 
land and the inbaliitants of the district, nor without compensation; that Con- 
gress sliould not interfere with the inter-.state slave trade; that African slave- 


trade should be absolutely prohibited ; that the line of thirty-six degrees, thirty 
minutes, should be run through all the existing territory of the United States, 
that in all north of that line slavery should be prohibited, and that south of 
the line neither Congress nor the Territorial Legislature should thereafter pass 
any law abolishing, prohibiting, or in any manner interfering with African 
slaver)' ; and that when any territory containing a sufficient population for one 
member of Congress in any area of sixty thousand square miles should apply 
for admission as a state it should be admitted, with or without slavery, as its 
Constitution might determine. I he committee also reported favorably on the 
fifth resolution of the "Crittenden Compromise,'" empowering Congress to pay 
an owner full value of a slave in cases where the marshal is prevented from 
discharging his duty by force or rescue made after arrest, also that the owner 
shall have power to sue the county in which such \iolence or rescue is made. 
and the county might in turn sue the indi\'iduals who committed the wrong. 
Other resolutions were passed advocating the maintenance of the Cnion l)y 
conciliation, and if unsuccessful, then ])y coercion. Hie Border State resolu- 
tions passed after a sjjirited debate, and the Crittenden Comiinnnise received 
even harsher treatment from the Monroe county citizens, but finally got 
through successfully. Dr. Foster's resolution pertaining to conciliation or 
coercion was ignominiously rejected by a large majority. Tempestuous 
orator v and fierce argument accompanied the discussion of the Foster resolu- 
tion, and finalh- Dr. j. (i. AlcPheeters offered a resolution tendering tlie 
Border States resolutions as a liasis of conciliation, l)ut on its rejection, to stand 
bv the Union, the Constitution, and the enforcement of the laws. After mucli 
opposition, particularly on the part of Messrs. Wolfe, Marlin, B. F. Williams 
and na\id Sheeks. tlie resolution was adopted. 

The meeting at which the abo\e transpired was one of the most nota1)le 
in the early histoiy of the county, and was productive of a great deal of strong 
sentiment. The general trend of the people was against coercion in the mat- 
ter of keeping the Southern states in tlie Union, luit there seemed to be the 
spirit that if conciliatory measures were not effective, the best thing to do 
would be to tight, and to fight hard. The war "jingoes" were, howexer, much 
in the minority. Among the prominent men who attended this meeting in 
early February, i860, were Governor Dunning, Dr. W. C. Foster, Judge G. 
A. Buskirk, S. H. Buskirk, C. P. Tuley. J. B. Alulky, Isaac Adkins. Isaac Cox. 
Abraham Smith. M. C. Hunter, Benjamin Wolfe, F. T. Butler, Elias Abel, 
Prof. John Young, P. L. D. Mitchell, Hugh Marlin. Johnson McCulloch, Dr. 
f. G. McPheeters and David Sheeks. 


Affairs in the county were disturbed during the rest of the year i860 by 
different acts of Congress, presidential elections, and political fights common to 
such a time of imminent strife. This continued until Monday, the 15th of 
April, 1 86 1, when the startling news reached Monroe county that Fort Sumter 
had been surrendered by Major Anderson to the Confederates. The tidings 
spread rapidly through the county, and the citizens hurried together to counsel 
with each other as to the course of action and the results of the first shot of the 
war. Men were frightened and acted in a wildly excitable way, some even 
preparing to flee to the Pacific coast or seek the Canadian line for safety. A 
monster mass meeting was held at the court house on the night of the 15th, and 
every citizen in the county who was able to come traveled to the common 
rendezvous on horsel^ack. in wagons or on foot. It is a distressing fact that 
no detailed account of that famous meeting was preserved to history, but when 
the spirit of the night and the general high pressure of excitement is considered, 
it is realized that formalities were out of place and details were forgotten. It 
was a night of frenzied oratory, and personal argument over the big question. 
Several of the more prominent men present took opposite sides on the method 
best to use in subjugating the South, and as the meeting progressed, and the 
atmosphere grew more tense, the exponents of armed measures won the upper 
hand. Some men spoke feelingly of the brotherhood between men. and urged 
conciliatory means : others urged the most stringent methods, and one man 
spoke stronglv against the North, especially the Abolitionists, and declared 
that they were the source of fratricidal war, and announced his intention to 
fight on the side of the Confederate states. A list of resolutions expounding 
the business of the meeting was prepared, and passed over the opposition that 
was raised against it. 

Some days later another meeting was held in the court house, and this 
assemblage was characterized by even more patriotism. Plans were formulated 
for the organization of a company of volunteers. By the 20th the enlistment 
was completed, and two days later, on the 22nd, the officers were commis- 
sioned. Drills began to be a daily feature, and the raw recruits were soon 
whipped into shape for campaigning, and only awaited orders from the govern- 
ment to be mustered into the three months, one year, or three years service. 
May 10, 1861. marked the departure of this company for Camp Vigo, Terre 
Haute, and the whole town gathered at the railroad station to bid farewell 
to the boys. A Miss Mitchell presented the troop with a beautiful flag, and 
her presentation speech was responded to, in original phrases, by Lieutenant 
Black. The scene was a sorrowful one. Sweethearts, wives, mothers, sisters 



and fathers watched their loved ones, pale-faced and silent, leave for the front, 
some of them never to return. 

Circumstances prevented the company from being mustered in im- 
mediately upon their arrival at Terre Haute, and they accordingly entered a 
camp of instruction. Under the restraint of having to wait, there was oppor- 
tunity for dissatisfaction to spring up in the organization, and consequently 
there became two factions, which formed the nuclei i for two separate com- 
panies. One division remained at Terre Haute under Captain Kelley, and the 
other portion was transferred to Indianapolis under the command of Capt. W. 
S. Charles. In the latter part of May and first of June the officers went back to 
Monroe county to enlist men in order to bring the complement of the two 
companies up to the required number, in which task Captain Kelley was more 
successful than his brother officer. Captain Charles. Kelley's soldiers became 
Company K, of the Fourteenth Regiment, and were mustered into the three 
years' service on June 7, 18O1. On the 5th of July the company was trans- 
ported to Virginia soil, where the Army of the Potomac was beginning opera- 
tions. Captain Charles' company was not exactly a full Monroe county or- 
ganization, as a portion of the men were recruited from other localities. They 
became Company H. of the Eighteenth Regiment, three years' service, mus- 
tered in on August 16, 1861, and taken to St. Louis. Missouri. Milton L. 
McCullough was first lieutenant of Company K, and Paul E. Slocum was sec- 
ond lieutenant. James S. Black, of Indianapolis, was first lieutenant of Com- 
pany H, and Hiram W. Rooker, second lieutenant. 

June and July saw the raising of other companies. J. O. McCullough, 
Daniel Lunderman, A. R. Ravenscroft and others succeeded in raising a full 
company. James B. Mulky and J. S. Nntt also raised other organizations, 
the latter a troop of cavalry. Peter Kop was instrumental in the enlistment 
of a company. In the town of Bloomington, all was at a fever heat. The boy 
in l>lue was the center of attraction ; the children of Bloomington played at the 
soldier's game and ladies cast admiring eyes at the volunteers, but observed a 
studied indifference toward the civilian. Sentiment and patriotism grew 
stronger and stronger and everyone thought that the "rebels" would be com- 
pletely trounced in a very few months. Had the long grim years of bloodshed 
and hardship that were to come been evident at that time, it is hardly probable 
that such a spirit of gaiety and hilarity would have graced the scene. It was, 
however, an act of Providence that so deftly' covers our sorrow? with the 
cloak of pleasure. 


The Blooiniiicjlon Republican of July 13, 1861, prints the following" 
paragraphs ; 

"Another company of volunteers fur the United States service left here 
on Tuesday last for Aladison, Indiana, wliere the regiment is to be formed. 
The company is under command of Capt. Daniel Lunderman, of this place, 
who has had considerable experience as an officer in the recent war with 
Mexico, and we have no doubt he will faithfully attend to the interests and 
welfare of the company while they are under his charge. Dr. J. O. AIcCul- 
lough was elected tirst lieutenant and Andrew K. Ravenscroft. second lieu- 
tenant, who we have no doubt will be equally faithful to their trust. As 
many of the volunteers were from the surrounding country, a large concourse 
of people from different i)arts of the county were present, to see them take 
their departure and to bid their friends farewell. The volunteers were escorted 
to the train bv Captain Mulkvs company of infantry, and took their departure 
amid a deafening salute of musketry. The Bloomington Cornet Band ac- 
companied them to Madison. We learn that Camp Noble, to which they are 
assigned, is beautifully situated at North Madison, which is on a high bluff' 
overlooking the city of Madison and the Ohio river. * "^ *." 

■■Rkcrliting. — Peter Kop and several other gentlemen of this place 
are raising a company of grenadiers for the United States service. They 
admit no recruits under five feet, ten inches, and equally stout and able-bodied. 
We pity the rebel upon whose neck the foot of 'Big Pete" shall come down 
with a vengeance. There w ill l)e no chance for him to even say his prayers 
before his life is crushed out of him. Some of the others engaged in raising 
the company are among our most athletic citizens. Their recruiting office, 
we believe, is at Williams & Sluss' livery stables." 

I'aplain Lunderman's cnni])any liecame Company 1. nf the Twenty-second 
Regiment, and was mustered into service on August 15. 1861, at Camp Noble, 
Madison. Nearly thirty of this trooj) were from Owen county and White 
Hall, and they were under the command of Col. Jefferson C. Davis. 

The Republican of September 14th, on the occasion of the departure of 
the company for Camp Morton, published the following : 

■'Off for the War. — Capt. L S. Dains' company left here for Camp 
JNIorton, Indianapolis, on Thursday last. This company was raised mostly 
in this and Owen counties, a number of them being from the \icinity of White 
Hall. While the\- were waiting for the train at the depot, a beautiful flag was 
presented to the ctMupanv from the ladies of W'hite Hall. Governor Dunning, 
on behalf of the ladies, made a suitable address on the presentation of the flag. 


which was responded to by Captain Dains in a short address, and 1)\- three 
cheers from the soldiers for their beautiful flag. This makes the seventh 
compan}- which has l)een raised principally in this county, and left here for the 
war. One or two other companies are now raising. .Monroe county will be 
I'ully represented in the contest." 

This newspaper editorial refers to the following companies : Company 
K, Fourteenth Regiment, Capt. James R. Kelley ; Company H. Eighteenth 
Regiment, Capt. \Villiam Stanle}- Charles ; Company I, Twenty-second Regi- 
ment, Capt. Daniel Lunderman; Company F, Twenty-seventh Regiment, 
Capt. Peter Kop; Company G, Thirty-first Regiment, Capt. Henry L. Mc- 
Calla ; Company G, Thirty-eighth Regiment, Capt. James Secrest ; Company D. 
I'^iftieth Regiment. Capt. Isaac S. Dains. 

Captian Secrest's company was raised in the xicinity of Ellettsville in 
August and September, by Captain Secrest and Lieutenants G. K. Perry and 
James McCormick. The companies listed above were not the only ones in which 
Monroe county men were enlisted : for the county had representatives in every 
branch of the serxice and in most divisions of the Federal army. Accord- 
ing to record, the only men from the county who enlisted in the three months' 
service were from the northern part ()f the county, and were meml^ers of 
the Twelfth Regiment. Chaplain H. B. Hibben. of Monroe, was in the 
Eleventh Regiment, about ten men were enrolled in the Twenty-first Regi- 
ment, which afterwards became the b'irst Heav\- Artillery: some men were 
in the Twent\--third, and credited to Morgan county, and fi^ur members of 
the regimental hand were credited to Bloomington. In summarizing the 
total number of enrollments for these early months it may be said that by 
the middle of September. i8hi. Monroe county had furnished at least six 
whole companies ready for service. 

Captian Nutt's cavalry company contained fifteen men from this county, 
the rest being recruited from Brazil and Delphi. This troop left for Indian- 
apolis in the middle of September, and organized as Company K. Second 
Cavalry (Forty-first Regiment), and was mustered in on December 24, 
1 86 1, and Jeptha M. Ellington, of Ellettsville, was chosen as captain. 

The state authorities, in September, 1861. ordered that in each count\- 
a thorough organization should be made of the militia. The Governor ap- 
pointed James B. Mulky colonel of the Monroe county militia, and in this 
manner ten companies were organized during the war, namely : The Hoos- 
ier Grays, Capt. Morton C. Hunter, organized in the fall of 1861 : the Elletts- 
ville Clippers. Capt. Barton Acuff. organized in the autumn of 1861 ; the 



Monroe Zouaves, Capt. Daniel Shrader. organized in 1861 ; the Richland 
Mountaineers, Capt. B. W. Rice, organized in the fall of 1861 ; the Hoosier 
Guards, Capt. H. T. Campbell, organized earh- in 1862; the Harrodsburg 
Guards, Capt. John M. Anderson, organized in the fall of 1861 ; the Richland 
Rangers, Capt. John Wylie, organized during the summer of 1863; the 
Hughes Guards, Capt. James Mathers, fall of 1863; the Monroe Guards, 
Capt. Isaac S. Buskirk. fall of 1863; Bean Blossom Rangers, Capt. Thomas 
M. Gaskin, fall of 1863. 

Dr. J. G. McPheeters, surgeon of the Thirty-third Regiment, enlisted some 
men while home on a furlough, and near the first of November Wallace Hight, 
who had superintended the making of cannon at Seward's foundry at Bloom- 
ington, left for Indianapolis with his piece of ordnance drawn by six horses. 
The gun was a six-pounder, of brass, and an excellent instrument of war- 
fare. Hight, with his gun and some friends, were assigned to the Ninth 
Battery. In February, 1862, William McCullough began recruiting men for 
the Fifty-third Regiment, and Lieut. Francis Otwell opened an enlistment 
station at Fee"s store for the Twenty-seventh Regiment, which included the 
company of Captain Kop. In November and December, 1861, and January 
and February, 1862, Capt. Thomas T. Graves, Lieut. Alexander Jones and 
John Phillips recruited two-thirds of a company for the Fifty-ninth Regiment, 
which assembled at Gosport, in October, 1861, and in February traveled 
south on the Xew Albany road to the scene of hostilities in Kentucky. The 
Monroe county company, from near Harrodsburg mostly, was given the 
letter I, of the Fifty-ninth, under Capt. Graves. The men were mustered into 
service on February 11, 1862, and Jesse I. Alexander, of Gosport, was colonel 
of the regiment. M. P. Burns recruited six or eight men for the Sixty- 
hrst, which rendezvoused at Terre Haute. In April, Lieut. Johnson's com- 
pany of the Twenty-second Regiment opened a recruiting office in Blooming- 
ton. In May the men who were in Capt. Kelley's company sent nearly two 
thousand dollars home to their friends and at this time also came the news 
of Capt. Ke!le\ 's untimely death. At the battle of Winchester Capt. Kelley 
suffered a wound from which he died, after lingering in a hospital at Cin- 
cinnati for weeks, where he had gone, accompanied by his faithful wife, for 
medical treatment. 

Man\' letters came to the follrs at home from the boys in the field, and 
these missi\es are nx-'-rFlow ing with jiatho'^ and vi\'id description of the cam- 
paigns and army life. Each in itself was a treasure, and although many of 
them were not of the best literary style, they carried a message to the ones 
at home which could not be equaled by the words of a muse. Capt. flenry 


I-. McCalla wrote a letter to his brother, w hich has lieen preserved to history 
and served as an admirable example of the letters of those days. Captain 
McCalla says : 

''Thirty-first Regiment Indiana Volunteers. 
"Pittsburg, Tenn., April 8, 1862. 

"Dear Brother— This is Tuesday, and I take this chance to tell you that 
an awful battle has been fought, commencing on Sunday morning at 7:30 
o'clock, A. M., lasting until night, and continued again on Monday. Grimes 
and I are safe. The company behaved nobly. The Thirty-first will now get 
its due meed of praise, I think, ^^'e lost Orderly Sergeant James F. Full- 
bright and Rolley Franklin, both shot in the head, and seven wounded, three 
of them severely — Joseph Lucas, in the hand slightly; Frank Johnson and 
Jerry Serrell, in chin, slightly ;John Cambell. in the hand ; Joseph Woolery, 
in the hip, severely; Wesley Polley, in the shoulder; Joseph Gaither, in the 
face, the ball entering the bridge of the nose and coming out under the ear, 
cutting the tip of the ear. Many more were grazed. I had a bullet through 
the top of my Iiat. John McPhetridge had his leg grazed, and Grimes was 
scratched in the knee. We will feel the loss of Fullbright. He was the man in the regiment — so modest and so faithful. \\'e buried our 
old companions with the lionnrs of war, and marked their graves with neat 

"I met brother Sam on tlie Field of battle for the first time since he was 
in the ser\ice. Thompson's liatterx , with which Flight and other Blooming- 
ton bovs are connecterl. were in the fight all Monday. They fired 1,200 
shots. Our regiment (lielongini; to llurlburt's lirigade ) fired forty rounds 
in one place, repulsed two attacks on the center, (irimes and I furnished 
our men with thirtv rounds nujre ;is they were lying down, and these were 
all expended b^- night. The carnage is frightful. The field of battle covers 
over six miles. Daniel Lseminger (formerly of Bloomington). captain in 
an Iowa regiment, was killed. Our major, Frederic Arn. was killed; the 
colonel was wounded in two places ; Adjutant Rose wounded ; Captain Harvey 
killed; and other officers wounded, all of our regiment. Jo. Roddy bore 
the colors througii all the two days fight, onward, never faltering, the fore- 
most in the advance, the hindmost in the retreat. 

"The day of the battle was my first out-door ser\-ice for three weeks, 
having been sick over since we came to this place."' 



July I, 1862, Aljraham Lincoln, President of the United States, issued 
a call for three hundred thousand volunteers, and the quota for Indiana was 
named as ele\en regiments. The Republican of Juh- 12th printed the fol- 
lowing : 

"More Troops Wanted — It will be seen by reference to an- 
other ])art (if om- pajjer that eleven more regiments are to be raised in our 
state in addition to those alreadv forming, one from each congressional 
district. This in our district will be, on an average, about 125 men from 
each count}'. We trust that old Monroe will promptly furnish her quota, 
as she has dcme on all former calls. She has now nine companies in the 
service, besides a number of persons scattered in companies made up 
elsewhere — infantry, cavalry and artillery. Xow that harvest is past 
and our young men more at leisure, v.e think that there will be no difficulty 
in raising this Jidditional (p.iota of troops in Monroe county. The regiment 
for this district will rendezx'ous at Madison, and we notice that in some of 
the adjoining counties companies are alread\- forming to fill up the regi- 
ment. Let not Monroe be behind." 

.\t tlie l)cginning the people did not res]jond quite so lieartily as they had 
done a \ear ])efore. The pajiers appealeil to the people, and the draft was 
threatened if the demands of Lincoln were not fulfilled. The prominent 
citizens of the county began to see the necessity for immediate action, and 
accordingly commenced to bestir themselves and urge their brethren to sup- 
port the cause of L'uion ; recruiting officers began to gather on the scene, and 
it was not long before mass meetings were held, with the same intensity 
of feeling and paU'iotism as in -he early day-^ of '61. In the latter part of 
July Lieui I". Otwell was commissioned to recruit a comnau}- for the Sixty- 
seventh Regiment and he opened an office in the town of Bloomington. 
Ca])t. Charles, of tlie hjghleenth, also came liome to iTcruit, and Lieut. W. 
j. Allen, of the d^xcntieth Batterw James L. Winrrex', of Bloonfington, was 
commissioned to raise a compan\- for the Ninet\--third Regiment, assembled 
at Madison. Lieutenant Otwell and other officers raised about twenty men, 
who became Compan\- B, of the Sixty-seventh Regiment, Samuel Denny, of 
Madison, being captain. An entire company was raised for the Eighty-second 
Regiment by ^Morton I. Hunter, and he became the colonel, by Paul E. 
Slocum, Alfred G. LIunter, Samuel McWillie, John McKinney, Samuel Guy 
and others. The company was designated as F, and McWillie became captain, 
McKinney, first lieutenant, and Guy. second lieutenant. The men were mus- 
tered in on August 30th at Madison. Part of Company T, of the Eighty- 
second, was organized in Monroe countv bv William F. Neill, who became 


captain, and by Lieut. H. E. Lundy. Historical records pr(i\e that there were 
more regimental officers from .Monroe county in the I^'ighty-second than in 
any other regiment. Among them were : Colonel Hunter. Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel Slocum, Adjutants A. G. Hunter and M. E. Bunger, ( juartermaster j. C. 
Allenworth, Chaplain M. W. Canipl)ell. .Surgeon W. H. Lemon. Assistant 
Surgeons W. B. Harris and R. H. Campl)ell. On the first of Septemher the 
regiment was transferred to Louisville, Kentucky. Thirty men of Company 
F, Ninety-third Regiment, were reciuited bv J- L. ^\'infre^■, and were mus- 
tered in at Madison from the 15th to the 23d of August. 1862. These re- 
cruitments constitute a nohle and lasting record for the county of Monroe, 
and to her credit it nuisl lie said that through her patri(.)tic response the humil- 
iation of the draft was kept from within the borders of the county. 

The Republican of September 13. 1862. gives tables of figures showing 
the exact condition of the count}': The total number subject to draft was 
1.824 nien. (^xemjjtioris 3C)fj, number oi \'olunteei's 104. nnd number enrolled 
1,524. The api:)!icati()ns for exemjition from draft in Bean Blossom town- 
ship were _|0, Washington 30, Marion 10, Benton 30, Bloomington no, 
Richland 45, \'an liuren 38, Perry yj. Salt Creek 40, Polk 42, Clear Creek 
38. and Indian Creek 2S. Thus it will be seen that of 499 applications 
for exemption in Monroe countw onh' 300 were acce])table to the authori- 

On the 6th of September. 1862. Hon. Joseph A. Wright. ex-go\ernor 
of Indiana, made an eloquent address before the citizens of the ctiuntw and 
on the following Monday, the 8th, the Hon. Josejih E. McDonald deli\-ered a 
magnificent oration pleading for a cessation of hostilities. 

October 6, 1862. was the final date set for the draft to be enforced in 
Indiana, although Sei)tember 13111 had been the original date. The necessity 
of postponing the date was m order to give every countv an opportunity to 
bring its enlistments to the required nun.iber. The draft commissioner was 
Tra Browning, the marshal, W. J. .\lexander. and the surgeon, J. D. Max- 
well, for Monroe county. On the 19th of September the enrolling commis- 
sioners reported the following to the adjutant-general regarding Monroe 
county: Total mib'tia. 1.828; total volunteers, i .039 ; total exempts. 298: 
total conscientiously opposed to bearing arms. 3: total \-olunteer>~ in the 
service. 840: total subject to draft. 1.527. On the loth of Sejitember the 
countv lacked twent\-tw() men (_)f ha\ing filled her (juota. as follows: Benton 
I. Salt Creek 4, Polk \2. Clear Creek 3, Indian Creek 2. This number was 
reduced to one man by the 6th of October, this deficienc\ Iieing in Salt Creek 
township. Consequently a man was drafted there, but immediately after- 


wards a volunteer was reported from that township and accepted, thus clear- 
ing the county of Monroe from the draft. 

Capt. Daniel Shrader, remembered for his work in raising Company A, 
Fiftv-fourth Regiment, for the special three months' ser\dce of 1862, was 
commissioned to organize another company for the same regiment, reor- 
ganized for the one year's service. Accordingly he maintained a recruit- 
ing office in Bloomington. In this capacity he continued but a short time, 
on account of being appointed major of the Fifty-fourth Regiment. A flurry 
of excitement was caused on the 23rd of September when the news flash- 
ed in that Bragg's forces were approaching Louisville with the intention of 
destroying the city. All of southern Indiana, including Monroe county, 
was in a tremor, heightened by a dispatch from Governor Morton, who was 
then at Louisville, to organize the militia immediately and to hold the men in 
readiness to depart for the front at a moment's notice. A hasty meeting 
was held at the county court house and Judge Hughes explained the charac- 
ter of the situation. The meeting adjourned until evening and during the 
interval a full company of volunteers was raised, and at the evening meet- 
ing the following ofBcers were elected; Francis Otwell, captain; Henry EUer, 
first lieutenant; W. H. McCullough, second lieutenant. The next morning 
witnessed the arming of the company, and other preparations to march south- 
ward. HowcA'er, it was learned that Bragg would not touch Louisville, and 
acctjrdingly the company was disbanded. 

With tlie coming of winter the active interest in enlistments subsided 
in a measure. The citizens watched with anxious hearts every bit of news 
from the armies! The Republican heroically printed every line in its columns 
which would carry a message to Monroe county people. Letters came thick 
and fast, describing the events happening in the field. 

On January 24, 1863. there was held a meeting at the county court house, 
which was the opposite of the meetings hitherto held. The meeting was for the 
purpose of upholding the cause of the South and slavery and ridiculing Lin- 
coln and the North. There was a large attendance, and Judge Eckles, of 
Greencastle, Indiana, was the principal speaker. He delivered an enthu- 
siastic oration and opposed the continuance of the war, denounced the ad- 
ministration of Abraham Lincoln and the Republican party, declared that the 
South was justified in their fight for slayery, and insisted that not another 
man nor dollar be furnished for the maintenance of the struggle. A body 
of resolutions was adopted in this ^ein of thought, and the crowd cheered 
for Jeff Davis and cursed Lmcoln. The State Sentinel printed editorials 


in favor of the meeting. The day was of hot debate and quarrels, and 
several bloody fights occurred. 

A month later another court house meeting was held and was decidedly 
Union in spirit. Captian Epps, of eastern Tennessee, and Colonel Hawkins 
were the principal speakers. Jacob B. Lowe and Major James B. Mulky 
were respectively chairman and secretary. Resolutions were passed con- 
demning the Southern partisanship in the county, the efforts to frustrate the 
Federal cause, and the alliances with France and other foreign nations. 
Thanks were extended to Governor Morton for his aid in equipping and 
organizing troops of Indiana. Propositions for an armistice or compromise 
other than offered by the national go\ernment were denounced, and an oath 
was taken that efforts should be continued to crush out every atom 
of rebellion in the United States. This meeting had a most happy effect on 
the count\'. The old time s])irit of patriotism was revived, and during that 
most hoi)eless }ear of the war, 1863, when the L'nion seemd to be tottering, 
great encouragement was lent to the loyal citizens of Monroe county. A week 
after this assembling, another mass meeting was held, with General Kim- 
ball, J. A. ^Tatson, Colonel McCrea, Revs. Plopkins, b'armer and Idearb as 
the chief speakers. Although some of the speakers were Democrats, all 
urged the continuance of the war. 

During the spring months of 1863, very little attempt wds made to raise 
troops. It was a peri(jd of waiting and doubt as to which side the weight of 
victory would fall. (In A])ri] i8th the Republican printed an editorial which 
is both interesting and curious. It was as follows : 

"We learn that our old friend, A. Sutherland, sutler to the Fiftv-ninth 
Regiment, was fined ten dollars and costs in the common pleas court the other 
day for bringing to this county and harboring a contraband picked up some- 
where in the South, and who accompanied him home on a visit some weeks 
since. Good enough for you, Aleck. We have niggers enough here now and 
we hope all who violate the laws by bringing them into the state will he com- 
pelled to pay the penalty." 

In April, 1863. word came of the uprising near Georgetown, Brown 
county, and immediately meetings were held and preparations made by the 
citizens of Monroe county to prevent any similar act of treason within the 
borders of their own county. A militia company was organized to quell any 
such outbreak, and Francis A. Otwell was elected captain. The citizens of 
Van Buren township met at schtOTlhouse No. 3, and also organized a companv 
of militia, John Koons l)eing chairman of the meeting and W. M. Crossfield, 
secretary. The enrolling lioarfl of the third congressional district, composed 



of Simeon Stansifer, provost marshal, John R. B. Glasscock, commissioner, 
and Albert G. Collier, surgeon, began to enumerate the men in the various 
townships who were liable for military duty. James B. Mulky succeeded 
Stansifer as provost marshal in April, 1863, and in June Col. John McCrea 
was appointed to the position of provost marshal of Monroe county. The 
work of the enrolling dflicers was by no means an easy one. for in some parts 
of thf count \- forcilile ()])p()sitiMn was made to their efforts. On the 19th of 
lune W. \'. Hensley. enrolling officer of Indian Creek township, was sur- 
rounded by an armed force of about eighty men while discharging his duties, 
who compelled him to surrender his enrolling papers under threat of death. 
Not to be thwarted b\- their threats, Mr. Hensley informed the authorities at 
Bloomington of the occurrence, and a guard was given him to protect him from 
the attack of his former assailants. Colonel Biddle, with six hundred men 
of the Seventy-first, and a comi)any of the Third Cavalr>-, came to P)loomington 
and encami)ed north of town. Colonel McCrea and the cavalry troo]) went 
to Indian Creek townshi]). and arrested sixteen persons for cf)m])licit}- in the 
outrage against Henslew The culprits were taken to Indianapolis to a])i)ear 
before the United States district court. This ended the hostility in the county 
toward llie enrolling officers. 1lie check was reinforced by the arri\al of a 
• letachment of the Twenty-third Artillery, with two twelve-pounders at 
lUoomington. The "Butternuts'" were forced to cease the drills and pre])ara- 
tiiiu> tbe\- bad been making in different parts of the cnuntw 

.\!onda^•, the 22nfl of June, dawned, and the towns])eople were aroused 
l)v tlie violent ringing of bells and the hurrying footsteps of the citizens 
ing toward the center of town. The reports were that the rebel. General 
Morgan, with his "raiders," had crossed the line between Kentucky and Indi- 
,-ina, anil was coming toward Paoli, Orange count)-. .\ compau)- of men was 
bastib, Tornied anrl ])laced under the command of Capt. T. S. Buskirk. and 
their ser\ices offered to the Governor by telegraph. .\t nightfall it was learned 
that the rumor was unfounded, and accordingly the company was di.sbanded. 
President IJncoln called for one hundred thousand \-olunteers. six 
months" ser\ice. on the 1 ^ih of June, and immediate steps were taken to raise 
the reijuired numl)er of troojjs. An office for enlistments was opened over 
I'ee's store, wdiere recruiting ofbces had been located before. W. B. Tfughes, 
J. Uulledge, W. C. Smith. Michael Gabbert. H. C. Gabbert and J. II. Miller 
were especiallv active in the organization of the new company, and b\- the 3rst 
of jnh- there were about se\-enty-five men enrolled; at this date they were 
taken to Indianapolis to report to the state officials. ?>}• the T5th of .\ugust 
tlKw bad recruited from Monroe countv the number of men a.sked. and they 


were mustered into the service and sent to Kentucky. Thev were called Com- 
pany I, of the One Hundred and Seventeenth Regiment, six months' men, and 
were assigned the following officers: William B. Hughes, captain; Jechonias 
Rutledge, first lieutenant, and James H. Miller, second lieutenant. 

riie scare of (jeneral Morgan's journey toward Indiana again hecame 
existent. The information received gave the situation a black look to be sure, 
and it is not surprising thai the people were agitated and unable to attend to 
the common affairs of business. They became euHamed, hysterical and 
desperate, and imagined all sorts of ravages which the rebel leader would com- 
mit against their fair county when once he gained a foothold therein. The 
company commanded by Ca])tain Buskirk was again mustered, and on Julv 
Qth left for Mitchell, Indiana. (.■a])taiu W'ylie took a troop of cavalry to the 
same town, and ('apt. Marion I'lair left for Indianapolis with a com])anv of 
militia. Ellettsville contributed a compau}- at the same time. Two additional 
com])anies were raised in Bloomington and vicinitv. 

The streets of the cit\ and towns were at fe\'er heat, and crowds of 
anxious citi.zens were on every corner. .\s suddenly as it had a])peared, so 
(|uickl\' did the excitement die. In ten days all fears were dispelled. Marion 
[fair's compan\ was mustered (nit on the i5tb of July, after just h\e days of 
ser\ice. Barton .VcuiT's com])any, from F.llettsxille, also suffered the same 
fate. P)lair's conipan\' was D of the One flundred and Tenth Regiment; 
Acuff's was (t of the One Hundred and Eleventh. L'ajjtain Hughes' company 
was transferred to Mitchell, Indiana, and ])ecame A of the One Hundred and 
Twelfth, minutemen; the compan\- was mustered in July Qth, and mustered 
out luh' 17th. Their actual field ser\-ice consisted in slight skirnu'sh work 
against Morgan, who a]>i)roacbe(l within a few miles of North X'ernon. The 
major of this regiment was I. .^, Buskirk. The One Hundred and Thirteenth 
Regiment included one company from Monroe county, and this w-as com- 
manded hv Capt. Henry I.. McCalla. This was Company A. mustered in 
Julv I ith, and out on Jul\' Kith. Capt. J. K. Mathers also organized a com- 
pany of militia ca\alr\-, and auotber com|)anv was commanded by Capt. DaA'id 

In October. iHf).^. Lincoln called for three hundred thousand \ olunteers. 
for the three years" service, and the quota for Monroe county was fixed at one 
hundred and forty-three. Colonel McCrea, Captain Buskirk and Henry Eller 
were commissioned to raise recruits. .-\t first there was not much interest 
shown, but after the big meeting held at the court house on November 28th. a 
large uumlier enlisted, and were sent to Columbus to a camp of instruction. 
On January 14, 1864, the men were mustered into seryice at Camp Shanks, 


near Indianapolis, and were augmented afterward by new recruits from the 

In April, 18O4. there was a call for r)ne hundred days' men, and on the 
e^'ening of April 27th a mass meeting was held at the court house for the pur- 
pose of raising a company of volunteers. Governor Dunning was the speaker. 
Some dozen names were secured, and resolutions were passed asking the 
county commissioners to offer a bounty of thirty dollars for volunteers. By 
Alay 3d the company was completed, about two-thirds of the roster from 
jMonroe county, and they were named Company K, of the One Hundred and 
Thirt}--third Regiment, one hundred days' service. They were mustered in 
at Indianapolis on the 17th of May, and departed immediately for Tennessee. 

On July 1 8th there came a call from President Lincoln for five hundred 
thousand men. So great was the surprise following this unexpected call, that 
the people were unable to do anything toward the fulfillment. As the time 
passed there was a decided indifference to the call for troops. The draft was 
threatened by the authorities, but the people paid no attention. A few scatter- 
ing enlistments were secured : Bean Blossom raised five men, Benton, one, 
\'an Buren, three, but the other townships who had to furnish men failed to 
secure even one. Consecjuently, on the 23d of September the draft was put 
into effect at Columbus, and the following was the result : Bean Blossom, 37 ; 
Washington, 25 ; Marion, 14: Benton, 9; Van Buren. 6; Salt Creek, 19: Polk, 
17; Indian Creek, t,2 : total, 159. These figures represent about half of the 
actual draft, but in taking- such a large number allowance was made for those 
unfit for service. \'olunteering gained an impetus after the draft, and numer- 
ous were the substitutes furnished by those who could not go to war. The 
drafted men were taken to Columbus and then to Indianapolis, where they 
were assigned to regiments, preferably the older ones. 

The last' call for volunteers from Abraham Lincoln occurred on Decem- 
ber 19, 1864, and the request was for three hundred thousand men, for one, 
two and three years. Every inducement was offered for volunteers, and 
the county paper oft'ered bounty for recruits and called for the assistance of 
everyone to fill up the re(|uired quota. In the luiddle of January, 1865, the 
deputy provost marshal, Ira Browning, held meetings in each township to cor- 
rect the enrollment lists. Capt. S. W. Bonsall opened an enlistment office for 
\eteran recruits for the First Veteran Army Corps, and offered government 
bounties of four hundred dollars, five hundred dollars and six hundred dollars, 
for one, two and three \-ears. lender the county, township and government 
bounties volunteers began to appear, the county board appropriated five hun- 
dred dollars for each volunteer. The men took an added interest in the mat- 


ter of enlisting, as it was known that the Southern army was fast nearing de- 
feat. Major James B. Mulky was chosen recruiting officer for the third dis- 
trict, with his headquarters at Columbus. He called for a company from 
Monroe county, whose quota was then one hundred and sixty-one men. Lieut. 
N. E. Mathers, Lieut. J. F. Douglas, John T. Eller, James H. Miller, Ren C. 
Smith and others also began putting forth their efforts to recruit men. In a 
short time nearly a whole company was raised, the remainder being added 
from Brown county, and they became Company E, One Hundred and Fifty- 
fifth Regiment, with the following officers : John F. Douglas, captain ; [ames 
H. Miller, first lieutenant ; Ren C. Smith, second lieutenant. They were mus- 
tered in at Indianapolis on the 4th and 5th of February, 1864, and on the i8th 
left for Nashville, Tennessee. Nearly one-half of Company I, same regi- 
ment, was raised in Monroe county after the departure of Company E. They 
were mustered in on February 3d, 4th, 6th and 9th, and were commanded by 
these officers: John P. Cravens (of Madison), captain; Newton E. Mathers 
(of Bloomington), first lieutenant; AVilliam M. Crossfield (of Smithville), 
second lieutenant. 

A second draft took place in the countv in the latter part of March. 
Polk and Salt Creek townships were the only townships \isited, and only 
four or fi\'e men were drafted. 

In summarizing tlie numlier of troops furnished b\- .Monroe county to 
the four years' struggle it is e\i(lent that the countv furnished her share of the 
men enlisted, and in everv way aided the cause of the I'nion. The grand 
total of two thousand one hundred and twenty-eight men, o\er two regiments, 
was enough to exhaust the resources of the whole county, considering that the 
total enrollment in 1861 was one thousand seven hundred and twenty-seven 
men. This enumeration does not include the four c<impanies which were 
mustered in for the Morgan camiiaign. These minutemen numbered about 
four hundred. 

There is no denying of the fact that during the days of the war, especially 
in the earlier part, there was a great deal of Southern sentiment in Monroe 
county. Many of the citizens were from families south of the ]\Iason and 
Dixon line, and naturally the\- were in sympathy with the Confederate cause 
and slavery. 

In 1861, when, one b\- one, the states were seceding, and when news came 
that Fort Sumter had been fired ujxjn by the Confederate batteries in Charles- 
ton harbor, there were many prominent citizens of Monroe county who pro- 
fessed their pleasure oyer the occurrence and expressed hearty sympathy with 



ni some ] 

treat n 




ate e 


nf tlic 


, and con 



two facti 



not to en 



n tlie ran 



;t. The • 


the canse of the South. As the year passed the feeling between the two fac- 
tions in the county became decidedly bitter, and many fights occurred, some 
of them of a serious nature. .\ rebel sympathizer who was too loud in his 
denunciation of the I'nion was felled b}- a cane-blow, and another who voiced 
his lovaltv to Teff Davis and reviled the Federal soldiers was compelled to 
lea\e town on short notice to escape the lynching threatened bv the angry 

i'ortions 01' the count}' were ruleil by a majority of the Southern advo- 
places a man wIkt upheld the North was accorded severe 
localities were nametl "Secessia," the name furnishing 
n for the cause. The \'ear of 1863 was the most doubtful 
ise(|uently the i)eriod of greatest strife in Monroe county, 
ions were in existence, in this year the rebel adherents 
ilist. and e\en sent letters into the field asking the boys to 
iks. promising at the same time immunity and protection 
"secesli"" element e\en conducted open meetings, and had 
liodies of men in training for militar\' service. Public meetings at the county 
court house were lield, but in e\ery case a counter meeting of loyal Unionists 
was held afterward, and as a further means of encouraging fidelit}- to the 
L'nion cause, there was organized the National Lbiion .\ssociation of Monroe 
and r.rown counties. l)a\id 1). firitfin was elected ])resident of this associa- 
tion, and John ('. Ileadh', secretarx'. 

.\ trainload of (.'on federate ]lrisoner^^ passed through Bloomington one 
nigiil on the wa\- North. Southern svmpathizers boarded the train and 
endea\(>red to persuade the prisoners to make a concerted break for liberty, 
and tliey were assured that food and shelter would be theirs if the_\- would 
consent to make the nio\e. Howe\'er. the rel)el prisoners refused to break 

In the early da\s of July. 1X03, e\ents so tran>i)ired that the Southerners 
of .Monroe county were lio]>elessl\- reduced to a minority. ( iettysburg had 
been fought, the battle coxering three days of gruelling, bloody and decisive 
action, and Meatle had been \ictorious o\-er Robert R. Lee. Since the years 
have ]ierniitted retrosi)ection and careful analysis, it has been determined that 
the fate of the .Southern cau^e was cast in the l)alance of that engagement, and 
there the ho])es of the Southland died. In point nf losses and number of men 
engaged, ( iett\sburg is ri\alled bv Chickamauga, Shiloh and Cbancellorsville. 
but in importance it was preeminent; it was the hinge of the four years' com- 
l>at, Imniediateh' followin"- the \-ictnrv of the .\rmv i)f the Potomac news 


came that V'icksburg had surrendered to General (iranl. These two i^reat 
triumphs aroused the people throughout the count}- to a frenz\- of ju}-, and 
everywhere enormous celebrations were planned and executed. Crowds ui 
people assembled in Bloomington. Ijonhres were kindled, gun> and rockets 
were brought out. and all the ])r(jniinent men were called ujxni to make 
speeches. G. -\. Buskirk hred the crowd with his glowing plu-ase^, and V. T. 
Butler drew cheers and applause from his hearers. 1 Ic scored the traitors t(_) 
the Union with the shar])est in\ecti\e and most stinging taunts, and his 
cleverly worded thrusts were recei\-ed with si)ontaneous acclamation and rolls 
of cheering. Colonel Charles, scarceK' strong enough to remain on his feet, 
was given new strength b\- the spirit of the night and made a brilliaiU speech. 

The news that Atlanta had been captured reached Monroe county on the 
evening of September 3, 1864, and immediately there was a joyous celeliration, 
as on the night of July 4th. judge Buskirk and Doctor Saliin and others 
made speeches, and the whole exening was passed in demonstration. On 
Septemljer iith Sinij^son's Cha|)el, near W'aypc^rt, was the scene of an incident 
over the wearing of liutternut breast])ins. Two or three Federal soldiers at 
home on a furlough dangerously wounded se\'eral peo]j!e. 

On the _Mst of September news arrixed of I'hil Slieridan's \ iclory at 
Opequon Creek. Virginia, near Winchester, and again the usual demonstra- 
tion was repeated. B\- now the people were sure that the reliellion was near 
the close. The people of the county asseiul^led in Bloouiington on ()ctol)er 
8. 1864, for a soldiers" picnic. Ti-actically the entire county gathered and 
various deiuonstrations were gi\en. including a parade. (_)uite a few of the 
soldiers were home, either on furloughs or the sick list. I'olnnel B-urgess, of 
Indianapolis, and Judge Hughes made the principal addresses of the da\-. An dinner was spread on imjjrovised tables m tlie court yard, and several 
thousand persons part(jok of the feast. There were toasts, songs and instru- 
mental music. The Rcl^uhlicau noted that "It was the most general turn out 
of the citizens of the county that we haxe ex'er witnessed here." The only 
incident which marred the happinos of the day was the shooting of a deserter 
named Sherrill wdiile he was trying to escape from cust(jdy tliat night at the 
Orchard tlouse. (governor .\ndrew Johnson, of Tennessee, came to I'loom- 
ington the following Monday and addressed the citizens. 

Finally, there came the day. Tuesday. April 4. 1805. when the tidings 
flashed into }*Ionroe county that Lee's Army of Xorthern X'irginia had been 
crushed by Grant's Army of the Potomac, and that the city of Richmond, 
\''iro-inia. was Iieing evacuated. The joy of Alonroeites reached the climax 


that night. Torchlight parades, band and vocal music, games, musket vol- 
ley's, bonfires, and speeches by Governor Dunning, Judge Butler and Reverend 
Bain filled the hours of the evening. Friday evening the news of Lee's sur- 
render at Appomattox Court House was received, and the demonstration was 
renewed with increased volume. Old and young mingled on the streets, 
delirious \vith joy over the success of the North and preservation of the Union. 

A week later the happiness of the people was changed to the deepest sor- 
row and poignant grief. The word came that President Lincoln had been 
assassinated at Ford's theater in Washington, while he was witnessing a per- 
formance of "Our American Cousin." The people refused to believe the ter- 
rible message, and waited anxiously and silently for a confirmation. On the 
I sth verification was received, and the whole country went into mourning for 
the martyred President. The afifairs of business were forgotten and pleasures 
dismissed. Tn Monroe county the cost of victory seemed to be out of all 
bounds of Providence. The man who had led the Northern cause had been 
stricken down bv a cowardly hand, a hand with the Confederacy behind it. 
Dwellings and public buildings were draped with black, and on Sunday 
memorial services were held in the churches. On the 17th, Monday, a large 
number of citizens gathered at the court house to pay fitting tribute to the 
memory of Lincoln and to pass resolutions of liereaxement. Re\-. William 
Turner was chairman and John H. Louden, secretary : Dr. F. H. Sabin. Gov. 
P. C. Dunning. Rev. T. M. Hopkins, William F. Browning and Rev. S. T. 
Gillett w ere ajjpointed to prepare resolutions, which they did in very touching 
phrases and appropriate words. Doctor Nutt, president of the State L'ni- 
A'ersitv. spnke l^rieflv of Lincoln. Fulogies were delivered by Governor Dunn- 
ing, Major Mulkv and Samuel H. Buskirk. On Wednesday, the next day, 
under the recommendation of the Governor of the state, all business was sus- 
pended. ser\-iccs were held in the churches, bells were tolled, and the buildings 
drai)ed in mourning. The college chapel was the scene of a large memorial 
meeting in the afternoon, conducted by the citizens, including the Masonic 
order and Odd I'ellows in full uniform. 

Tile return of the soldiers and the other incidents of the last days of the 
rebellion gradually softened the bitterness and distress of Lincoln's death, 
and the people prepared to welcome back liome those who had fought for 
their country. Jeff Davis was captured while trying to escape disguised as a 
woman, and the Republican spoke tlnisly : "Hang him like Haman between 
hea\en and earth, as being fit for neither." President Andrew Johnson's ap- 
pointed dav for the observance of Lincoln's death wa"^ Thursday, June ist, 
and tlic da\- was accordingly oIiser\-ed in ^Monroe count}'. 


The 4th of July, 1865, was the occasion of an exceUent dinner and 
reception to the soldiers who had returned to their home county. Carriages 
and wagons brought the cou.ntry people into town, through the dust and 
heat of sultry summer day. General Jacob B. Lowe was president of the 
day; Major Mulky, assisted by Colonel McCrea and Captain Cookerly, was 
marshal. At ten o'clock in the morning a procession was formed down 
town near the public square, and a march to the college campus was begun, 
and there the programme of the day was carried out. 

One of the things for which Monroe county has won lasting honor 
and merit in the pages of history is the heroic and untiring efforts of the 
people at home to relieve the suffering and hardships of the men in the 
field. Every need was satisfied to the extent of their ability, and not a call 
for help was unheeded. The courageous people sacrificed their own pleas- 
ures and necessities in order that their friends and relatives might be com- 
fortable, as much so as conditions would permit. Relief work was a regu- 
lar occupation, and an universal one, and not a little of the success of the 
Northern army can be attributed to this effort. 

During the first months of the war nothing had been done in relief 
work except the forwarding of blankets, towels and clothing to the men 
who were yet in camp. Later, as the winter months were near. Governor 
Morton advised all of the counties in the state to organize relief commit- 
tees and establish a regular system whereby food and supplies might be 
sent to the armies in the field. The women of Bloomington met at Dunn's 
hall on C)ctober 14, 1861, to form some kind of society for relief work. 
Mrs. Meginniss was chosen as president of the new organization. Louise 
Wylie, secretary, and Mrs. Robert C. Foster, treasurer. Mrs. Dr. Dodds, 
Mrs. David Batterton, Mrs. \A'. O. Fee. Mrs. Paul Slocum, Mrs. Leonard, 
Mrs. Hibben, Mrs. Jacob Young, Mrs. James Gordon, Mrs. Press Harbi- 
son, Mrs. James Small. Mrs. Sweringen and Miss Fullerton, directors. On 
the next Tuesday the society met, bringing with them supplies of food and 
clothing and contributions of mone\-, which was to be sent to the field and 
hospital. Supplies were shipped to the companies of Captain Kelley, Cap- 
tain Lunderman, Captain Charles and Captain McCalla. The value of the 
stores shipped at this time was close to three Imndred dollars. Lieut. M. 
L. McCullough was dispatched with a large quantity of supplies early in 
November for the sick and wounded among the Monroe county boys. In 
December a box of hospital stores was sent to the company of Captain Dains 
and another to Doctor McPheeters for tlie sick of the Thirtv-third Regi- 


ment. These supplies were a .godsend to the troops, for their means oi 
combating disease and hardship was not adequate in any waw Letters 
were written back home, and printed in the Rcpuhlicait. describing the suf- 
fering and want of sufficient food, and it fired the people to doulile their 
efi'orts in I)ehalf of the l^oys. 

During the entire war the county contributed $157,475 to the noble 
work of relie\ing the suffering, both at home and in the field. It is in- 
deed a record cf which to be proud, and shall live on the pages of Monroe 
countA' history as an imperishable monument to her heroic effort during 
those dark days of the Rebellion. 

The roll of honor is perhaps one of the most notable features of a 
nulitar\- history. The names of those who died in ser\ice should l}e pre- 
served for all time, and in a conspicuous place so that future generations 
niav read and learn of their forefathers who fought and died in order that 
the countr\- might remain in ["nion. The roll of honor of Monroe county 
is as follows : 

FO U RT E K -\ T H R EGI M EN T . 

Capt. James R. Kelley. died AJay 8, 1862, of wounds received at Win- 
chester: Sergeant John C\ Cox, died at Hutton\ille, X'irginia, on Xo\ember 
3, 1S61 ; Jesse A. Steele, killed at Antietam, September 17, 1862; Alexander 
S. Retan, died .April 14, 1862, of wounds receixed at Winchester: Ceorge 
i\[clver\-. (lied Xo\ember, 1862, of wounds recei\ed at .\ntietam: Thomas W. 
Carlow, killed at .\ntietam, September, 18O2; Andrew M. Aiihur, killed by 
accident. Septemljer, 1861: Elijah Barrett, died April, i8fi2, i>i wounds re- 
ceived at Winchester: Lewis Crump, died April. j8fi2, of wounds received at 
Winchester: James Degan, died November, 1862: Edward Duncan, died 
December, 1861 : Andrew Harsh, killed at Antietam, September. 1862 : Richard 
Houston, killed at .\ntietam. September, 1862: James AL Hughes, killed in the 
Wilderness, May, 1864: Joseph M. McCalla, died in August, 1861: Joseph 
McDonald, \eteran, killed in affray near Ste\-ensburg, Virginia : William 
Miller, died April, 1862, of \voiuids received at \\'inchester : James H. Raper, 
died May, 1864, of wounds recei\ed at Spottsylvania ; John Raper, died May, 
1861 ; Stacey E. Smith, killed at Antietam, September, 1862; William H. 
Smith, died June. 1864. of wounds received at Spott.syh-ania : E. AI. Wagoner, 
killed at Cold fL'irbor: W. S. Thomas, killed at Cold Harbor: W. A. Steire. 
die<l in hospital: Ceorge W. Kellev. died of wounds recei\-ed at Antietam. 



Lieut.-Col. William Stanley Charles, died of wounds, November lo, 
1864; Sergeant Samuel W. Dodds, died at St. Louis, Mo., November, 1861; 
Charles H. Spencer, diediat Helena, Ark., September, 1862; Sylvester Barnett, 
died at Cassville, Mo., April, 1862; James Fox, killed by guerrillas, Syracuse^ 
Mo., December. 1861 ; William Martin, died at Cass\ ille, Mo., 1862; John E. 
Martin, died at Cassville, Mo., March, 1862: Michael Odenwald, died at St. 
Louis, November, 1 861 ; Thomas St. Clair, died at St. Louis, November, 1862; 
Alvin Walker, died at St. Louis, November, 1861 ; Arthur Walker, died at 
Otterville, December, 1861 ; Richard D. Wylie, died at Otterville, :Mo., Octo- 
ber, 186 1 ; John Carter, died at Warren, Mo.; John T. West, died at New 


Lieut. Lewis W. Daily, died of wounds received at Cassville, Mo.; Sergt. 
Benjamin T. Gardner, dietl December, 1863, of wounds received in action; 
William B. Miller, died December, 1863, of wounds received in action; Verd- 
man Johnson, died April, 1802, of wounds received in action; Edward Gra- 
ham, died at St. Louis, Mo., October, 1861 ; Hezekiah Brown, died August, 
1861 ; Copernicus H. Coffey, veteran, died June, 1864, of wounds; Christopher 
C. Coffey, died at Farmington. Miss., July, 1862; William H. Cooper, died at 
Otterville, Mo., 1861 ; James M. Coft'ey, died at Syracuse. Mo., December,. 
1861 ; Henry L. Duncan, died at Harrodsburg, Ind., April, 1862; Joseph: 
Elkins, died at Harro(lsl)urg, Ind., April. 1862; Charles i\L GoIdcu, died at St. 
1-ouis, May, 1862; William G. Jennings, died at Lynn Creek, Mo., February, 
1862; Fleming Johnson, died at lA-ansville, Ind., July, 1862; James H. Pettus, 
killed at Perryville, Ky., October, J862; Joseph S. Ta3dor. killed at Perry- 
ville, Kv., October, 1862; William Warman, died, August, 1862; William H. 
Williams, died July. 1863; Elijah Lyons, killed at Rome, Ga., May, 1864; 
Joseph M. Mavfield died September, 1864, of wounds received at Jonesboro ; 
W. G. Jennings, died at Trynne Creek, Mo. 


Sergt. James B. Fullbright, killed at Shiloh. April, 1862; Miller ^I. Sut- 
phin, died at Calhoun, Ky., February, 1862; John Baxter, died near Elkton, 
Ala., Julv, 1862; Benjamin F. Taylor, died at Calhoun, Ky., December, 1861 ; 


James M. Eller, died at New Albany, July. 1862; Roily Franklin, killed at 
Shiloh, April, 1862; Robert A. Harbison, died at Calhoun, Ky.. December, 
1861 ; James V. Livingston, veteran, killed at Kenesaw, June, 1864; James J. 
Livingston, died at New All^any. May, 1862; Willis L. Mathers, died at Cal- 
houn, Ky., December, 1861 ; Jacob Medows, killed at Stone River, December, 
1862; FLHsha Robertson, died at Evansville, July, 1862: William H. Shafer, 
died at Corinth, Aia_\-, 1862: Thomas Tull. died at Corinth, May, 1862; Benja- 
min H. Whisenand, died at Calhoun, Ky., February. 1862: Jacob Wright, 
died at P.owling (ireeu, K\-., November, 1862; Samuel E. Wylie. died at Cal- 
hcnm, Ky. l'"eliruary, 1862; William S. Butcher, died at Nashville, Tenn. ; 
.\braham Moytl, died at Madison, Ind.. April. 1865: William H. Fox, died 
at Indiaua]K)lis, March, i8f)4; Bedford Ha\ions, died at .\tlanta, (ja.. Alvin 
Howard, killed at Nashville. December. 1864; John Keith, died May, 1864, of 
wounds recei\ed at Resaca : Alexander Lucas, died at Atlanta, August, 1864; 
Lewis W, .Shields, died at Indianapolis, March. 1864; John W. Smallwood, 
died at llunts\ille, .\la., March, 1865: Jeremiah Vanderpool, died at Nash- 
ville. .August, 1864. 


First Lieut. Joseph H. Reeves, died March 15, 1864; Francis D. Mathew, 
\eleran, killed on picket near Atlanta, August, 1864: John Ashbrook, died 
at Danxille Prison, \^a., January. 1864; James W. Nichols, died at Ander- 
sonxille Prison. December. 1864: John W. Smith, died in Andersonville 
Prison: John M. Sharp, died at Chattahoochee River. Ga.. July. 1864. 


Capt. Isaac S. Dains. died of disease at Little Rock, Ark. ; William H. 
Coffey, died at Little Rock; William Lee, died at Little Rock; John Thomp- 
son, died at Louisburg, Ark. 


Lieut. -Col. Paul E. Slocum, died of wounds received in action March 3, 
1864; Second Lieut. Samuel Guy, died of disease. May 22. 1863; William J. 
Craig, killed at Resaca, May, 1864; Henry W. Bunger, died at home, Decem- 
ber. 1862; James E. Bunger. died at home, August. 1864. of wounds at Re- 
saca; Adam A. Copenhaver, died of wounds at Chattanooga. February. 1864; 


Samuel Coan, died at Mnrfreesboro. February, 1863: W'illiaiu Currv, died 
March, 1864, of wounds received at ^Mission Ridge; James R. Dearman, 
killed at Chickamauga, September, 1863: George \\". Dubois, died at Gallatin, 
Tenn. : George W. Edwards, died at ?\Jurfreesboro, Fel)ruarv, 1S63: John L. 
Gardner, died at Xashville, Tenn., Alarch, 1863: Ro])ert P. Hanna, died at 
Atlanta. October. 18O4: William Marbison. died at Louis\-ille, Kv. : Daniel 
C. Houston, died at Galkitin, Tenn., Xovember, i8f)4: Joseph Lills, died 
October, 1863, of wounds recei\ed at Chickamauga; Abram Mav. died at 
Nashville. Tenn.. February. 1863; Clark INIcDermott. killed at Chickamauga. 
September. 1863: \\'illiam McDermott. died of wounds received at Chicka- 
mauga: Emmett AlitcheH, died at Xashville, Temi., Februarv, 18^)3; Edward 
T. Sluss. died Sei)tem])er, \8-(^. of wounds; George W. \\'hitaker. died at 
Howling. K_\-.. June. i8fi3; James Russell, killed at Chickamauga; John W. 
Temple, killed at Resaca ; J. V>. Hoo\-er. died at Louisville. Ivv. ; James M. 
I'urris. died in Andersonx ille I'rison: George ^'und. died at Chickamauga. 


David Meadows, died at Cahaba. .\la., September. i8()4; Josepli Hoosh- 
our, supposed to ha\e dietl ; Isom Prince, died in Lawrence county. Ind.. 
November. 1862; Henry Southern, died at \^'alnut Hills, i^Piss.. July, 1863; 
Robert Alton, supposed to have been lost on steamer "Sultana" ; David Miller, 
died at Mound City, III.. August. 1863; James Meadows, died at Indian- 
apolis. January. 1864. 


Capt. Isaac A. Buskirk. died of disease. Jul}- i i, i8()4; William F. Alex- 
ander, died at Pulaski. Tenn.. .August. 1864; Horace L. Beatley. died at 
Jacksonville Prison, l-da.. May. ]S(>^: \\'illiam 'SI. Berry, died July, 1865; 
Richard J. Drake, died at Pulaski. Tenn.. August. 1864; Jonathan East, died 
at Louisville. Ky.. April, 1863; Richard R. ]\IcCune. died at Pulaski. Tenn., 
April. 1864; Thomas Peterson, died at Xash\ille. Tenn., Decemlier. 1864: 
Samuel Parks, died at St. Louis, Mo., January. 1863; John Quick, died at 
Coluinbus. Ind.. April. i8r)4: Aaron J. Rutledge. died at Bloomington. Ind.. 
April, 1864; James H. Waugh. died at Xashville. Tenn.. of wounds received 
December. 1864; William Welch, died at A'icksburg. Miss. August. 1865; 
Ira Young, died at N^ashville, Tenn.. X^ovember. 1864; Charles Amor, died at 


Corinth, Miss.; Eli Fowler, died of disease at Ft. Gaines; John R. Fielder, 
died of disease at Mobile, Ala. 


Hugh C. Adams, died at Dalton, Ga., April, 1865; William Clark, died 
at Nashville, Tenn., April, 1865 ; James M. Craig, died at Louisville, Ky., 
h>bruary, 1SO5: George H. Collins, died May, 1865; John M. Hubbard, died 
at Indianai)olis. Fel>ruary, 1865; Tilghman A. Rogers, died at Dalton, Ga., 
March, 18O5; John Stewart, died at Bainbridge, Ga., October, 1865; James 
M. Paule}-, died at Dalton, Ga., .\pril, 1865; James M. Smithvilfe, died at 
Cuthbert, Ga., January, 1866; Jordan W'isel)-, died at Dalton, Ga., April, 1865. 


James H. Knight, iMfty-ninth, died at Xash\ille, Tenn.; Capt. h>ed But- 
ler, Twenty-iirst Battery, died at New Orleans : William Barnes, killed at 
.Vshley Gap, Va. : Elvin Farmer, died at Memphis: Milton H. Mobley, Sec- 
ond Cavalry, died at New x\lbany; Wren Allen, Second Cavalry, died in 
Andersonville Prison; Lee Stevi^art, Second Cavalry, killed at Newman Sta- 
tion ; Abraham, Second Cavalry, killed at Newman Station ; Daniel Breakison, 
Second Cavalry, died at Corinth; James Thompson, Ninth Battery, killed at 
Shiloh; Rol)ert H. <iourley. Twentieth Battery, died at New Maysville, Ind., 
Capt. Peter Kop, T\\ enty-seventh, killed at Antietam ; J. J. Howard, killed in 
the service; William Rice, Fourteenth, died in captivity; Capt. Joseph Young, 
Ninety-seventh, killed at Kenesaw ; James A. Butcher, Ninety-seventh, died 
of wounils at home; James M. Flodges, I-'orty-third, died of disease at Helena, 
Ark.; Hiram Reed, .\inety-se\enth, died of disease at Memphis; Alfred 
Bowers, Ninety-seventh, killed at Kenesaw; William H. Carmichael, Ninety- 
seventh, died at Moscow. Tenn.; James H. Sparks, Ninety-seventh, died at 
Camp Sherman; Enoch Alexander, Fifty-ninth, died in Andersonville Prison; 
John D. Alexander, Fifty-ninth, died at Chattanooga; Jefiferson Smith, 
Thirty-third, killed at Thompson's Station; Lieut. Isaac B. Buskirk, Twenty- 
seventh, killed at Chancellorsville ; Samuel Knight, Thirty-third, killed by 
guerrillas at Resaca, Ga. ; Joseph Richeson, Twenty-seventh, died at Williams- 
port, Md. ; E. F. • Jacobs, Fifty- fourth, died in Field Hospital; Martin 
O'Comrel, Twenty-seventh, died in Field Hospital; Thomas Tull, Thirty- 
first, died at Corinth; William Simpson, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn.; 
A. B. Yates. Second, killed at Vicksburg; Henry Sipes, Twenty-seventh, 


killed at Darnestown, ]\ld. : Thomas Todd, Twenty-seventh, died at Darnes- 
town, Md. ; E. M. Flatlook, Twenty-seventh, died at Frederick, Md. ; Reuben 
Hendrix, killed at Resaca ; George Edwards, Twenty-se\enth, killed at Re- 
saca; Thomas Pratt, Twenty-seventh, killed at Atlanta: David Cook, died at 
Louisville. Ky. ; C. ^I. Buwen, Twenty-seventh, died at Washington City; 
J. W. Litz, Eighty-second, wounded and died at Chattanooga; John Thomas, 
Twenty-seventh, killed at Atlanta, Ga. : John Truel)lood, Thirtv-first, died at 
Pulaski, Tenn. 


February 15, 1898, was \ irlually the beginning of the short, but decisive, 
war with Spain. The I'nited States liattleship "Maine," anchored in Havana 
harbor, was blown to pieces by a mine, and nearly all of her officers and men 
perished. The tyrannical rule (<i tlie Spanish in Cuba had long held the at- 
tention of the I'nited States, and in anticipation of tronljle, or rather preven- 
tion, the American war-ship had l)een sent to Culian waters. The traged)- of 
the "Maine"" was \irtuall\- a "sla]) in the face,"" and inirnediateh- up(~»n the tele- 
graph"s click announcing the destruction of the ship the countrv began pre- 
paring for the war which seemed inevital)]e. The press and other avenues of 
communication were hot with the news from Washington and Cuba. 

Both houses of Congress passed resolutions on the Kjth of .\pril declar- 
ing the island of Cuba free from Spanisli jurisdiction, and demanding Si)ain 
relint[uish all hold on the island, and directing tlie army and na\-y to carry 
the resolutions mto effect. President ^IcKinley ordered a blockade of Cuban 
ports on the 22nd ox -\])rU. and on the 23d issued the following proclamation: 

"Whereas, a joint resolution of Congress was ai)pro\-ed on the twentieth 
dav of April, 1898, entitled 'joint resolution for the recognition of the inde- 
pendence of the people of Cuba, demanding that the go\-ernment of Spain 
relinquish its authorit\- and go\-ernment in the island of Cul)a, and to with- 
draw its na\-al forces from l"ul)an waters, and directing the President of the 
l/nited States to use the land and naval forces of the I'nited States to carry 
these resolutions into effect": and 

"\A'hereas, 1)\- an act oi Compress entitled 'An act to pro\ ide for tempor- 
arily increasing the militar\ e-tal)lishment of the Cnitcd States in time of 
w-ar and for otlier ])urposes." apjiroved .Xiiril J_', 1808, the President is author- 
izefl. in order lo raise a \-olunlerr army, to issue his ])roclamation, calling for 
volunteers to ser\-e in the army of the L'nited States: 

"Now. therefore, I, William ]\lcKinley, President of the Cnited States, 
by \'irtue of the power \-ested in me b\- the Constitution and the laws, and deem- 


ing sufficient occasion to exist, ha\ e thought tit to call forth volunteers to the 
aggregate number of one hundred and t\vent}-ti\e thousand, in order to carry 
into effect the purpose of the said resolution; the same to be apportioned, as 
far as to he i)racticable. among the several states and territories and the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, according to population, and to serve for two years, unless 
sooner discharged. The details of this object will be immediately com- 
municated to the proper authorities through the war department. 

"Tn witness whereof, 1 have hereunto set m\- hand and caused the seal 
of the Tnited States to be affixed. 

"Done at the city of W^ashington, this twenty-third day of .\pril, A. D. 
1898, and of the independence of the Ignited States the one hundred and 

"William ■NIcKinley. 
"By the President : 

"T<Hix Sherm.xn, Secretary of State." 

Indiana's quota under this call for >iik' hundred and twenty-five thou- 
sand men was four regiments of infantry and, two liatteries. Late on the 
evening of .\i)rd 25th James A. Mount, go\ernor of Indiana, received the 
proclamation, and he then issued orders for the Indiana Xational Guard to 
rendezvous at Indianapolis. Before night of the 26th the companies and all 
four regiments had arrived at Camp Mount, in Indianapolis. The regiments 
were the One Hundred and bifty-sexenth. (Jne Hundred and Fifty-eighth, 
One Hundred and Fift\ -ninth and One Hundred and Sixtieth. These regi- 
ments were given the numbers commencing where the regiments of the Civil 
war ceased. 1 hus the Third Regiment, the first to I)e mustered, took the 
name of One Hundred and Fifty-seventh X'olunteer Infantry. 

Bloomington, and Monroe county, were represented Iw' Compan\' H, of the 
One Hundred and b'ifty-ninth Regiment, which organization was fonned 
of the First Regiment, Indiana Xational (iuard, and was composed of com- 
panies from Vincennes (two), Terre Haute, New Albany, Washington, Evans- 
ville (two), Roachdale, Madison, Brownstown, Bloomington, Greencastle and 
Princeton. The company which liecanie H of the One Flundred and Fifty- 
ninth had been organized on .May JO, 1891. The regiment, at thy opening of 
the war, \\ as under the command of Col. John T. liarrett, and Company H 
was officered Iv.- Wi'liam M. Louden, captain: William Hutchings, tirst lieu- 
tenant, and Fd.rar .\. l^.inford, second lieutenant. The enlisted men, of whom 
a detailed list is unnecessary, numl^ered eight\-one. In the r(_>ll of this regi- 
ment, in nronuiient vrnik, \verc other Monroe countv men, amoiig them being 


Theodore J. Louden, major of the regiment, and Charles Rawles, a hattaHon 
adjutant and tirst heutenant. 

Company 11 arrived at Camp Mount, IndianapuHs. on .Vpril _'0, 1898, 
and on May 12th was mustered into the vohmteer ser\'ice of the United 
States. On the 22d the regiment entrained at the Hoosier ca])ital and were 
transported to Camp R. A. Alger, at Dunn Loring, Virginia, arriving there 
on May 24th. In this location the troops remained until August 3d, when 
they undertook a forty-mile march, liy easy stages, to Thoroughfare Gap, 
Virginia. Their encampment at this place lasted until August 28th, thence 
by rail to Cauip Meade, near Middletown, Pennsylvania. The men were 
taken from Camp Meade hack to Camp Mount, Indianapolis, on SeiJtember 
nth, and on the i8th were furloughed for a period of thirt\- days, which 
was extended by order of the war department to November loth. On the 
23d day of Xo\ ember, 1898. the One Himdred and Fifty-ninth was nnistered 
from the service. 

Of all the troops which assembled at Cam]) Mount in the spring of 
1898, none of tiie Indiana troops were sent to the scene of action but the 
Twenty-seventh Battery, which went to Porto Rico. The One Hundred and 
Fifty-sventh was sent to Chickamauga Park, also the One Hundred and 
Fifty-eighth and One Hundred anil Sixtieth. The second call of President 
McKinley, for seventy-fi\e thousand men, on May 2=,. 1898, ga\e the quota 
of Indiana as one regiment of infantry, two companies of colored troops, 
one company of engineers, and one company of signal corps. Monroe county 
was not represetited in this enlistment. 

The brevit;, of the war with S])ain, and the consei|ucnt atle(|uacy of the 
Cnited States regulars and the navy, pire\ented the men from Indiana from 
seeing the actual smoke of battle, but nevertheless, their ])atriotism was un- 
questioned. Diiring the tiresome wait at Cam[) 'bhomas, Chickamauga. and 
other places, the men were kept acti\e by the expectation of a call for the 
front at anv moment. Had the_\- been called upon they would not ha\e hesi- 
tated to ofYer their lives for the country, and as willingly as their fathers had 
done in the dark days of "61 to '65. 

At the beginning of the Spanish- American war the Indiana Xational 
Guard was composed of fort\'-one comijanies, making three liattalions. or a 
total of two thrusand eight hundred and twenty-two men. 



So far as has been ascertained by geologists and scientists, the peculiar 
and superior formation known as oolitic stone (fine grained limestone) is 
only found witiiin a small belt of country not to exceed thirty-five miles in 
length and i\\t miles in width, practically all in Alonroe and Lawi-ence 
counties, Indiana. Bloomington is about the exact center of this famous 
stone belt, and Alonroe county was the pioneer at developing the industry of 
quarrying this valuable geological formation. The first attempt was not 
far from 1850, when General Love opened the first quarry of the entire belt, 
near Stinesville. this county. Today, this stone and the celebrated "Bedford 
stone" (substantially the same) are known the world over, especially in the 
building circles of the United States, for there arc thousands of structures 
of various kinds and sizes constructed from these wonderful formations. 

During the davs of the Civil war, in 186^, near Ellettsville, this county, 
the next f|uarry was operated by that pioneer stone master, John Matthews. 
It must be remembered that this industry did not jump into great prominence 
at first, because of the crude appliances and tools then extant for bringing 
forth this rich treasure from the earth. Then band drills were usetl on the 
ledges, and stone was blasted out with powder and handled l\v hand-])ower 
derricks. It was not until 1873 ^-hat the first stone channeling machines 
were brought to this wonderful stone belt by John Matthews. 1'his ma- 
chine — a wonder in itself at the time — completely revolutionized the methods 
for quarrying and transporting stone, yet, for all that advancement, it re- 
mained still to i^rovide some b.etter mehods for transporting the stone from 
the quarries. The band and horse-power derricks only carried a lilock of 
stone containing about eighty cubic feet, weighing 15,000 pounds, and no 
railroad company would allow more than one hundred and twenty-five cubic 
feet loaded on any one car. Rut wMth the modern equipment blocks of stone 
weighing more than forty tons and containing four hundred and fifty cubic 
feet are quarried and the stone cars today transport as much as seven hundred 
culiic feet of ,aone each. Again, since the introduction of improved ma- 
cbincT\', lietter (.hanueling machines, steam drills and powerful derricks with 


wire cable, the development of this great industry has Ijeen rapid and indeed 

In 1912 there were in operation seventeen stone quarries, twenty- 
two stone mills and fifteen complete cut-stone plants, within Monroe 
county. The approximate value of these plants was fixed by the Com- 
mercial Club of Bloomington at two million dollars. This industry 
furnished steady employment to hundreds of workmen, at good wages. 
Of this immense output of bufif and blue oolitic stone, large quantities 
were shipped to distant sections of this country and into Canada. There 
is scarcelv a citv of note on the continent that does not have one or 
more structures constructed from this valuable material — court houses, 
state houses, school buildings, great bridges, monumental work, orna- 
mental stone work, etc., all come in for their full share in the shipments 
just enumerated as coming from these Monroe county quarries. The 
industry is increasing with the growth of cities, and annually better 
facilities are being discovered bv which to handle the business success- 
full}- and more i)rofitabIy. 

The building of the new branch of the Illinois Central railroad to 
the south and west of Bloomington is fast developing a new stone field. 
Thousands of acres of entirely undeveloped stone formation of this 
superior stone is still to be found lying all around the environments of 
Bloomington. The same is true of excellent beds of clay and shale. 


On account of a seeming misunderstanding concerning the real 
qualitv of the "oolitic" and "Bedford stone," the following report, from 
State Geologist ^^^ S. Blatchley was made in June. 1909: 

To IVhoii! It May Concern : 

Manv inquiries which have recently come to the department of geology 
relative to the comparative character and quality of the Indiana oolitic lime- 
stone at various points in the area over which it outcrops have led me to 
make the following brief general statement regarding said stone : 

The oolitic limestone outcrops in Indiana from a point near Parkers- 
burg, Montgomerv county, southward to the Ohio river, a distance of one 
hundred and forty-two miles. Throughout this length the width of the out- 
crop varies from two to fourteen miles, averaging about five miles. The 
conditions of its deposition were practically the same throughout this area, 


it being everywhere immediately underlain by the Harrodsburg limestone 
and overlain by the Mitchell limestone. 

It is everywhere a granular limestone or calcareous sand rock, in which 
both the grains and the cement are carbonate of lime. That the variation 
in chemical composition is exceedingly small is shown by the following 
analyses, No. i being that of a sample from a leading quarry in Lawrence 
county, No. 2 from a similar quarry in Monroe county, and No. 3 the average 
from eight of the leading quarries throughout the area : 

No. I. No. 2. No. 3. 

per cent, per cent, per cent. 

Carbonate of lime ( Ca CO"' ) 98.27 98. ii 97.62 

Carbonate of magnesia (Mg CO^) .84 .92 .61 

Iron oxide & alumina ( Fe- O-'^+AP O^) .15 .16 .36 

Insoluble residue .64 .86 .91 

In all commercial quarries there is at the top a layer or cut of tine- 
grained hiitt stone averaging about seven feet in thickness, followed by 
three to five cuts of medium-grained buff stone, totalling twenty-one to 
thirty-five feet in thickness, the bottom one of these being underlain by one 
or two cuts of coarser-grained blue stone. While the cut of fine-grained 
top stone (often called "marble") is most sought after, no one company 
or quarry can furnish a large amount of it. Moreover, experience has fully 
l^roven that the medium-grained stone from the middle cuts, which com- 
prises most of the output, contains fewer flaws, is fully as durable and is 
more uniform in color. Every quarry now operated can put forth, there- 
fore, different grades of stone, and the quarries of no one district have any 
advantage over those of another in this respect. 

In conclusion I will say that the name "Bedford oolitic" was originally 
given this stone because the first quarries on a large scale were opened up 
near Bedford, Lawrence county. The name "Indiana oolitic limestone" has 
been adojited ]\v this department, since In- conferring upon it the broader 
name "Indiana" no one locality in the 'state will he advertised as against 
another, the stone in Monroe county being as tyjMcally oolitic and as ex- 
cellent in quality as that about Bedford. 


'I he earliest settlers did not use much of the oolitic limestone because 
of the difficulty in c|uarrying it. After its valual:)le ])roperties were dis- 


covered, it had some local usage, in which the stone was obtained b}- the 
liberal use of powder from the loose bowlders and outcropping ledges. Tt 
is almost the universal practice of country masons, where the stone is quar- 
ried by hand, to blast it from the ledges, and if the ])locks are too large to 
handle, to break them with another charge of powder. With the invention 
of the channeling machine and the opening of the large quarries, the use 
of powder was discontinued, and at the present no powder is used except , 
for removing stipping. The noise of the blast has gi\en away to the clatter 
of the channeler. Xo channeling machines were in use in this stone belt 
prior to 1877. 


In 1866 James Needham, operating the Salem quarries, sold rough 
rock at thirty-five cents per cubic foot, and Ellettsville quarries were selling 
for the same rate. The stone that \\ cut into the Illinois state house was 1 idled 
at one dollar per foot. In 1873 the Marion cnunty, Indiana, court house 
was built with this stone, at thirty cents per foot, whicli price olitained prac- 
tically until 1S77. In 1878 the Indiana capitol building was charged twenty- 
five cents per cubic foot. In 1881 the prices were: Milled blocks, twenty- 
five cents; scabbled dimension lilocks and stone, thirty to thirty-five cents; 
sawed on all four sides, seventy-five cents per cubic foot. In 1891 prices, 
owing to improved methods, had declined to mill-jjlocks at twenty cents per 
cubic foot and four-sided sawed wfjrk at fifty cents. Xo material change 
was had until 1895, since which time eacli quarry has ri.xed its own prices. 
The average price, per lineal fo(jt, of oolitic stone in 1907 was as follows: 
3 by 8, sixteen cents; 3 by 20, forty cents; 5 by 20. sixty-seven cents; 6 by 
19, seventy-six cents; 8 by 20, one dollar; 11 by 19, one dollar and thirty 
cents per lineal foot. Monumental bases, thirty-fi\-e cents per foot; statuary 
stock, gra}- or luift', fifty cents to one tlollar. 


The freight rates on a hundred pounds of this stone ( billed from Bed- 
ford) a few vears ago were: To Chicago, eleven cents; Kansas City, forty- 
three cents; Cincinnati, Ohio, six cents: Indianapolis, se\-en cents; Iowa 
points, twenty-eight cents ; Utah, fift}- cents ; Xew York, same as Iowa ; De- 
troit, twelve cents ; Boston, thirtv cents ; Pittsburg, eighteen cents. 



Oolitic Stone has Ijeen quarried near Stinesville many years. There 
were four acti\e and numerous inactive quarries there in 1907. Large 
quantities of stone have Ijeen shipped from there to distant points in the 
United States. Flere the merchantable thickness of the stone is thirty feet. 
It is harder to quarry here than farther south in the belt. Probably the first 
man to open quarries here was Richard Gilbert, in 1827-28. from the east 
blufif of Jack's Defeat creek, three-fourths of a mile south of town. From 
these quarries came the stone for the abutments to the bridges over White 
river and Bean Blossom creek. But not until the building of the New Albany 
& Salem railroad, now the "Monon,"' in 1853, did this stone have a name 
abroad. It was then that Messrs. AVatts and Biddle. of Pennsylvania, pur- 
chased twenty acres three-fourths of a mile west of Stinesville, and soon 
commenced their extensive operations. A substantial steam stone mill of 
six gangs, rocker-shaft pattern, was erected, and in 1855 they were prepared 
to furnisli both rough and sawed stone to the trade. 

The Chicago and Stinesville Stone Company was organized in 1889, 
and later was stvled the PjIuc Creek Stone Company, which virtually had to 
suspend and go into the hands of a receiver on account of the great 1893 
panic, but it was reorganized in 1895. as the Indiana Steam Stone Works. 
Two years later the quarry was abandoned. Other companies in the Stines- 
ville district are these : Big Creek Quarry, North Bedford Stone Company, 
Romona Oolitic Stone Company, George Plenly Stone Company: J- Hoad- 
ley & Sons Company, opened in April, 1905, is an immense quarry, and 
covers over twenty acres of land; Red Hill Stone Company, opened in 1903, 
was worlred onlv one }'ear. 

In the Ellettsville district, in 1862, John ?vlatthews opened the first 
quarrv cmc mile north of F.llettsville village. They operated the first chan- 
neling machines and steam hoist, purchased about 1877, the same being a 
"Wardwell," for which six thousand dollars was paid, or the price of five 
such machines today. These quarries extend along the Clear creek bluffs 
for more than a quarter of a mile. ^lost of this stone is a beautiful buff, 
yet much of the blue variety also obtains. 

\. E :\Iatthews Cut Stone Company established in 1903. in the bed of 
the old Matthews quarry, an establi.shment for planing cut stone work. The 
capacity is tventy thousand culnc feet per year, with the twelve workmen 
employed — at least such were the figures in 1907. Another plant is the 


Perry Brothers Stone Company, successor to the old Perry quarries opened 
in 1862, along with the Matthews Brothers quarry of 1866, and which were 
in operation nearly forty years. The quarry at the upper mill was closed in 
1896, then reopened and finally abandoned entirely in 1902. The Perrys 
have been heavy operators. In the spring of 1907 they organized a company 
known as the EUettsville-Perry Quarries Company, and under a new lease 
opened up a quarry five hundred feet aljove the old quarry. 

Another company is the Griswold & Chambers Company, of Chicago, 
who leased a part of the Perry holdings in 1907. They soon had in operation 
six gang-saws and one planer. The Eclipse Stone Company is on the 
northern outskirts of the village of EUeltsville. This is a Chicago concern 
and it has a fine stone mill building. This was installed in 1903 and saws 
stone only "for the market, employing, in 1907, twelve men. In the famous 
Hunter Valley district is where the stone for the old Monroe county court 
house, erected in 1819, was taken from. The body of .the building was of 
brick, but the basement was of this oolitic stone, and it was probably the 
first ever used for Iniilding uses in the county. In 1906 the present court 
house at Bloomington was constructed from stone near Ellettsville. The 
stone for the old court house was quarried, of course, by hand, but it stood 
the test of time and the invading elements of ninety years, as pieces of the 
stone are still to be had as positive proof of this statement. 

As early as 1856 stone was sawed by hand in Bloomington by Jesse 
Carson, and it may still be seen in monuments at the cemetery west of the 
city. But not until 1891 did the quarries of this district assume much im- 
portance, after which they figured much in the great industry. The Morton 
C. Hunter Stone Company, organized in Bloomington in late years, placed 
in operation fine appliances for handling the valuable output. The Chicago 
& Bloomington Stone Com])any was the next to follow the Hunters in this 
district, opening in 1902. The Consolidated Stone Company, which was 
third in the valley, was opened in 1902. Then there is the later Consolidated 
companies, working a series of quarries hereabouts. The business of this 
corporation is simply prodigious. The Johnson quarry. Hunter Brothers' 
Stone Company, seven years ago employed thirty men and produced rough 
oolitic stone at eight cents per cubic foot. 

The Star Stone Company was established in 1895, and dexeloped at a 
depth of sixty-five feet. The Crescent Stone Company in 1893 opened up a 
half mile to the east of the Consolidated No. 2, and was worked until 1902, 
when a new opening was made to the west. 


The Hunter Valley Stone Company is adjoining the Crescent quarry to 
the northwest; this was opened in 1895 and constantly worked until 1906. 
It had been worked out to a depth of seventy feet, the deepest of any north 
of Bedford. Here hft\-four feet of merchantable stone is taken out. The 
grain is said to be almost equal to granite. 

In the Bloomington district the South Side Stone Comj^any opened its 
quarry in 1889, '" the southwest part of the city of Bloomington. It was 
abandoned in 1893, and the property was purchased by the Henley Stone 
Company as the site for a stone mill, which was operated until it was ab- 
sorbed in 19 10 by a new company. 

The Central Oolitic Stone Company was formed in 1890 and a plant 
installed the next year, north of the city. The Hoadley Cut Stone Company, 
a quarter of a mile north of the Hoadley null, was completed in 1906. In 
1907 the state reports show there were in operation in this district four 
mills in Bloomington city and six active quarries and se\en mills. The con- 
struction of the Blinois Central railroad has given a new impetus to the 
industry in this district. 

In the Sanders district are located the Oolitic Stone Company, the 
Monroe County Oolitic Stone Company, the Empire Stone Company, the 
Achme-Bedford Stone Company, the Bufifalo Stone Company, the Mathers 
Stone Company, organized in 1892. the Wicks Stone Company, the Chicago 
& Bloomington Company, all of which have been doing a successful business 
for a longer or shorter time. 

In the Belt district are the quarries of the National Stone Company, 
United States Stone Company, Monarch Stone Company, Eagle Stone Com- 
pany. Clear Creek Comjiany, Crown Stone Company. W. McMillen & Son 
and others. 11ie last named, in 1907, had an output of 12.375 cubic feet in 
a single week. Eort\- men were then being worked fifteen hours a day, and 
received twenty-seven cents per hour. 

In the Victor district, a more recently worked part of the stone region, 
in 1907 reported Johnson & Mathews Stone Company No. 18, the Cleveland 
Stone Company's quarry and smaller concerns, to which have since been 
added extensive works by numerous companies. 

.\t this date, Septem])er. 1913, there are nearly a score of separate quar- 
ries within Monroe county, all turning out a large amount of stone, which 
finds its way to many states and into the walls of thousands of buildings, 
bridges, monuments and other structures. It is really the leading industry 
of the county and is a wealth producer. 



Without being positive as td the exact date of the coming of the first 
settlers to what is now known as Bloomington, it may be stated for a cer- 
tainty that such settlers made their advent here as early as iS 15-16, and 
fKDssibly white men were here a year or so before these dates. The Indian 
power in all Indiana was crushed by the decisive liattle of Tippecanoe in 
the autumn of 1811, at Battle Ground, near the present city of Lafayette. 
But it took a few years to fully satisfy the would-lie immigrants that no 
further trouble witli the red men would ensue. There has Iieen, and is still 
extant, those partial evidences from old settlers that there were a few fami- 
lies who braved the dangers of this county between r8io and 181 1, but this 
is purely traditional. It is believed, too, that if such settlement was effected 
that early that Bloomington township had its share of pioneer men and 
women. As late as 1816 this county was all an untamed wilderness, without 
boundary or surveys, inhabited by wild animals and half subdued savages. 
All of the county north of the o'.d Indian boundary was yet the property of 
the Indians, and so remained until the treaty of St. Mary's, Ohio, in October, 
t8i8. It was then ceded to the government as a part of the "New Pur- 
chase." Bv the time of the first land entries at Bloomington, in 181 6. 
there were a score of families already residing here, .\mong those who 
entered land here during the first four or fwe years after the first land sale 
— in fact all who entered land during that period — are the following, with 
the sections of land and _\'ear of entr\- : 

David Rogers, section 33, i8rC); Joseph 'i\aylor. section t,;^. i8t6: 
George Ritchey, section 33, i8rf): George Hedrick, section 33, 1816; George 
Ketchum, section 6, t8i6: Henry \\'ampler, section 6, 1816: .\dam Bovver. 
section 6, t8i6; Th(imas Smith, section 7, t8t6: William Julian, section 7. 
1816: William J. .\dair, section 7, 1816; George Parks, section 8, 1816: 
John Kell, section 17, 1816; James Parks, section 17. 1816; John Owens, 
section t8. 1816: David Stout, section ig, 18 [6: Samuel C'aldwell, section 
19. 1816: Roderick Rawlins, section jo, i8t6: Joseph Taylor, section 20. 
1816; Tatnes Parks, section 20, 1816: George Hall, section 21, 1816: David 


Raymond, section 21, 1816; Jacob Renderhach, section 25, 1816. All of the 
following came in 1816: Ebenezer Daggett, section 27; James Borland, 
section 27; Gideon Frisbee, section 28; John Lee, section 28; William Mat- 
lock, section 28 ; Samuel Camphries, section 28 ; Thomas Graham, section 
29; James Clark, section 29; Abraham Appier, section 29; Christopher Es- 
linger, section 30: Henry Wampler, section 32; Henry Rodgers, section 34; 
John Thompson, section 34; Wheeler Matlock, section 34; Samuel Scott, 
section 34; William Jackson, section 35; John Jackson, section 35; Thomas 
Heady, section 36; John Grififith, section 15, 1817; James Matlock, section 
18, 1817; James Wood, section 19, 1817, and all of the following came in 
1817: John Buskirk, section 25; Lawrence Smoyer, section 29; Samuel 
Rogers, section 30; James Wood, section 30; Titan Kemble, section 31; 
Simon Chauvin, section 31; Chesley D. Bailey, section 32; Robertson Gra- 
ham, section 32; Granville Ward, section 35; N. Fletcher, section 35. In 
1818 came William Goodwin to section 13; Thomas Barger, section 19; 
Abraham Buskirk, section 24; Stephen P. Sealls, section 26; O. F. Barker, 
section 30; Ebenezer Dickey, section 32: in 1820 came George Whisenard, 
section 6; Thomas Heady, section 24, 1821. These were the only entries in 
this township prcAnous to 1822. 


Bloomington, the seat of justice of Monroe county, is beautifully sit- 
uated JTfty-seven miles southwest of Indianapolis, at the junction of the 
"Monon" and Illinois Central railway lines, on almost the highest elevation 
in Indiana, in the midst of an elegant country of gently rolling lands, here and 
there breaking into picturesque hills and romantic valleys, ever a feast to the 
eye of the beholder. The census of the United States in 1910 placed the 
center of population in the United States at a point within the city limits of 
Bloomington, the marker being a few feet from the Showers Brothers Com- 
pany's great furniture factory. 

The first entries of land in which now includes the present city of 
Bloomington, all in sections 32 and 33, township 9, range i. and each for a 
quarter section, were filed by the following persons, on dates given : George 
Ritchey, September 26. 1816; George Hedrick, same date; David Rogers, 
same date; Joseph Tajdor, same date; Henry Wampler. same date; Chesley 
Bailey, February 5, 1817: Robertson Graham, May 26, 1817; Ebenezer 
Dickey, February 12, 1818. 

It is likelv that no one lived on the town site until 181 6, at which time 


both Rogers and Graham built log houses. It is usually believed that these 
pioneer cabins were erected in 1817. In June, 1818, when the iirst lots were 
laid out, a wheat crop was growing on land purchased of Mr. Rogers. 
David Rogers entered the southwest quarter of section t,t,, on which a por- 
tion of the town was platted, but Jonathan Rogers afterward obtained a 
I^art interest in the land, as his name appears upon the deed which conveyed 
the land to Monroe county. 

The town of Bloomington was ordered platted by the county commis- 
sioners April to, 1818, and it was by the first board named "Bloomington." 
The county agent was ordered to oversee the work. Pie was instructed to 
make the public square measure two hundred and seventy-six feet, and to 
lay out lots sixty-six by one hundred and thirty-two feet, and the streets 
eighty-two and a half feet wide. The num])er of lots to be platted was left 
to the agent of the county. The first [)ublic sale of lots was advertised to 
take place at auction June 22. 18 18, the notice <^f such auction was ordered 
published in the IVestcni Sun. of Vincennes ; the LonisviUc Correspondent, 
the Argus of JVestern America, the JJ'^cstern Eagle, of Madison, and the 
Liberty Hall, of Cincinnati. Jonathan Nichols was appointed to survey the 
town plat. The county records contain the following interesting order: 
"On motion of Bartlett Woodward, ordered that the agent of this county 
procure one barrel of whisky and have it at the sale of the lots in Blooming- 
ton." This was e\identlv thought as a stimulater to bidders for lots — some- 
thing to nerve up the inner-man, as it wei'e ! That the authorities were cor- 
rect in this, it needs only to lie seen that the lot sales reached the large 
amount of $14,326.85 the first day of the sale. That might ha\e been a 
wise move at that day, but today it would not work with the same results. 
It will doubtless be of interest to know who purchased these first Blooming- 
ton town lots, as many of the family names still are popular in this county 
and Indiana. They included John Scutt, 1). Thompson, Christian Eppinger, 
John Keys, Arthur Harris, W. A. Beatty, W\ P. Anderson, William Lowe, 
Robinson Graham, David Sears. Floyd Cummings, Samuel Coleman, James 
Borland, George Hedrick. W. D. Hoof, David Rogers. James Dunning, James 
Newman, Jonathan Rogers, Thomas Smith, B. Miller W. D. McCullough, 
Jacob B. Lowe, William Curl, Henry Wampler, Coleman Pruitt, Elias 
Goodwin. Abner Goodwin. Solomon Bowers, John Owens, Samuel Scott, 
Sr., Nathan Julian, Isham Sumter, Hezekiah Woodford, Benjamin Freeland, 
George Richey, David Matlock, Lewis Noel, Samuel Haslett, James Denny, 
John Buskirk, Z. ^^'illiams, Moses Williams. T. B. Clark, Eli Lee, Thomas 



Lee. William Hardin, Nelson Moore, Ebenezer McDonald, J. W. Lee, Aquilla 
Rogers, John Foster, Thomas Hadey, Granville Ward, James Dickins, Ste- 
phen S. Bigger, Susannah Lee, Jonathan Nichols, Reuben Fullen, Martha 
Brown, W. B. Brown, Joshua Howe and James Brown. The land upon 
which the town had been located was purchased from Jonathan and David 
Rogers and Robert Graham. The Roger brothers were paid one thousand 
two hundred dollars for such land and Mr. Graham nine hundred dollars for 
one hundred and fifty acres soon after the first sale of lots. At the original 
sale of lots Jonathan Nichols, surveyor, laid out two hundred and eight lots 
and received thirty cents each for his surveying services. Benjamin Parks 
was allowed, as agent for the county, thirty-three dollars and fiftv cents for 
the whisky used at the lot sale. The spirits were received from Whisenand. 
Robinson Graham was chain carrier ; Aquilla Rogers, chain carrier ; John 
Owen, chain carrier; Lewis Noel was "crier" or auctioneer. James Parks 
was clerk of tlie sale. b'uathan Rogers was "ta])ster'" and dealt out the 
whisky, and was allowed one dollar a day for his services as bartender. 
There was a shortage of about fifteen per cent, when the lots come to be 
finally settled for. A few sold for over two hundred dollars each — not many so 
high, howexer. The sale was "spirited," of course, l)ut the countv lost aliout 
thirty per cent, of the purchase price before the collections were all made. 

The cash receipts from the town lot sales from November, 1820, to 
November. 1821, were $3,860. Of this amount $3,207 was expended. In 
Februarv, 1822, the agent reported in bis possession notes from the sale of 
lots to the amount of over $18,000. This fund was the most extensive and 
useful in the county's early history and organization. 


In 1818 the county commissioners of the newly organized county of 
Monroe purchased two quarter sections of land, bounded by the township 
line near Third street on the south, by the quarter section lines of Dunn 
street on the east, in Tenth street on the north and on the west side of Oak 
street on the west. 

Jonathan Nichols, grandfather of the members of the present firm of 
Nichols & Nichols, architects, was employed by the commissioners to lay out 
and establish the town site of Bloomington for the seat of justice of the new 
count}'. He was ordered to make the streets eighty-two and one-half feet 
wide, alleys, twelve feet wide and the lots sixty-six feet wide by a hundred and 


thirty-two feet long, the lots to face on the four main streets bordering the 
court house square, originally called North, South, East and West Main 
streets, now known as Sixth street. Fifth street or Kirkwood avenue, Wal- 
nut street and College avenue. 

He first located the court house square on the ratlier prominent knoll, 
as it then lay in the cornfield that it was, two hundred and seventy-six feet 
square. He evidently used the compass to determine the north and south line 
without making any correction for the declination of the needle, the streets 
now running about five degrees east of true north. The four corners of the 
square were marked by stone a foot square and six feet long set in the ground 
as far as the limestone under the soil would permit. It happened that the 
southwest corner of the square fell over a crevice in the limestone and this 
stone might probably be still in place if it had not been remo\'ed in 1864 to 
place a Lincoln flag pole in the hole it occupied. The stub of such a pole was 
found at this point, well preserved, and a part of it was removed when the 
brick pavement was placed about the square in iqio. Frank Bishop is one 
yet living who saw the stone removed at the time of the flag-pole raising, and 
he states that the stone was afterwards broken up and used for macadam on 
the streets. If these stones had been smaller and less in the way as obstruc- 
tions they might all have remained in place to the present time. 

Mr. Nichols first laid out three rows of blocks two hundred and seventy- 
six feet square, each containing eight lots and a twelve-foot alley each way 
through the center of the block. These fir,st platted blocks lie between Tliird 
street and Sixth street. He was ordered to add two m(-)re rov.s of blocks on 
the north, thus extending the plat to what is now Eighth street. The four 
corners of this original plat of in-lots were at some time marked by corner 
stones of the same size as those marking the corners of the public .square. 
These stones were vet in position in 1848 when County Agent Tanner laid out 
the east fractional lots, and such a stone is still in its place at Eighth and 
Jackson streets. David Hughes has stated that he remembers the one as it 
stood at Third and Jackson streets when he was a boy at play about that 
place. In a search for evidence of the stone on Third street, near Dunn street, 
at the time of the construction of Third street in igii. a hole in. the \-ery red 
clav two and one-half feet across and four feet deep, filled in with light and 
dark streaks of soil, with clay, was found one hundred and fifty-five feet west 
of the quarter section line in Dunn street where the st(ine was located accord- 
ing to County Agent Tanner's description. The stone at the northeast corner 
of the plat of in-lots. on Eighth street near Dunn street, was probabh' removed 
some time soon after 1848 in the construction of vats for the old Alexander 


tannery, which occupied the lots on either side of the stone. These old vats 
were cut through when constructing the Dunn street drain across Eighth 
street in 1907, near the position of the stone as given by Tanner, one hun- 
dred and twenty-seven and a half feet west of the quarter section line in Dunn 

These three hundred and fifty-two in-lots did not occupy all of the two 
quarter sections purchased, in any direction from the public square, and the 
county agent at once proceeded to lay out out-lots of various sizes much larger 
than the in-lots. Seventeen were platted on the west in 1819, numbered from 
I to 17, nine on the south, numbered from 18 to 26, and twenty on the north, 
numbered from 27 to 46, exclusive of Graham's Reserve, a parcel of land 
held by Mr. Graham, the former owner of the west quarter section. In 1848 
County Agent Tanner platted what remained east of the in-lots into six lots 
numbered from 353 to 358, a continuation of the in-lot numbers instead of 
the out-lot numbers, although the lots, excepting 358, were much more than 
twice the size of the in-lots. The plats of some of these out-lots as they 
occur in the records do not show the signatures and acknowledgments of the 
county agent and because of this fact some litigation has arisen in which 
certain property holders have taken the interesting position of claiming title 
to their property by reason of the plat and at the same time denying the rights 
of the public to the easements for streets as shown by the plat. Most of the 
out-lots west and north have been replatted into city lots. 

Tn 1820 the west half of section 4 and the east half of section 5, in town- 
ship 8 north, range i west, which lie immediately south of the two quarter 
sections purchased for the site of the town of Bloomington, were platted into 
the Seminary Square, containing ten acres, the first site of Indiana University, 
where the city high school is now located, and eighty seminary square lots 
surrounding it. These lots were of different sizes from those immediately 
abutting the Square, which are about the size of two ordinary city lots, up to 
twenty-seven acres, the area of lot 80 in the southeast corner of the plat. 
Very many of these lots have been sub-divided, either platted or sold by 
metes and bounds, into building lots. 

Similar amounts of land east and west of these first seminary lots were 
soon afterwards platted into seminary lots and many of these have also been 
sub-divided into building lots. Most, if not all. of the corners of these sem- 
inary lots were marked by corner stones, a great many of which are still in 
place. The first set of these lots platted was "circumscribed" by an alley 
which is now Henderson street on the east and Walker street on the west. 
Both of these streets are thirtv-three feet in ^\ idth and measurements of the 


lots and locations of the section lines show that the alley was the same width 
on the north and on the south of the lots. The alley on the north was aban- 
doned because of the platting of the south fractional lots just north of it along 
Third street, thus putting two streets only fifty-three feet apart. The descrip- 
tion given in McCullouch's Addition states that this alley was afterwards 
vacated by an act of the Legislature. The south fractional lots are given on 
the plat as eighty links in width. The part of the alley occupied by the owners 
of these fractional, as shown by the lines as now located, increases the width 
of the fractionals to about seventy-six feet and in this way the original width 
of eighty links has come to be confused with eighty feet and many deeds have 
passed for this width, resulting even in some litigation. 

The chain used by Surveyor Xichols in laying out these original plats was 
evidently much worn, so much so that there is a surplus of about one to six 
inches to the lot of sixty-six feet. The surplus is greatest on the level por- 
tions of the plats, as on Dunn street, and is least on Eighth street, where there 
were four considerable hills and valleys over which to survey. The presence 
of this varying surplus has been the cause of much confusion as to lines and 
in some cases has led surveyors to miss the original location of a lot line by 
several feet. Different surveyors have gotten quite different locations for the 
same lot and many people, not knowing the cause of the glaring discrepancies, 
have come to have no faith at all in some surveyors in ])articular and very 
little faith in surveyors in general. An effort is now being made to locate the 
original lines accurately and corner stones are being placed on the lot corners 
at the street intersections so that purchasers of lots can see the lines of the 
property they are buying. Very naturally the owners of many properties that 
have encroached on the streets, particularly owners of corner lots who wish 
to occupv them with two or three houses, complain that the stones injure the 
sale of the property, which is probably quite correct. On the other hand the 
city authorities feel that in justice to the public and to purchasers of real 
estate the stones should plainly mark the lines, so that within perhaps the 
next fifty years when the greater part of the original in-lots come to be used 
for business properties instead of for residences the streets will be ample in 
width for the traffic that is certain to develop. 


Much of the population, at the date of organization, lay in the neigh- 
borhood of the respective county-seat town. Many citizens visited the spot 
set apart by the board for the seat of justice. The streets running north and 


south, beginning on the west, were named Pophir. Cherry, Spring, West, 
East, Walnut, Blue and Buck. Those running east and west, beginning on 
the south, were calletl A\'ater, South, North and \A'ashington. Since then 
some of these street names have been changed. The settlement of the town 
was indeed wonderful. By the end of 1818 not less than thirty families 
resided in the place in hastily-built log ca1:)ins, or rude frame houses, from 
the saw-mill of old Mr. Blair. A log court house had lieen l)uilt in which 
was taugbt the hrst school in the county. Stores and blacksmith shops had 
been set in operation : tailors, saloons, hotels, and an irregular stage service 
had been instituted — at least they received their mail (once in a while). The 
town had a possible population of a hundred and fifty souls. In 1820 the 
population had reached three hundred. 

The first store had been opened in i8i8 b}- W'illiam Tlardin, who had 
about a hundred dollars worth of general goods and a large stock in whisky. 
He also kept a tavern. The second tavern was l)y George Whisenand, and 
he also handled liquors at his ta\ern bar. Separate stores were soon opened 
by Messrs. Howe, Owens and Batterton. Liquor in those days was always 
classed as "wet groceries." In 1824 the population had reached quite the 
five hundred mark, and Blo(imingt(Mi was known as one of the best towns 
in this portion of the state. 

About 1820 Austin Seward commenced the manufacture of wagons, as 
did also I'enjamin Xoel. A\'illiam .Mexander built a tannery in the east 
part of town, and Col. Joseph Campliell started one a mile west of town. 
Blair & Lowe owned a horse mill and David Tucker owned another. Here 
grain was ground in a most crude manner, and lx:)lted by hand, tbe owner of 
the grain doing the turning act. The toll was (ine-sixth. Thacker's mill 
supplied his small distillery witb grain. About a liarrel of whisky was pro- 
duced per dav. .V man nametl Garner conducted a saw-mill near the college 
grounds, the propelling force l)eing cattle or horses on a tread-mill. Ellis 
Stone started a carding mill in 1820, and this was operated by means of a 
tread-wheel. He occupied his log building for more than twenty \-ears. He 
pinned up his packages of rolls with thorns gathered from the woods by 
boys whom he hired. In 1824 Haws Armstrong was ojierating h fulling- 
mill, which he had started in 1820. He also made a superior article of gun- 
powder. Where the high school Iniilding later stood a tannerv was operated 
by Samuel Dodds. In 1823 John and Samuel Orchard started a carding 
machine, run by ox-power. They also manufactured much linseed oil. 
Seward made axes, plows and wagons. In 1823 F.. C. ^loberlv kept a tavern 


and J. H. Lucas opened his store that year. Lucas was uneducated, but ran 
for the Legislature against WiUiam Alexander, and by reason of his inter- 
esting stories — some smutty — he captured the baser element and was elected 
to the office. The old ledgers of the firms of A. & J. Owens, Henry Batterton 
and. J. O. Howe show that goods sold at three times as much as they brought 
thirty years ago in Monroe county. Calico (prints) were from twenty-five 
to fifty cents; while wheat, corn and oats were w^rth from twenty to forty 
cents per bushel. Good money was scarce. Paper mone\- was plenty, but 
was worth much less than face value. Silver and gold were \ery seldom in 
circulation. Small denominations were scarce in silver for vears. and cjuar- 
ters were cut in half and the jiieces called "sharp-shins'" and passed current 
for six and a quarter cents, or twelve and a half cents, according to their 
size. Farmers, however, could barter their produce for goods, the demand 
always regulating the su])ply and i^-ices paid. This forced merchants into 
pork-packing and grain buving and tci the construction nf flat-boats for the 
convevance of produce to the Southern markets. 


The present generation knows nothing, sa\-e l)y reading Nuch accounts as 
the following, concerning the early-day militia training and muster days. 
From an old reminiscence of Bloomington we quote the following: ■"Bloom- 
ington was the rendezvous for the general mustej- of the county militia once 
everv \ear. In addition to that, there were company and regiment musters,, 
though the battalion or generak muster was In- far the most universally at- 
tended. On these occasions old Brigadier-General Lowe donned his uni- 
form and turned-up continental hat, buckled on his sword, and conducted 
the muster in person. On that day, men were free — that is, they were privi- 
leged from arrest, except for crime. They could fight, run horses, drink all 
kinds of liquid hell, and rave through the county seat at will, on the public 
streets and grounds, and no one could molest and make them afraid. The 
old muster, or parade, ground was two or three or more blocks east of the 
public square, that portion of the town then being open. The muster was 
little better than a farce, and was chiefly enjoyed for the sports invariably 
present. Wrestling, jumjMng and shooting at a mark were among the popu- 
lar sports. At one of these gatherings two men became involved in a ques- 
tion of honor and with true Kentucky spirit proposed to settle the matter 
with a fist fight. One was an experienced fighter, the other was not. and 


both were athletic, full of pluck and wind. Both stripped to the waist and 
the experienced man stepped into a door nearby, where stood a barrel of 
soft soap, which he quickly smeared over the upper half of his body and re- 
sumed his position ready for the fight. The slight delay led friends to inter- 
cede and the fight was compromised at this juncture, though the experienced 
man refused to withdraw unless his antagonist paid for the soap, which cost 
a picayune, which was accordingly done."" 

Many another savage and protracted fight w as witnessed on the public 
square in those early times. Election days were similarly observed. Now 
an occasional encampment, or annual drill by the National Guard, is about 
all we know of military affairs, in a local way. 


In 1830 the population of Bloomington was not less than seven hundred. 
At that time the Indiana College had a large attendance and a large corps of 
instructors, with a superior curriculum. Iliis institution, which was built 
in 1823, was the pride of the town and the means of greatly and rapidly 
increasing its population, enterprise and material wealth. The town also 
boasted a flourishing newspaper, if such an issue can be said to have been 
flourishing. The citizens had incorporated the village a number of years be- 
fore, and this was another source of joy and congratulation. In adchtion to 
all this, there were numerous factories of leather, liquor, domestic and farm 
implements, flour, tailor goods, oil and numerous stores, shops, offices, me- 
chanics, artisans, tradesmen, educators, professional men and speculators. 
The incorporated town of Bloomington was indeed a prosperous place. 

During the decade just named the place grew to one of about one thou- 
sand population; the County Seminary had been built in 1835; females only, 
at that date, could be admitted. The State University had a scholarship of 
about two hundred; there were two lively newspapers after the middle of 
the decade; there were four churches and large congregations. Merchants 
had greatly enlarged their stocks and had commenced to pack pork; the 
Sewards were doing a large l)usiness in all kinds of iron work; D. Batterton 
Avas making large quantities of stoves and hollow ware : Phillip Murphy & 
Co. were manufacturing a variety of men"s hats that found ready sale here 
and elsewhere over this section of Indiana. J. McCullough was tanner and 
currier; S. P. Seall was mine host at the Globe inn; William Lowe was post- 
master; T J. Ryan manufactured saddles: the master tailors were .\bram 
Funk, W. T. Flurrs', A. Lahertew. S. T. Hardestv. who at that date signed a 


schedule of prices for cutting and making clothes : all hranches were well 

represented. In 1837 the old market house was erected, by citizens paving 
two hundred dollars and the county paying a like amount. Here it was 
that town folk went to market, instead of to groceries as today. This mar- 
ket house continued until late in the fifties. A saxe-horn band was organized 
and made the streets lively with its own peculiar music, 

FROM 1840 TO 1850. 

Bloomington kept on growing. It was during this decade that the 
temperance struggle was prosecuted with great Aigor, so much so that most 
of the liquor dealers were driven from the place. The leading industries were 
the carding of wool, by Thomas Hardesty ; Major Kite's steam flouring mill 
and carding mill; McCrum's grist mill, the numerous tanneries, wagon and 
iron works: saddle and harness shops, hatters, etc. The old town incor- 
poration had been revived in 1847, and the census showed a population of 
about twelve hundred souls. 

FROM 1850 TO i860. 

It was during this era that Bloomington's first l>ank was (jpened, and 
the woolen factory of Mr. Holtzman was established and doing a large, 
profitable Imsiness. His advertisement in the county newspaper read as fol- 
low^s: "Bloomington Factory. — The undersigned wishes to inform the 
citizens of Monroe and the adjoining counties, that we have built a large 
addition to our factory, and put up steam power: we are now ready to re- 
ceive any quantitv of wool, to be carded into rolls or spun into yarn, at the 
following prices: For carding white, six and one- fourth cents per pound, 
or one-sixth of the wool. Mixed, eight and one-third. For carding and 
spinning, seventeen cents per pound, if not reeled; if reeled, twenty cents. 
All wool should be well washed and picked. The following is the l)est method 
for washing fine wool : Fill a large kettle wnth water, bring to near a boiling 
heat, add salt to make it a strong brine, put in some of the wool, not enough 
f»f double-coverlets and carpetings of a variety of patterns. The work will 
with water, adding a little more salt. We will also continue the manufacture 
rin^e in clean water : do not empty the kettle, keep up the heat, keep it filled 
to crcAvd the kettle, stir gently three or four minutes, take out the wool and 


be done bv experienced \\(jrkmen. We do it ])rompth- and must have prompt 

"Blomington, Tnd., May, 1858. 

"A. HoLTzMAN & Son." 

The extensive mills of Air. Helton carried this notice to the public: 

"Bloomington [Mills. — AVe would announce to the citizens of the sur- 
rounding country that these mills are in complete running order, and would 
solicit their patronage. We shall endeavor to do our 'custom work' with the 
utmost dispatch. Having in our employ men of experience and skill and 
having most improved machinery, we flatter ourselves that we are able to 
give general satisfaction, both as to quality and quantity. We will grind, 
either for toll or exchange, flour for wheat. Terms : One-sixth toll. Ex- 
change : Thirty-eight pounds of flour for white wheat, and thirty-six for red 
wheat, and a half bushel of bran for each merchantable bushel of wheat. 
Grists to be ground we would prefer to be eight or ten bushels, or more. 
50,000 bushels of wheat wanted!!! The highest market price paid for wheat 
and corn. Mour, meal and feed always on hand, and for sale. Extra family 
flour from selected wheat, put up in half and quarter barrel bags, and 

"Bloomington, Ind., August 20, 1858. 

•'A. Helton & Company.'" 


Mails were sent and received in the decade between 1855 and i860 as 
follows : "'Arrival and departure from the Bloomington office — From New 
Albany (by railroad) arrives 5:25 p. m., and departs north immediately. 

'T^rom Michigan City (by railroad) arrives at 10:25 a. m. : departs south 
at 10:45 a. m. 

"From Columbus (by two-horse hack), arrives every Tuesday, Thursday 
and Saturday at 12 m. : and departs every Monday and Friday at 8 a. m. 

"From Indianapolis via Martinsville (by two-horse hack), arri\-es 
every Tuesday and Friday at 12 m. ; and departs same day at i p. m. 

"From Point Commerce via White Hall (horseback), arrives every 
Thursday at r p. m. ; and departs same day at i :30 p.m." 




In the month of August, 1858, the following were the market quotations 
in Bloomington (from Dunn & Co.'s reports, corrected each Friday): 
\\'heat, 53 to 65 cents: oats, 30 cents: corn. 35 to 40 cents; wheat flour, per 
hundred pounds, $2: corn meal, per bushel, 40 to 50 cents; potatoes per 
bushel, 50 to 75 cents : bacon, per pound, 4 to 7 cents ; lard, 7 to 8 cents ; 
butter, 10 to IJ cents: eggs, per dozen, 5 cents; sugar, per pound, 11 to 
twelve and a half cents: coffee, per pound, 14 to 20 cents. 

The prices quoted in August, 1913, are: Wheat, 95 cents: oats, 40 
cents; corn, 72 cents; flour, $2.50 per hundred: potatoes. 80 cents; bacon, 
18 to 28 cents; lard. 18 cents: butter, 30 cents (best) ; eggs, 16 cents per 
dozen ; sugar, 6 cents ; coffee, 20 to t,:, cents. 


In i88.| — twent3'-nine years ago — the following industries were flour- 
ishing in Bloomington : Baldridge &: Gourley, flouring mills : Gamel Peter- 
son and Joseph Alexander, saw mills ; Holtzman Brothers, woolen mills ; 
Waldron. Hill & Co.. spoke factor}- : chair and table factory. Showers. Dodd 
& Co.; John \\'aldr(in, tanner: C. J. McCalla, planing mills: J. H. Garrison, 
brick yards ; George Seiner, cigar factory. 


From an authentic list compiled l)y the Bloomington Commercial Club 
in 191 2, of all industries of importance, we take the liberty to here quote: 

The largest single furniture factory in the world, the Showers Brothers 

The Home Glove and Mitten Manufacturing Company, established in 
1902, burned in 19 13 and rebuilt same season. Ten thousand pairs of gloves 
produced daily, by the employment of eighty hands and modern machinery. 

The Indiana Basket Company, largest in southern Indiana, established 
in 1907: eighty-five persons employed; 600,000 feet of lumber used annually. 
Fruit baskets, melon and berry crates and packages are the specialties. 

The Indiana Creosoting Company, in 191 1, treated and shipped 11,- 
400,000 feet of ties and paving blocks. 

The Brown & Smith Battery Works, organized in 1907, make a com- 
plete line of storage batteries, including auto, lighting and ignition batteries, 


telephone exchange lotteries, electric lighting service for country homes, and 
batteries for electric vehicles and trucks. The ]:)roduct of the works goes 
to eveiy nook and corner of this country and to many foreign lands. 

The glass factory of Mr. Nurre, of Cincinnati, was installed about 
n)ij. for making mirrors, glass shelving and glass novelties. 

Other important branches of industry include these : Veneer plant, 
harness factory, two flouring mills, two machine shops, water heater plant, 
book bindery, electric and power plant, ice cream factory, ice plant, two 
daily papers, four saw mills, three planing mills, foundry, four printing- 
offices, gas plant, two power laundries, creamery, washing machine, factory, 
broom factory. 

In round" numbers, the amount of two million dollars' worth of manu- 
factured products are shipped from Bloomington annually. 


The Showers Brothers Company, of Bloomington, is one which perhaps 
ranks with the stone industry in making the reputation of Bloomington and 
Monroe county, being one of the largest furniture factories in the country. 
This mammoth establishment originated in a small shed in the eastern part 
of Bloomington in the year 1868. The two brothers, William N. and James 
D. Showers, began the work with equipment which consisted of a small 
upright engine and a few second-hand tools. The industry grew and grew, 
until today tlie yearly output of the immense factory equals fifteen hundred 
thousand dollars. James D. Showers retired from the business in 1903, giv- 
ing his interest to his brother and partner, William N. Showers. The latter 
is now the president of the com])any and still takes an active part in the con- 
duct of the daily business routine. 

The slogan which has been used bv the companv in its advertising ex- 
plains well their methods. Tt is "From Tree to the Trade." The forestry 
department attends to the securing of the native timber, and then, step bv 
step, until the finished product is sold, the work is executed bv Showers men. 
In the first place, most of the timber used is obtained from lands owned 
directly by the company. The logs are sawed in a mill owned bv the Show- 
ers Company and which is one of the largest mills in the state, and later are 
converted into veneer in the company's own veneer plant. From here the 
timber goes into the two great factories, each with its own glueing rooms, 
machine rooms, cabinet rooms, carving rooms, finishing rooms, power plant. 


Storage warehouses and loading platforms capable of reaching twenty-four 
cars at one time. The mirrors are also made by a mirror plate factory 
operated in connection with the main plant. The articles of furniture are 
designed by the company's own designer. 

It is estimated that millions of feet of rough logs lie in the log yards 
adjacent to the factory, with a value of seventy-five thousand dollars. The 
veneer mill to which these logs are taken after being sawed has a capacity of 
twenty-five million feet of veneers annually, and the glueing rooms make up 
over four million feet of drawer bottoms and back panels every year. One 
million feet of beveled French plate glass mirrors are made annually in the 
mirror plate plant. The dry kilns, where the lumber is seasoned after leaving 
the saw mill, has a capacity of four hundred and forty-two thousand feet of 
lumber. In the finishing rooms thirty thousand dollars" worth of varnishing 
and polishing materials are used e\ery year. Fully one thousand men are 
employed Iw the Showers PJrothers Company, and the monthly pay-roll 
reaches a total of forty thousand dollars. 

The buildings which make the Showers factory are models of scientific 
and well-appointed construction. The walls are of lirick and concrete, with 
metal and glass saw-tooth roofs. Electricity is the motive and lighting 
power, and heat is supplied 1\v steam. The ventilating system in e\ery Iniild- 
ing insures a complete change of air every four minutes. .Ml waste product 
is consumed, all sawdust and refuse being conveyed to the boilers by means 
of a blower system. The factory is practically fireproof on account of the 
very efficient sprinkler system installed, which reaches every corner of every 
building. Lines of piping are suspended from the ceiling every twelve feet 
apart, with sprinkler heads every ten feet apart. In case of a fire the heat 
would melt the sprinkler heads next to the fire and a stream of water would 
result. E\'ery department of the two great factories is connected witli a 
private branch telephone exchange, and thus constant and instant communi- 
cation may be had from any given point to another. In all, the two factories 
have a floor space equaling an area of fifteen acres, a truly stupendous estab- 
lishment. Railroad facilities are excellent, there is a good loyal spirit among 
the hundreds of employes, the owners are liberal, and everything tends to 
make tlie Showers Brothers ("omi)an>- not only one of the largest furniture 
factories in the world. l)Ut one of the easiest of operation. 

The i)resent ofi^cers of the compan_\- are: William N. Showers, presi- 
dent; \\\ Edward Showers, general manager; Sanford F. Teter. secretary 
and treasurer, and Charles .A. Sears, superintendent. . 



Banking is not among the first lines of business established in the de- 
velopment of any country, but after a time such institutions become a neces- 
sity, and liere Ijusiness requirements have been well cared for by the presence 
of strong, relial)le lianking concerns. Before going into the organization of 
the local !:anks in Bloomington, it is well to note the disadvantages under 
which the earlier business men had to conduct their business, for lack of 
sta])le money systems and good banks at home. 

The "shinplaster" era in this county Ijegan in about 1855, when, for 
lack of mone^^ Tarkington & Akin commenced to issue such medium of ex- 
change. Tlie denominations issued were for fifty cents and one dollar, and at 
first were received at their face value. J. ^k Howe also issued some such 
"money " This was done to facilitate exchanges, for the government failed 
to ])rovi(le small denominations. Several thousand dollars of this s])ecies of 
mone\- w<'is issued ])\ the firm aljove named. In a year or two thev liegan to 
dei)rcciate in \aluc, when troulile ensued. In 1858 the following action was 
taken liy the then leading business men of lUoonnngton, and the resolution 
published in the Republican : ■"Shinplastkks. — W'e, the undersigned citi- 
zens (^f P.loomington, Intl., pledge our word and honor that we will not take 
anv 'shinjilaster" currenc\" after tlie first dav of Februarv, for more than 
ninety cents to the dollar: and that we will not circulate any more after that 
date — nor any other pajier currency not regularly chartered according to law. 
January 20 1858." Signed by William O. Fee, Thomas Mulliken, A. W. 
Cani])bell. Kahn Bros., Howe & Co., W. D. Owen, O. L. Draper, 1\iley & 
MtCrea, P.enjamin McGee. B. S. Gowgill. J. S. Tilil^etts, A. Helton & Co., 
M. L. McCollough, Milieu & ^loffatt, A. .\dams. Mason & Paris, P. Henoch, 
A. S. Mercer. K. K. Sluss Dunn &- Co., E. Johnson, S. J. Wade, J. O. Mc- 

Cood money was scarce at an earlv date in this county. Pai)er bills 
were in existence and were worth all prices below par. .\s the value of the 
bills constantly fluctuated, the^• were reallv merchantable property, as gold 
and silver during the Civil war period, when, in Wall .street, gold reached as 
high a quotation as $2.87 in greenback money. Silver was scarce and gold 
still scarcer. Small denominations were almost unknown in real practi- 
cal circulation, save as they were created and used by common consent. 
Siber pieces were cut in two and four pieces, for change-making purposes. 
Goods, as well as farm jiroducts, were bought and sold on the barter plan. 


The first banking in the connty was -done by Tarkington & Akin, in the 
fifties, and at first they issued only "shinplaster" money. About 1857 the 
Bloomington Bank was regularly organized, with a capital of $20,000. Soon 
bank bills, or notes, were issued, signed b}- the above men. Missouri and 
other state bonds were deposited with the auditor of state, but in i860 these 
bonds so depreciated in value as to cause the suspension of this home bank. 
Its paper was only worth about thirtv cents on the dollar. Soon after this 
a private bank was organized by Buskirk &- Hunter, continuing until about 
1871, when it was transferred into the First National Bank, with a capital 
stock of $50,000, which later was increased to $100,000. 


The history of this concern may be stated as follows: The date of 
"its organization was September 14, 1871 ; its first ofticers were George Bus- 
kirk, president: J. Smith Hunter, cashier: its first capital was $120,000, same 
as carried now. Its surplus was, in September, 191 3, $33,000. Its officers 
are: Nat U. Hill, president: Ira C. Batman, vice-president: Charles S. 
Small, cashier: Reg. B. Stull. assistant cashier. The deposits in the month 
of August, 191 3, amounted to $508,092.29. This one item shows the con- 
fidence the people have in this old institution. It is now working under its 
third charter from the United States government. The first charter was 
issued on September 14. 1871 : the second September 14, 1891, and the 
present September 14, 191 l 

During all the years of its existence, including the three panics, this 
banking house has withstood the tide and stands today unquestioned, as a 
solid institution, conducted on business principles. 


1liis solid institution was organized October 2(). iqof). with a capital 
of $100,000. which it still carries. Its surplus in August. 1913, was $17,500: 
its deposits, $250,103.88. The incorporators were \\"illiam H. Adams, B. 
F. Adams. James K. Beck, A\"illiam J. Allen, James -\. W'oodburn, E. G. 
Hogate. \A'illiam T. Breeden and Harry A. Axtel!. The first ofticers were: 
William H. Adams, president: \A'illiam J. Allen and B. F. .\dams. vice- 
presidents: lames K. Beck, cashier: Samuel Pfrimmer, assistant cashier. 
The first directors were AMlliam FI. Adams. James A. Woodburn, E. G. 
Hogate. A\'. T. Breeden, Harry A. Axtell. B. F. Adams. 


The present (1913) i>fficers are: William H. Adams^ president; E. G. 
Hogate and B. F. Adams, vice-presidents; James K. Beck, cashier; Samuel 
Pfrimmer, assistant cashier; William H. Adams, B. F. Adams, James A. 
Woodburn. E. G. Hogate, William C. Fess. 

. This bank does a general banking business, being counted among the 
most conserxative financial institutions in Monroe county, and is doing an 
excellent and safe business. Tt is also a United States depository bank, mak- 
ing it doubly safe and ]:)opular. 


This was organized in February, 1900, with a capital stock of $25,000. 
In 1907 it increased its capital to $55,000. Its first officers were: P. K. 
Buskirk, president ; Fred Matthews, vice-president ; John T. Woodward, , 
secretary; William N. Showers, treasurer. Others who aided in the organi- 
zation of this corporation were W. T. Hicks, W. S. Bradfute. H. C. Duncan, 
Ira C. Batman, L. V. Buskirk, N. U. Flill, Mary Waldron, Ed. Corr, J. T. 
Woodward and John Thornton. 

The present officers (1913) are: J. D. Showers, president; Roy O. 
Pike, secretary and treasurer; S. O. Harrell, assistant secretary: L. D. 
Rogers, insurance: directors, J. D. Showers, Fred Matthews, W. T. Hicks, 
Ira C. Batman, \\'. S. Bradfute, W. N. Showers, Roy O. Pike. The present 
surplus of this corporation is $30,000, while its statement for August, 1913, 
shows its deposits to amount to $450,000. 


This bank — now over twenty-one years old — was organized under the 
banking laws of Indiana, its charter being dated Octoljer 27, 1892, by Bloom- 
ington capital to the amount of $25,000. The first stockholders included 
Messrs. H. E. Wells. S. C. Dodds, James M. Andrews, S. K. Rhorer, W. B. 
Hughes and W. A. Fulwider. The first officers were : II. E. Wells, presi- 
dent : S. C. Dodds, cashier: H. E. Wells. James M. .Vndrew, W. B. Hughes, 
S. K. Rhorer, \V. :\. Fulwider. directors. The liank is located on the corner 
of Walnut and Kirkwood streets, and now has a surplus of $57,310: deposits 
amounting to $287,000. The bank was chartered the second time, October 
27, J912. Its present officers are: ^^^ .\. Fulwider, president: C. L. Rawles, 
cashier: S. E. Alexander, assistant cashier: S. \A'. Collins. W. A. Fulwider, 
T. ^^^ Cravens. Edwin Corr, F. R. Woollev, directors. 



The first attempt at making Bloomington an incorporated town was 
March 5. 1827 — eight3'-six years ago — when a caU was made and the leading 
citizens met at the old court house. Ellis Stone was chosen president of that 
meeting, and Benjamin F. Peele acted as secretary. .\s a result a vote was 
there taken to get an expression of the will of the men of the new town. 
There were eighteen for incorporating and only three against the measure. 
An election of the necessary trustees was ordered, and resulted as follows, 
the same lieing a report of the election officials: 

"At an election held in the town of Bloomington on the 8th day of 
September, 1828, to elect trustees for the incorporation of the town, agree- 
ably to the act of the General Assembly, we hereby certify that the following 
persons were duly elected : Joshua O. Howe, William Alexander, Asher 
Labertew. Robinson draham and James Evans. Given under our hands and 
seals this 17th day of September. 1828. 
"Trulv and duly done. 

"John B. Lowe, Clerk. ' 

"AsHER Labertew, 
"James Evans, Judges." 

This started out well, but for lack of unison and general interest in the 
new incorporation the municipality soon died out. In the middle of the 
forties, the matter again revived and we find this proceeding of the Legis- 
lature : 

"Section i. lie it enacted by the (leneral Assemlily of the State of 
Indiana, That such part of the township of Bloomington in the county of 
Monroe as is included within the following limits and boundaries, that is to 
say, beginning at the northeast corner of out-lot No. 21, thence west to the 
northwest corner of out-lot 39, thence south to the northwest corner of out- 
lot 28. thence west to the northwest corner of out-lot No. 41, thence south 
to the southwest corner of fractional lot No. 26, thence east to the northeast 
corner of out-lot No. 35. thence south to the southwest corner of fractional 
lot No. 9, thence east to the southeast corner of the LIniversity square, thence 
north to the southwest corner of out-lot No. J2. thence east to the southeast 
corner of out-lot No. /=,. thence to the northeast corner of out-lot No. 21, 
the place of beginning, including all the inlots and out-lots of said town, be 
and the same is hereby erected into a town corporate which shall henceforth 



be known and designated by the name of the town of Bloomington, subject, 
however, to such repeal, alteration and regulation as the Legislature may 
from time to time prescribe." 

Section 2 of this act provided for the election of a mayor, recorder and 
five trustees, who should constitute a body corporate, with perpetual suc- 
cession and to be known as the common council of Bloomington. This act 
was appro\ed In- the Governor, January 13, 1845. An act of the Assembly 
in 1849 made some changes in the limits of the town, also provided that 
eleven trustees, instead of five, should be elected and simply bear the name 
"Council of Bloomington.'" 

The election of the first town officers occurred in March. 1847, when 
these were duly elected : John Lawrence, mayor ; Robert Acuff, recorder ; A. 
Labertew, treasurer; D. B. Judah, marshal; W. M. Smith, Samuel Kirk, J. 
M. Howe, John Graham and Joseph G. McPheeters, councilmen. The first 
meeting of the town board was held March 6, 1847, i" ^'^^ office of the re- 
corder. The first act was to appoint a committee to draft ordinances. 
Orders were also given to procure necessary record books, when the council 

At the second meeting the appointment of David P>. Judah as street 
supervisor and commissioner was made. The same session sixteen ordi- 
nances were passed upon, among which was this very appropriate one : 

"13th. No person sball be allowed to keep a dog within the limits of 
the incorporation. Any person violating this ordinance shall be fined fifty 
cents for each dog so kept, provided that no person shall be fined more than 
once (luring the same vear for the same dog." This really amounted to no 
more than a fifty cent dog tax levy. However, in August of the same year, 
upon petition of one hundred and three honorable citizens, the last named 
ordinance was repealed.- 

About that date Samuel M. Orchard \\-as allowed to place hay scales on 
Market street. Much time was spent in amending the city charter, which 
was then turned over to the representative in the Legislature from this 
county, to be passed at the next session. In January, 1848, a tax of ten 
cents on each hundred dollars' worth of taxable property was levied for town 

The town records show that in 1851 an ordinance to tax retail liquor 
dealers with a town license of five hundred dollars additional to the county 
license, was, after a long discussion, finally passed. That was the great 
cholera year in ndiana and other states, and the council purchased two hun- 


dred bushels of lime to scatter about the streets and alle\s, and also ordered 
all drinking saloons closed during that fearful epidemic. For a number of 
years after that much money was expended on street and other town im- 
provements, until the people began to question the wisdom of continuing 
the town's incorporation any longer. On January lo, 1858, an election was 
held to determine this question "Shall the corporation bt dissolved?" The 
result was, for corporation, one hundred and one; against corporation, one 
hundred and hfteen. Thus, liy a majority of fourteen, the town government 
was brought to a close. The property of the defunct town government was 
invoiced, and some of it turned over to the county auditor for some future 
municii>ality, while other amounts were paid back in way of taxes already 
paid in. Thus ended Bloomington's second incorporation history. 

The following year, 183c), however, the place was again incorporated, 
under the new state law regarding such corporations, and not bv legislative 
act. From that date to the present the place has enjoyed an uninterrupted 
period of municipal government. The town government continued until 
1866, when, at the October election of that year, the question of making the 
"town" into a "city" was voted upon, and resulted as follows: For chang- 
ing to "city," one hundred and seventy-eight votes; to remain as a "town," 
ninety-three votes. But as a matter of fact there were five hundred and 
thirteen voters in the place at that date, and as a majority had not voted at 
that election at all, the result was considered questionalile. and it was allowed 
to rest for the time being. 

In 1873 the total tax of the town was seventy-five cents on every hun- 
dred dollars worth of taxable propert^•. The poll tax was then fixed at 
one dollar and twenty-five cents. 


Tn July, 1876, upon petition to the council (the same signed by two hun- 
dred and seventeen citizens), the call for an election was made. Tt was held 
and the result was one hundred and eighty-four for becoming a "city" and 
one hundred and sixty-nine against the proposition. Having carried, the 
election of city officers was in order, and resulted as follows : C. W. Hender- 
son, mayor; John Waldron, H. H. Voss, W. N. Showers, A. T. Massey, 
Andrew Hoover, M. B. Dillon, councilmen. The first council meeting was 
held September 13, 1876. R. C. Greeves was clerk; C. H. McPheeters, 
treasurer, and James Slocum, marshal. 

By April, 1877, the bonded indebtedness of the city was thirty-nine 


thousand seven lunulred dollars, there having Ijeen paid tweh'e thousand 
three hundred dollars. The city council ordered new bonds, bearing seven 
per cent., issued to the amount of sixteen thousand dollars, that amount and 
one thousand se\en hundred dollars more lieing then due, for the purpose of 
refunding the old bonds at a lower rate of interest. 

The old Pioneer I'^ire Company was re-organized in 1877, and fully- 
equipped with fire-tighting appliances. In January, twent3^-nine street lamps 
were erected around the public square and along the principal streets, at a 
cost of se\enty-tive dollars. In 1880 permission was granted to S. Solomon 
& Company to erect gas works and lay down pipes through the streets of 
Iiloomington. In 1881 permission was granted the Bloomington Electric 
Telephone Company to erect poles and stretch wires over the streets. In 
March, 1883, the city council of New Alliiany presented Bloomington with 
a fine fire engine, as a return for five hundred dollars sent by the latter to the 
former a few months before during the great flood on the Ohio. 

It was \\ritten thirty years ago, of Bloomington, that 'T^ver since the 
Civil war the town or city board has been constantly engaged in improving 
her streets. The paving, macadamizing, guttering, etc., have gone on until 
all the leading streets of the city are almost water and mud-proof. The city 
is, w ithout single exception, the cleanest of any in. the entire state." 

What was said then is doubly true in 1913, and is so acknowledged by 
careful ol)servers who travel throughout the commonwealth. 

Bloomington is now rated in the fifth class of cities, that is, under ten 
thousand in population. The city has about two and a half miles of brick 
paved streets, and se\eral miles of excellent sewerage. The police depart- 
ment is composed of five men. two night officers, two day officers and the 
chief. Besides Marshal Joseph B. Hensley, there is Henry Dudley, Krit 
Shaw, Hugh Hinkle and Tra Robinson. The fire department is unusually 
well equipped for a city of this size. There are six men, including the chief, 
and there are approximately one hundred and sixty fire plugs at advantageous 
points within the city limits. The equipment includes an Ahrens-P^ox chem- 
ical combination motor truck, one steam engine, and one horse-drawn com- 
bination wagon. The department owns about fifteen hundred feet of hose. 
The gas and electric plants are owned by the Central Indiana Lighting Com- 

The following have ser\ed as mayors of the city, since its organization 
as such in 1876: 1876-78, C. W. Henderson, resigned; A. J. Hoover filled 
vacancy: 1878-1885, Clelland F. Dodds ; 1885-1887, James B. Mulky; 1887- 


1891, M. M. Dunlai); 1891-1897, L. A/. Bnskirk; 1897-1902, Arthur :\I. 
Hadley; 1902-1904, Frank J. Dunn: 1904-1910. Claude G. Malott ; 1910. 
John G. Harris. 

The elective and appointive officers of the city in 1913 are as follows: 
Mayor, John G. Harris; city attorney, R. L. Morgan (appointive): city 
clerk, W. A. Wellons ; marshal, Joseph B. Hensley : treasurer, Jesse A. Howe 
(appointive): councilmen, at large, S. C. Freese and L. C. McDaniel : first 
ward, \A'. S. Sentney ; second ward, E. R. Fletcher: third ward, Henry Beard. 

FINANCES — 19 1 3. 

In the re])ort made ])y Jesse Howe, city treasurer, on September i, 1913, 
there was a cash total in the treasury of $54,556,36. The records of the 
city show that the bonds outstanding e(|ual the amount of $71,077, which in- 
cludes $42,000 in water works bonds. Tn valuation, the water works plant 
is worth about $170,000. Other city property and value includes the fire 
department, with a \'alue of $12,000: Rose Hill cemetery, $5,000: and the 
street department, $700. 


Bloomingtnn for man\- years had difficulty in olitaining sufficient water, 
of standard purity, for the use of its citizens. At first peoj^le depended 
largely upon wells, which did not pro\e satisfactory as the city grew in 
population. Then came the era of using cistern water, which nearly every 
family was provided with. It liecame a fad and generations of people here 
were educated to the notion (possibly true) that filtered rain water was the 
best drink for the people. But he who has drunk from some cold mountain 
stream or spring will ne\-er be converted to tlie theory that rain water is best 
to cool the parched throat and burning lips! Even today most of the resi- 
dences depend largely upon the chain pump and cistern system, and in many 
cases, when properly filtered and cooled bv running through coils, surrounded 
by ice, the w-ater is very good for drinking piu-poses. 

The present water works system was installed in 1802, when the city 
purchased the large tract of land known as \\'eimer"> s])rings, which proliably 
has solved for many years to come the water prolilem of Bloomington. The 
water is now olitained from three large lakes, fetl l)y springs, and capable 
of -furnishing sufficient water for a city twice as large as this. Tn 1911 the 
city expended ten thousand dollars for a new lake and an increased pump- 



ing capacity, with various other improvements. \A'ater taken from these 
lakes, several miles from the city, passes through a large filter composed of 
one foot layer of broken rock, two feet of gravel and one foot of sharp sand. 
It is then pumped by three powerful engines to the city, at the rate of four 
million gallons per twenty- four hours. More than sixteen miles of eight and 
twelve-inch pipes traverse the streets, giving to all within the corporation, 
who desire it, a good quality of water, at fair rates. 


The Bloomington postoffice has been of the second class of offices since 
1894. about which date it also became a free delivery office. It now has 
seven city carriers and ten rural route carriers. Its business for the last fiscal 
year (June 30, 191 3) amounted to $37,427. Its departments are all com- 
plete and A\ell up to the standard required by the postoffice department at 
Washington. It has the rural free delivery system, with its ten routes, 
averaging a1>out twenty miles each, to the outlying districts of the county; 
its postal savings department, with deposits, on September i, 1913, amount- 
ing to $13,500; its money order department, doing a large monthly business; 
its newly established parcel post department and all tlie modern appliances 
for handling the mails with certainty and dispatch. It is now located in the 
new federal building, completed June 7, 1913, at an expense to the govern- 
ment of $82,000. It is Ixiilt of the celebrated oolitic stone that has made 
Monroe county famous. The interior walls are all faced with spotless 
marble, and the i\oovs of lire-jiroof stone flooring, while the cases and general 
furniture are as magnificent as any bank building in the state. 

The present efficient and accommodating postmaster Oscar H. Cravens, 
was commissioned May 22. 1913, under President Woodrow Wilson. The 
office force of capalile assistants are as follows : Walter Burke, assistant 
postmaster; Milton L. Borden and Howard Farr, money order and register 
clerks ; Lowell C. Day, delivery and stamp clerk ; James Thrasher, A. H. 
Pering, David Houston, T. J. Adams, clerks; S. P. Cardwell and Homer 
Hinkle, janitors; H. .\. Seward, W. L. Dowden, C. H. Alexander, S. C. 
Coffee, Hoy Baker, city carriers ; Henry Munson, W. E. Buzzard, W. J. 
Koontz, R. A. Kilpatrick, A. P. Blewett, H. A. Sexton, Porter Hazel, Wil- 
burn Hunter, A. M. Hardy, rural free deli\ery carriers; Joseph Neill, Jesse 
Neill, John Payne, substitute carriers. 

The postmasters at Bloomington since the establishment of the office, 
together with the date of their appointment, is as follows : 


David H. Maxwell (^established) February 15, 1825; William Lowe, 
June 6, 1829; John Bowland, March 9, 1833; Barton R. Byers, January 29, 
1834; Abram Buskirk, April 16, 1839; Geo. H. Johnston, July 29, 1839; 
Abrani Buskirk, September 7, 1839; David H. Maxwell, May 31, 1841 ; John 
M. Berry, December 30, 1845; David H. Maxwell, October 2, 1849; John 
M. Beriy, December 2, 1852; Benjamin Wolfe, December 28, 1857; William 
M. Tate, March 15, 1861 ; J. G. McPheeters, March 14, 1865; Tilghman H. 
Gentry, May 2, 1867; J. G. McPheeters, May 26, 1869; Henry J. Feltus, 
July 20, 1885; Joseph G. McPheeters, July 20, 1889; Rufus H. East, April 
20, 1893; Lawrence V. Buskirk, May ij , 1897: Walter Bradfute, January 
23, 1907; Oscar H. Cravens, May 22, 1913. 

In 1883-84 the city council appropriated $1,000 to sink an artesian well 
on the public square. At a depth of one hundred and twenty-five feet crude 
petroleum was found, and natural gas at a depth of seven hundred and seventy- 
five feet. But it did not appear that the products were found in sufficient 
quantities to work. 

During- the present year (1913) the city school board is erecting an 
$80,000 liigh school building, on the old college campus in the southern part 
of the city. The $80,000 federal building, built of solid stone, is the attraction 
of resident and stranger, alike. 


The Bloomington Commercial Club, organized a few years since, has 
been the means of l^ringing the city to the notice of the outside world as 
nothing has ever been able to do before. This organization is made up of the 
best, most active men in the city and is ever alert to the interests of all that 
tends to upbuild and make better the city and county. Its present officers 
and directors are: James Karsell, president: C. H. Springer, secretary; G. C. 
Davis, treasurer. The board of directors are : Oscar H. Cravens, T. J. Sare, 
Alex. Hirsh, W\ A. Fulwider, S. C., G. C. Davis, S. C. Dodds, L. S. 
Field, George H. Talbott, E. H. Lindley. W. H. Worley, A. C. Coyle, E. M. 
C. Hobbs. E. R. Fletcher and Charles B. Waldron. 


In the summer of 19 13 the following clubs and organizations had a 
healthy existence in Bloomington : The Boys Club, the Delphian Club, the 
Indiana Club and the Indiana University Club : also the military organizations 


of Company H, First Regiment Infantry, Indiana National Guard; Company 
H, Hospital Corps. Indiana National Guard ; Bloomington Band ; Indiana Uni- 
versity Band, and places of amusement as follows : The Crescent, Harris 
Grand, Princess and Rex theaters. 

The state statistical reports for 1909 gave the following concerning the 
city of Bloomington : 

Its population in 1910 was 8,838, an increase of 2,378 since the census 
of 1900. It is located on the Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville and the 
Indianapolis & Southern railways; has ten free rural routes; the American 
Express company ; the Western Union telegraph ; Bell and Independent tele- 
phone companies ; two daily and one weekly newspapers ; eleven miles of sewer ; 
one mile of improved streets ; five public school buildings ; two national banks, 
state bank, trust and savings bank, three building and loan associations ; a 
commercial club; the Young Men's Christian Association and Young Women's 
Christian Association ; brick and tile mill ; wagon factory ; cigar factory ; two 
flourishing mills ; a basket factory ; one glove and mitten factory ; one broom 
factory ; fn-^ stone saw mills ; two other saw mills ; twenty-two physicians ; 
twentv-five lawvers ; six dentists; two veterinary surgeons; two dry goods 
stores ; eight drug stores ; two department stores ; four hardware stores ; four 
jewelry stores; three shoe stores; two book stores; six millinery stores; three 
furniture stores ; two music houses ; three wall paper and paint stores ; three 
harness shops ; four undertaking establishments ; six clothing stores ; five con- 
fectionaries • four building material houses; two machine shops; six livery 
stables; two garages; three hotels; six restaurants; ten l»rber shops; three 
hair dressing rooms ; five meat markets ; two moving picture shows ; three 
tailor shops: three second-hand stores; two produce stores; estimated number 
of employes engaged in the manufacturing plants of the city. 650: weekly 
pa\-roll, St 2.000. No saloons. 


No other half decade in the history of any Indiana city has shown the 
marked growth in population and real substantial improvement exhibited by 
Bloomington from 1907 to 1912. It has witnessed the change from a con- 
servati\-e and slowly develoi)ed town intii a completely equipped and pro- 
gressive modern city. New transportation facilities, new court house, new 
buildings. I'.oth pul)lic and pri\-ate. ha^-e marked this five-year period in the 
city's history. Now the cit\- is known for its beautiful homes and contented 
populace. Here one finds the homes of men from almost everv calling in 


life — homes for the great army of workers in shop, mih and factory, for the 
instructors of Indiana University, — and for the workers and owners and 
operators of the great ooHtic stone industry of the community. These homes, 
neatly and well built, are an ornament to the city and the talk of the "stranger 
within the gates."" The business section of the place has lieen doing its full 
share in these eventful hve years. Handsome new structures have been reared 
in place of old, time-honored, but worn-out 1)uildings. The ancient court 
house has been torn away and the half-milliun-dollar temple of justice adorns 
the si)ot ab'Hit which clusters so much of ancient town history and tradition. 
This building stands a monument to the thrift, enterprise and good taste of a 
l^rosperous city and county. 

As one writer puts it : "Five \ears have brought Bloomington many 
new people. Men and women of rare refinement have been attracted to the 
city by its delightful location and its exceptional educational advantages. 
Business men of keen ability and foresight have been induced to cast their 
lot among us, attracted by the rare business advantages here found in every 
hand. The population has almost doubled in fi\e }-ears : the character of the 
man}' new structures indicate w hat type of ])eo])Ie are in charge of affairs here 

Is this a thing of chance? No, indeed. Here has been organized the 
Bloonu'ngton Commercial Club, an organization with no selfish, personal aims, 
but, t)n the contrary, the general up-building of a ])ermanent and great com- 
mercial and home city, the future of which is now assured. The unique slogan 
of this Commercial Clul) is the key to what has been accomplished and what 
mav be looked for in the near future, "Pride of Indiana and the Center of the 
Oolitic Stone Belt."" 

By Amzi .Vtwater. 

Jt w;is in Januar)-, \S()=,. that 1 came to B)loomingt(.)n to be pastor of the 
Christian church and studv in the uni\ersity. The church building stood 
where the parsonage now stands, the pul]Mt platform covering nearly the place 
where the east end of the front l^orch is now. The Methodist church was 
located on the west side of the railroad neaf the corner of Sixth and Madison 
streets. The Presbvterian church at that time was known as "pld School 
and New School." The Old School was located on the east side of the public 
square, the New School on Sixth street just west of the present site of the 
Bowles hotel. While the inlluential Ballentine and h'oster families were in 
the New School, the greater numbers and wealth were w ith the older organiza- 


tion. A tew years later the cause of their national separation having been 
removed, the two united on the east side. The Baptist, United Presbyterian 
and Catholic churches, when they built new and commodious houses later on, 
retained the same lots they had occupied before. 

Among the men whom I found leading in the Christian church in 1865 
were David Batterton, Johnson McCullough, Barton W. Cole,. Richard A. 
Fulk, Ellis Sluss (Captain John Sluss, being in poor health, could not take 
much part), William A. Clark, Joshua Hoover, Andrew Hoover, Henry 
Rhorer. Thomas Holtzman, Benjamin Smith and many others. All the 
officers of that day have died or became inactive. William A. Clark was the 
leader of the music, using a tuning-fork to get the key and had his singers 
gather about the great central pillar or a little in front of it. He probably 
held membership in the church longer than any other one of these officers, 
beginning in 1846 and ending with his death in June, 191 1, making him about 
sixty-five years. At the age of eighty-five he could attend with us and enjoy 
the worship, his son, Rev. Thomas J. Clark, being the pastor. 

Forty-eight years ago Bloomington had only a small population. In 
1865 there may have been a little over two thousand people; now (1913) we 
have perhaps ten thousand. The census of 1910 gave 8,838. We had the 
one railroad then (not then called the "Monon," which is a later designation, 
but simply the "I.. N. A. and C," which some inventive genius translated the 
"Long, Narrow, Awkward and Crooked"). There had been no improvement 
of streets at that time, proliably not even about the square, and after the rains, 
the freezing and thawing in February and March, the wagon-wheels sank in 
mud holes nearly to the hul:). 

The town in 1865 was contained in narrow limits. There was no South 
Park, Maple Heights, Fair A^iew, Prospect Hill, Kenwood. Cottage Grove, 
University Park, University Heights, nor Allen's Addition. The ground of 
these additions was mostly farm land then. On none of the streets did the 
line of houses extend very far out. 

The present Dunn street marked the eastern edge of the town at that day 
as far south as Third street. Beyond was Dunn's woods, the present site of 
the university. East of the present Grant street (all these names are com- 
paratively modern) and north of Kirkwood avenue what houses there were 
amounted to nothing more than mer